Google Play is a digital distribution service operated and developed by Google LLC. It serves as the official app store for the Android operating system, allowing users to browse and download applications developed with the Android software development kit and published through Google. Google Play serves as a digital media store, offering music, books and television programs, it offered Google hardware devices for purchase until the introduction of a separate online hardware retailer, Google Store, on March 11, 2015, it offered news publications and magazines before the revamp of Google News in May 15, 2018. Applications are available through Google Play either free of charge or at a cost, they can be downloaded directly on an Android device through the Play Store mobile app or by deploying the application to a device from the Google Play website. Applications exploiting hardware capabilities of a device can be targeted to users of devices with specific hardware components, such as a motion sensor or a front-facing camera.
The Google Play store had over 82 billion app downloads in 2016 and has reached over 3.5 million apps published in 2017. It has been the subject of multiple issues concerning security, in which malicious software has been approved and uploaded to the store and downloaded by users, with varying degrees of severity. Google Play was launched on March 6, 2012, bringing together the Android Market, Google Music, the Google eBookstore under one brand, marking a shift in Google's digital distribution strategy; the services included in the Google Play are Google Play Books, Google Play Games, Google Play Movies & TV, Google Play Music. Following their re-branding, Google has expanded the geographical support for each of the services; as of 2017, Google Play features over 3.5 million Android applications. Users in over 145 countries can purchase apps, although Google notes on its support pages that "Paid content may not be available in some provinces or territories if the governing country is listed above."
Developers in over 150 locations can distribute apps on Google Play, though not every location supports merchant registration. To distribute apps, developers have to pay a one-time $25 registration fee for a Google Play Developer Console account. App developers can control which countries an app is distributed to, as well as the pricing for the app and in-app purchases in each country. Developers receive 70% of the application price, while the remaining 30% goes to the distribution partner and operating fees. Developers can set up sales, with the original price struck out and a banner underneath informing users when the sale ends. Google Play allows developers to release early versions of apps to a select group of users, as alpha or beta tests. Developers can release apps through staged rollouts, in which "your update reaches only a percentage of your users, which you can increase over time." Users can pre-order select apps to have the items delivered as soon. Some network carriers offer billing for Google Play purchases, allowing users to opt for charges in the monthly phone bill rather than on credit cards.
Users can request refunds within 48 hours after a purchase if "something you bought isn't working, isn't what you expected, was bought by accident, or you changed your mind about the purchase". Apps meeting specific usability requirements can qualify as a Wear OS app. Google Play Games is an online gaming service for Android that features real-time multiplayer gaming capabilities, cloud saves and public leaderboards, achievements; the service was introduced at the Google I/O 2013 Developer Conference, the standalone mobile app was launched on July 24, 2013. Google Play Music is online music locker, it features over 40 million songs, gives users free cloud storage of up to 50,000 songs. As of May 2017, Google Play Music is available in 64 countries. Google Play Books is an ebook digital distribution service. Google Play offers over five million ebooks available for purchase, users can upload up to 1,000 of their own ebooks in the form of PDF or EPUB file formats; as of January 2017, Google Play Books is available in 75 countries.
Google Play Books can be found on the archive.org website available for readers and for download. Google Play Movies & TV is a video on demand service offering movies and television shows available for purchase or rental, depending on availability; as of January 2017, movies are available in over 110 countries, while TV shows are available only in Australia, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, the United States and the United Kingdom. Google Play Newsstand is a news aggregator and digital newsstand service offering subscriptions to digital magazines and topical news feeds; as of January 2017, the basic Newsstand service, with topical news feeds, is available worldwide. Paid Newsstand content is available in over 35 countries. In May 15, 2018, the mobile app merged with Google Weather to form Google News; the Newsstand section continued to appear on the Google Play website until November 5, 2018. Google Play, before March 2015, had a Devices section for users to purchase Google Nexus devices, Chromecasts, other Google-branded hardware, accessories.
A separate online hardware retailer called the Google Store was introduced on March 11, 2015, replacing the Devices section of Google Play. Google Play originated from three distinct products: Android Market, Google Music and Google eBookstore; the Android Market was announced by Google on August 28, 2008, was mad
Cyworld is a South Korean social network service. Cyworld became an independent company, came out of the SK communication in 2014. Members cultivate relationships by forming Ilchon or "friendships" with each other through their minihompy. Avatars and "mini-rooms" are features of the service; the "Cy" in Cyworld can mean "cyber", but is a pun on the Korean word for relationship. Cyworld is a rough equivalent to MySpace of the United States, with the main difference being that revenue is generated through the sale of dotori, or acorns, which can be used to purchase virtual goods, such as background music, pixelated furniture, virtual appliances. Cyworld has operations in China and Vietnam. Cyworld launched in 1999 and was purchased by SK Communications in 2003, it became one of the first companies to profit from the sale of virtual goods. Cyworld was wildly popular in its home market, with 2005 claims that every South Korean in their twenties and 25 percent of the South Korean population were users.
By 2006 its domestic user base numbered 19 million, but this dropped to 18 million by 2008. Cyworld's reception in some overseas markets did not prove as enthusiastic, by 2010 Cyworld had ended its operations in Germany and the United States; as of 2009, it continues to provide service to the Chinese and Vietnamese markets where it has subscriber bases of seven million and 450,000, respectively. The idea for Cyworld started in August 1999 by KAIST student organization the'EC club', a club that took on online business projects; the club members got the idea to create a social networking website while discussing topics for a research project. Though most club members abandoned the project after graduation, Dong-Hyung Lee remained to pursue the project, taking the role of CEO from December 1999; the word'cy' is a Korean word meaning'between people', underlining the networking aspect of the website and connoting a close relation between the website users. However, most misinterpret'cy' as an abbreviation for'cyber' due to its fortis.
The original nature of the term'cy' demonstrates Dong-Hyung Lee's vision for the site. He wanted to create an Internet community that allowed people to form close relationships, rather than a community where people sought information for business prospects. Cyworld at its early stages was quite different from that of today, it was a website that showed a list of members from school. The address book for each member was updated automatically according to the personal information its members provided, it was not a place where people could express themselves, but rather a website that allowed people to gain means of contact, so that members could meet offline. Cyworld at its early stages was far from successful. In the summer of 2002, Cyworld launched the "minihomepy" project, a last chance to turn things around before the business had to shut down. CEO Dong-Hyung Lee put contents provider Ram Lee in charge of the project, it was an instant success. Offering many methods of expressing oneself, the minihomepy had features such as a main picture, user profile, photo story, story room, background music, photo album, bulletin board, video clips, decorating links.
Another component of the minihomepy was the miniroom, a decorative online room furnished with virtual furniture. One of the main reasons for minihomepy's success was people's dissatisfaction with the "individual homepages" that were prevalent in Korea at the time. While individual homepages were widely popular because they enabled people to express themselves online, the programming knowledge required to create an individual homepage was too daunting for most people. Although knowledge barrier was resolved through homepage programming services such as High Home, there still remained a significant issue: the means of communication between individual homepage users was absent. Individual homepages were like "stranded islands" in the vast sea called the Internet. Minihomepy addressed the desire for interpersonal communication. Minihomepies were easy to maintain. Minihomepies had components like visitor logs and comments, which provided a means of contact, while features such as the diary and bulletin boards allowed for individual expression.
Members had to become Ilchons in order to gain access to each other's minihomepies. The minihomepy service was launched on September 9, 2002. Cyworld uses its own form of cybermoney, called dotori; the items for decorating the minihomepies and minirooms could be bought with dotoris, people voluntarily spent money on dotori as their minihomepy decoration was perceived as another expression of themselves. Cyworld gained further success when in November 2002, its competitor Freechal decided to charge its users 3,000 won per month. Freechal announced plans to shut down communities operated by those who failed to pay the fee; this "pay-or-shut-down" policy prompted a horde of members to cancel their subscriptions and move to other free online community hosts, including Cyworld. In August 2003, Cyworld merged with SK Telecom, a Korean communication company and owner of the domain Nate; the increasing number of subscribers was getting too difficult for Cyworld to manage on its own, SK promised resources for further growth in the market.
Although it was incorporated into the SK community department, C
Cloob.com is a Persian-language social networking website popular in Iran. After the locally popular social networking website Orkut was blocked by the Iranian government, a series of local sites and networks, including Cloob, emerged to fill the gap, its main page contains the title Iranian Virtual Society and states that all content is controlled in accordance with Iranian law, a policy intended to lower the risk of government censorship. The website claims to have over 100 million page views per month. Users have access to features like: internal email and community discussions and community photo albums, article archive for communities, live messaging and chat rooms for communities, weblog and resume database, virtual money, income/expense book keeping for individual members, online shops for offering goods and services, classifieds and answers, link and content sharing, member updates and extensive permission setting capabilities; some of the services consume virtual money. For example, advanced search in community discussions, advanced member search, receipt for email messages, list of profile visitors and a few other services will use different amounts of members' available virtual money.
It is possible to transfer it to other users. Cloob was censored on March 2008 by the government of Iran. However, after what the Cloob management called "removal of illegal and controversial content", access was restored to Iranian internet users on April 29, 2008. On December 25, 2009 it was once again censored and remained so for some time, but as of 2011, Cloob appears to be in working order once again. Official website
Esperanto is the most spoken constructed international auxiliary language. It was created in the late 19th century by a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist. In 1887, he published a book detailing Unua Libro, under the pseudonym Dr. Esperanto. Esperanto translates to English as "one who hopes". Zamenhof's goal was to create an easy and flexible language that would serve as a universal second language to foster peace and international understanding, to build a community of speakers, as he inferred that one can’t have a language without a community of speakers, his original title for the language was the international language, but early speakers grew fond of the name Esperanto and began to use it as the name for the language in 1889. In 1905, Zamenhof published Fundamento de Esperanto as a definitive guide to the language; that year, he organized the first World Esperanto Congress, an ongoing annual conference, in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. The first congress ratified the Declaration of Boulogne, which established several foundational premises for the Esperanto movement.
One of its pronouncements is that Fundamento de Esperanto is the only obligatory authority over the language. Another is that the Esperanto movement is a linguistic movement and that no further meaning can be ascribed to it. Zamenhof proposed to the first congress that an independent body of linguistic scholars should steward the future evolution of Esperanto, foreshadowing the founding of the Akademio de Esperanto, in part modeled after the Académie française, established soon thereafter. Since 1905, congresses have been held in various countries every year, with the exceptions of years during the World Wars. In 1908, a group of young Esperanto speakers led by Hector Hodler established the Universal Esperanto Association, in order to provide a central organization for the global Esperanto community. Esperanto grew both as a language and as a linguistic community. Despite speakers facing persecution in regimes such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union under Stalin, Esperanto speakers continued to establish organizations and publish periodicals tailored to specific regions and interests.
In 1954, the United Nations granted official support to Esperanto as an international auxiliary language in the Montevideo Resolution. Several writers have contributed to the growing body of Esperanto literature, including William Auld, who received the first nomination for the Nobel Prize in Literature for a literary work in Esperanto in 1999, followed by two more in 2004 and 2006. Esperanto-language writers are officially represented in PEN International, the worldwide writers association, through Esperanto PEN Centro. Esperanto has continued to develop in the 21st century; the advent of the Internet has had a significant impact on the language, as learning it has become accessible on platforms such as Duolingo and as speakers have networked on platforms such as Amikumu. With two million speakers, a small portion of whom are native speakers, it is the most spoken constructed language in the world. Although no country has adopted Esperanto Esperantujo is the collective name given to places where it is spoken, the language is employed in world travel, cultural exchange, literature, language instruction and radio broadcasting.
While its advocates continue to hope for the day that Esperanto becomes recognized as the international auxiliary language, an increasing number have stopped focusing on this goal and instead view the Esperanto community as a "stateless diasporic linguistic minority" based on freedom of association, with a culture worthy of preservation based on its own merit. Some have chosen to learn Esperanto due to its purported help in third language acquisition. Zamenhof had three goals, as he wrote in Unua Libro: "To render the study of the language so easy as to make its acquisition mere play to the learner." "To enable the learner to make direct use of his knowledge with people of any nationality, whether the language be universally accepted or not. "To find some means of overcoming the natural indifference of mankind, disposing them, in the quickest manner possible, en masse, to learn and use the proposed language as a living one, not only in last extremities, with the key at hand."According to the database Ethnologue, up to two million people worldwide, to varying degrees, speak Esperanto, including about 1,000 to 2,000 native speakers who learned Esperanto from birth.
The Universal Esperanto Association has more than 5500 members in 120 countries. Its usage is highest in Europe, East Asia, South America. Lernu! is one of the most popular on-line learning platforms for Esperanto. In 2013, the "lernu.net" site reported 150,000 registered users and had between 150,000 and 200,000 visitors each month. Lernu has 274,800 registered users, who are able to view the site's interface in their choice of 21 languages — Catalan, Chinese Danish, Esperanto, French, German, Hungarian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Serbian, Slovak and Ukrainian.
Diaspora (social network)
Diaspora is a nonprofit, user-owned, distributed social network, based upon the free Diaspora software. Diaspora consists of a group of independently owned nodes; as of March 2014, there are more than 1 million Diaspora accounts. The social network is not owned by any one person or entity, keeping it from being subject to corporate take-overs or advertising. In September 2011 the developers stated, "...our distributed design means no big corporation will control Diaspora. Diaspora* will never sell your social life to advertisers, you won’t have to conform to someone’s arbitrary rules or look over your shoulder before you speak."Diaspora software is licensed with GNU-AGPL-3.0. Diaspora software development is managed by the Diaspora Foundation, part of the Free Software Support Network; the FSSN is in turn run by the Software Freedom Law Center. The FSSN acts as an umbrella organization to Diaspora development and manages Diaspora's branding and legal assets; the Diaspora social network is constructed of a network of nodes, or pods, hosted by many different individuals and institutions.
Each node operates a copy of the Diaspora software acting as a personal web server. Users of the network can host a pod on their own server or create an account on any existing pod of their choice, from that pod can interact with other users on all other pods. Friendica instances are a part of the Diaspora social network since Friendica natively supports the Diaspora protocol. Diaspora users do not assign ownership rights; the software is designed to allow users to download all their images and text that have been uploaded at any time. The Diaspora software allows user posts to be designated as either "public" or "limited". In the latter case, posts may only be read by people assigned to one of the groups, termed aspects, which the user has approved to view the post; each new account is assigned several default aspects – friends, family and acquaintances – and the user can add as many custom aspects as they like. It is possible to follow another user's public posts without the mutual friending required by other social networks.
Users can send private messages, called conversations. A user can filter their news stream by aspect; the developers consider the distributed nature of the network crucial to its design and success: Diaspora’s distributed design is a huge part of it. Like the Internet itself, Diaspora* isn’t housed in any one place, it’s not controlled by any one entity. We’ve created software that lets you set up and run your own social network on your own “pod” and connect your network to the larger Diaspora* ecosystem. You can have a pod all to yourself, or one for just you and your friends, or your family, giving you complete ownership and control over your personal social information and how it’s all stored and shared. Or you can simply... sign up at one of open pods. Diaspora has been noted by U. S. National Public Radio for its policy that allows the use of pseudonyms, in contrast to competitor Facebook, which does not. Posts in Diaspora can include hashtags and'mentions'. Users can upload photos to posts, can format text and links using Markdown.
Posts can be propagated to connected accounts on Wordpress and Tumblr. Diaspora supports embedding of media from YouTube, Vimeo and a number of other sites, supports OpenGraph previews; the Diaspora project was founded in 2010 by four students at New York University’s Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Ilya Zhitomirskiy, Dan Grippi, Max Salzberg, Raphael Sofaer. The word diaspora refers to a scattered or dispersed population. Grippi, Salzberg and Zhitomirskiy started the Diaspora project after being motivated by a February 5, 2010 speech by Columbia University law professor Eben Moglen. In his speech, delivered to the Internet Society's New York Chapter, "Freedom in the Cloud", Moglen described centralized social networks as "spying for free." In a New York Times interview, Salzberg said "When you give up that data, you’re giving it up forever... The value they give us is negligible in the scale of what they are doing, what we are giving up is all of our privacy." Sofaer said, "We don't need to hand our messages to a hub.
What Facebook gives you as a user isn't all that hard to do. All the little games, the little walls, the little chat, aren't rare things; the technology exists". However, Salzberg has said that "Facebook is not what we are going after"; the group decided to address this problem by creating a distributed social network. To obtain the necessary funds the project was launched on April 24, 2010 on Kickstarter, a crowd funding website; the first 39 days were assigned to raise the US$10,000 that they estimated would be needed to get started. However, the initial funding goal was met in just 12 days and the project raised more than US$200,000 from more than 6000 backers. Grippi said, "We were shocked. For some strange reason, everyone just agreed with this whole privacy thing." Among the donors was Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg who contributed an undisclosed amount, saying "I donated. I think it is a cool idea.""Diaspora is trying to destroy the idea that one network can be dominant," stated Sofaer in laying down the aim of Diaspora.
Work on the Diaspora software began in May 2010. Finn Brunton, a teacher and digital media researcher at New York University, described their method as "a return of the classic geek means of production: pizza and ramen and guy
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Rogener Pavinski is a Brazilian Esperantist and bass guitar player in the Esperanto rock band Supernova, which has performed at Esperanto world congresses and youth events. He is director and producer of the film Esperanto is.... He is a former board member of World Esperanto Youth Organization. In September 2010 he was elected as new editor of the magazine Kontakto, effective with the 2010-05 issue. Rogener Pavinski Pavinski's ipernity site