Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was ran over by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case'John'. Traditionally the subject is the word or phrase which controls the verb in the clause, to say with which the verb agrees. If there is no verb, as in John - what an idiot!, or if the verb has a different subject, as in John - I can't stand him!, then'John' is not considered to be the grammatical subject, but can be described as the'topic' of the sentence. These definitions seem clear enough for simple sentences such as the above, but as will be shown in the article below, problems in defining the subject arise when an attempt is made to extend the definitions to more complex sentences and to languages other than English. For example, in the sentence It is difficult to learn French, the grammatical subject seems to be the word'it', yet arguably the'real' subject is'to learn French'. Sentences beginning with a locative phrase, such as There is a problem, isn't there?, in which the tag question'isn't there?'
Seems to imply that the subject is the adverb'there' create difficulties for the definition of subject. In languages such as Latin or German the subject of a verb has a form, known as the nominative case: for example, the form'he' is used in sentences such as he ran, he broke the window, he is a teacher, he was hit by a car, but there are some languages such as Basque or Greenlandic, in which the form of a noun or pronoun when the verb is intransitive is different from when the verb is transitive. In these languages, which are known as ergative languages, the concept of'subject' may not apply at all; the subject is, according to a tradition that can be traced back to Aristotle, one of the two main constituents of a clause, the other constituent being the predicate, whereby the predicate says something about the subject. According to a tradition associated with predicate logic and dependency grammars, the subject is the most prominent overt argument of the predicate. By this position all languages with arguments have subjects, though there is no way to define this for all languages.
From a functional perspective, a subject is a phrase. Many languages do not do this, by this definition would not have subjects. All of these positions see the subject in English determining person and number agreement on the finite verb, as exemplified by the difference in verb forms between he eats and they eat; the stereotypical subject precedes the finite verb in declarative sentences in English and represents an agent or a theme. The subject is a multi-word constituent and should be distinguished from parts of speech, which classify words within constituents; the subject is a constituent that can be realized in numerous forms in English and other languages, many of which are listed in the following table: There are several criteria for identifying subjects: 1. Subject-verb agreement: The subject agrees with the finite verb in person and number, e.g. I am vs. *I is.2. Position occupied: The subject immediately precedes the finite verb in declarative clauses in English, e.g. Tom laughs.3. Semantic role: A typical subject in the active voice is an agent or theme, i.e. it performs the action expressed by the verb or when it is a theme, it receives a property assigned to it by the predicate.
Of these three criteria, the first one is the most reliable. The subject in English and many other languages agrees with the finite verb in number; the second and third criterion are strong tendencies that can be flouted in certain constructions, e.g. a. Tom is studying chemistry. - The three criteria agree identifying Tom as the subject.b. Is Tom studying chemistry? - The 1st and the 3rd criteria identify Tom as the subject.c. Chemistry is being studied. - The 1st and the 2nd criteria identify Chemistry as the subject. In the first sentence, all three criteria combine to identify Tom as the subject. In the second sentence, which involves the subject-auxiliary inversion of a yes/no-question, the subject follows the finite verb, which means the second criterion is flouted, and in the third sentence expressed in the passive voice, the 1st and the 2nd criterion combine to identify chemistry as the subject, whereas the third criterion suggests that by Tom should be the subject because Tom is an agent.
4. Morphological case: In languages that have case systems, the subject is marked by a specific case the nominative.5. Omission: Many languages systematically omit a subject, known in discourse; the fourth criterion is better applicable to languages other than English given that English lacks morphological case marking, the exception being the subject and object forms of pronouns, I/me, he/him, she/her, they/them. The fifth criterion is helpful in languages that drop pronominal subjects, such as Spanish, Italian, Greek and Mandarin. Though most of these languages are rich in verb forms for determining the person and number of the subject and Mandarin have no such forms at all; this dropping pattern does not automatically make a language a pro-drop language. In other languages, like English and French, most clauses should have a subject, which should be either a noun, a pronoun, or a
The Amis are an Austronesian ethnic group native to Taiwan. They speak Amis, an Austronesian language, are one of the sixteen recognized groups of Taiwanese aborigines; the traditional territory of the Amis includes the long, narrow valley between the Central Mountains and the Coastal Mountains, the Pacific coastal plain eastern to the Coastal Mountains and the Hengchun Peninsula. In 2014, the Amis numbered 200,604; this was 37.1% of Taiwan's total indigenous population, making them the largest indigenous group. The Amis are fishermen due to their coastal location, they are traditionally matrilineal. Traditional Amis villages were large for indigenous groups between 500 and 1,000. In today's Taiwan, the Amis comprise the majority of "urban aboriginals" and have developed many urban communities all around the island. In recent decades, Amis have married exogamously to Han as well as other indigenous people; the Amis people identify themselves as Pangcah, which means "human" or "people of our kind."
Nonetheless, in today's Taiwan, Amis is much more used. This name comes from the word amis, meaning "north." There is still no consensus in the academic circle how "Amis" came to be used to address the Pangcah. One supposition is that it was used by the Puyuma to call the Pangcah, as the Pangcah lived to the north of them. Another supposition holds that those who lived in the Taitung Plain called themselves "Amis" because their ancestors had come from the north; the explanation is recorded in the Banzoku Chōsa Hōkokusho, indicating this might originate from what is classified by anthropologists as Falangaw Amis, the Amis group located from today's Chenggong to the Taitung Plain. Their closest genetic relative appears to be the Filipinos. According to Taiwanese Aboriginal History: Amis, the Amis are classified into five groups: Northern group Middle group Coastal group Falangaw group Hengchun group Note that such classification, however accepted, is based on the geographical distribution and ethnic migration.
It does not match the observed differences in culture and physiques. Family affairs including finance of the family are decided by the female householder, in the Ami tradition; the most important traditional ceremony is the Harvest Festival. The Ami's Harvest festival is to show the people's thanks and appreciations to the gods and to pray for harvest in the next coming year, it takes place every July to September. The musical project Enigma used an Ami chant in their song "Return to Innocence" in their second album, The Cross of Changes; this song was the theme song of the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. The main chorus of it was sung by Difang and his wife, part of a Taiwanese aboriginal cultural performance group. Maison des Cultures du Monde recorded their singing while they were on tour and released a CD, subsequently used by Enigma; the case was settled out of court. Ami singing is known for its complex contrapuntal polyphony. Ati Masaw, baseball player Ayal Komod, singer Icyang Parod, Minister of Council of Indigenous Peoples Kanas Kociang, baseball player Kawlo Iyun Pacidal, member of Legislative Yuan Lin Man-ting and futsal player Mayaw Dongi, Minister of Council of Indigenous Peoples Ngayaw Ake, baseball player Sufin Siluko, member of Legislative Yuan Yang Sen, baseball player Difang and Igay Duana, husband-and-wife folk music duo Van Fan, actor Jam Hsiao, singer Ehlo Huang and member of pop group 183 Club Li Tai-hsiang and folk songwriter Lin Chih-chieh, basketball player Show Lo, singer and actor Tank, singer Tseng Li-cheng, 2012 Olympics Taekwondo bronze medalist Chin-hui Tsao, baseball player Chen Chih-yuan, baseball player Yang Chuan-kwang, Olympic decathlete Teruo Nakamura, Taiwan-born soldier of the Imperial Japanese Army and the last Japanese holdout soldier of World War II A-Lin, songwriter Suming, singer, songwriter.
His music features elements from traditional Amis culture Ilid Kaolo and songwriter Kuo Dai-chi, baseball player Dai-Kang Yang, baseball player Kuo Hsing-chun, Olympic weightlifter Tseng Te-Ping, singer Demographics of Taiwan Taiwanese aborigines Amis Folk Center Kawas Taiwanese government page on the Amis Amis Festivals Website dedicated to a documentary shot in the Amis village of Tafalong Shamanic Healing among the Amis and Contemporary Christian Healing in the Spirit
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in being a reliable form of information storage and transfer; the processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing is recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting; the general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category. In the alphabetic category, there is a standard set of letters of consonants and vowels that encode based on the general principle that the letters represent speech sounds. In a syllabary, each symbol correlates to a syllable or mora.
In a logography, each character represents morpheme, or other semantic units. Other categories include abjads, which differ from alphabets in that vowels are not indicated, abugidas or alphasyllabaries, with each character representing a consonant–vowel pairing. Alphabets use a set of 20-to-35 symbols to express a language, whereas syllabaries can have 80-to-100, logographies can have several hundreds of symbols. Most systems will have an ordering of its symbol elements so that groups of them can be coded into larger clusters like words or acronyms, giving rise to many more possibilities in meanings than the symbols can convey by themselves. Systems will enable the stringing together of these smaller groupings in order to enable a full expression of the language; the reading step expressed orally. A special set of symbols known as punctuation is used to aid in structure and organization of many writing systems and can be used to help capture nuances and variations in the message's meaning that are communicated verbally by cues in timing, accent, inflection or intonation.
A writing system will typically have a method for formatting recorded messages that follows the spoken version's rules like its grammar and syntax so that the reader will have the meaning of the intended message preserved. Writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, which used pictograms and other mnemonic symbols. Proto-writing lacked the ability to express a full range of thoughts and ideas; the invention of writing systems, which dates back to the beginning of the Bronze Age in the late Neolithic Era of the late 4th millennium BC, enabled the accurate durable recording of human history in a manner, not prone to the same types of error to which oral history is vulnerable. Soon after, writing provided a reliable form of long distance communication. With the advent of publishing, it provided the medium for an early form of mass communication; the creation of a new alphabetic writing system for a language with an existing logographic writing system is called alphabetization, as when the People's Republic of China studied the prospect of alphabetizing the Chinese languages with Latin script, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, numbers, although the most common instance of it, converting to Latin script, is called romanization.
Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least one spoken language. In contrast, visual representations such as drawings and non-verbal items on maps, such as contour lines, are not language-related; some symbols on information signs, such as the symbols for male and female, are not language related, but can grow to become part of language if they are used in conjunction with other language elements. Some other symbols, such as numerals and the ampersand, are not directly linked to any specific language, but are used in writing and thus must be considered part of writing systems; every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of humanity. However, the development of writing systems, the process by which they have supplanted traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic and slow. Once established, writing systems change more than their spoken counterparts.
Thus they preserve features and expressions which are no longer current in the spoken language. One of the great benefits of writing systems is that they can preserve a permanent record of information expressed in a language. All writing systems require: at least one set of defined base elements or symbols, individually termed signs and collectively called a script. In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along independent lines. Thus, the terminology employed differs somewhat from field to field; the generic term text refers to an instance of writte
Taitung City is a county-administered city and the county seat of Taitung County, Taiwan. It lies on the southeast coast of Taiwan facing the Pacific Ocean. Taitung City is the most populous subdivision of Taitung County and it is one of the major cities on the east coast of the island. Due to the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan, ground transportation to Taitung City is limited; the city is served by Taitung Airport. Taitung is a gateway to Green Island and Orchid Island, both of which are popular tourist destinations. Before the 16th century the Taitung plain was settled by agriculturalist Puyuma and Amis aboriginal tribes. Under Dutch rule and during Qing rule, a large part of eastern Taiwan, including today's Taitung, was called "Pi-lam". Many artifacts of the prehistory sites of the city are located at Beinan Cultural Park, discovered in 1980 during the construction of Taitung Station. In the late 19th century, when Liu Mingchuan was the Qing Governor of Taiwan, Han Chinese settlers moved into the Taitung region.
Pi-lam Subprefecture was established in 1875, was upgraded and renamed to Taitung Prefecture in 1888, after the island was made Fujian-Taiwan Province. During Japanese rule, the central settlement was called Nankyō Village. Taitō Chō was one of twenty local administrative offices established in 1901. English-language works from the era refer to the place as Pilam. Taitō Town was established in 1920 under Taitō Prefecture, included modern Taitung City and eastern Beinan Township. There were no Americans living here during the Japanese rule. After handover of Taiwan from Japan to the ROC in 1945, it became Taitung Township and in 1976 it was promoted to Taitung City. Taitung City government is headquartered at Taitung City Hall which takes the responsibility for the city general administration and all of its other affairs, from folk, cultural popularization, emergency help, disaster prevention, environmental taxation, cleaning control, public property control, taxing help and fishing control, wholesale products and business administration, urban planning, public establishment, community development, army service administration, national health insurance program and indigenous administration affairs.
Civil Affair Section Financial Section Construction Section Labor Affair Section Social and Army Service Section Aboriginal Administration Section Administration Section Personnel Office Budget and Statistics Office Ethics Section Taitung has a tropical monsoon climate, with a wet season from May to October, a dry season from November to April, very warm to hot temperatures with high humidity. Unlike most tropical climates, the dry season is foggy rather than sunny, so that moisture availability during this period is greater than the low rainfall and warm temperatures would suggest; the highest record of temperature of Taiwan was recorded in Taitung on May 9, 2004, with temperatures peaking above 40 degrees Celsius for the first time in Taiwan's recorded history. Wenhua, Zijiang, Baosang, Siwei, Renai, Datong, Jianguo, Zhongshan, Tiehua, Fuguo, Xinxing, Zhongxin, Guangming, Fengle, Kangle, Fenggu, Fengyuan, Fufeng, Yanwan, Nanwang, Xinyuan, Jianxing, Jianye and Jiannong Village. Taitung County Government Taitung County Council National Taitung Junior College National Taitung University Beinan Cultural Park Datong Theater Fugang Fishery Harbor Jhihben Wetlands kararuan Recreation Area Liyushan Park Makabahai Park Moving Castle National Museum of Prehistory Paposogan Taitung Art Museum Taitung Chinese Association Taitung Forest Park Pipa Lake Taitung Railway Art Village Taitung Story Museum Tiehua Music Village Xiao Yehliu TRA: Hwa-tung Line, South-Link Line Taitung Station Kangle Station Zhiben Station Taiwan Provincial Highway System Provincial Highway No. 9 Provincial Highway No. 11 Port Fugang Fishery Harbor - ferry port to Orchid Island and Green Island Airport Taitung Airport Jia Jia and songwriter
Indigenous peoples known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original settlers of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently. Groups are described as indigenous when they maintain traditions or other aspects of an early culture, associated with a given region. Not all indigenous peoples share this characteristic, as many have adopted substantial elements of a colonizing culture, such as dress, religion or language. Indigenous peoples may be settled in a given region or exhibit a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory, but they are historically associated with a specific territory on which they depend. Indigenous societies are found in every inhabited climate continent of the world. Since indigenous peoples are faced with threats to their sovereignty, economic well-being and their access to the resources on which their cultures depend, political rights have been set forth in international law by international organizations such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank.
The United Nations has issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples to guide member-state national policies to the collective rights of indigenous peoples, such as culture, identity and access to employment, health and natural resources. Estimates put the total population of indigenous peoples from 220 million to 350 million. International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples is celebrated on 9 August each year; the adjective indigenous was used to describe animals and plant origins. During the late twentieth century, the term Indigenous people began to be used to describe a legal category in indigenous law created in international and national legislations, it is derived from the Latin word indigena, based on the root gen-'to be born' with an archaic form of the prefix in'in'. Notably, the origins of the term indigenous is not related in any way to the origins of the term Indian which until was applied to indigenous peoples of the Americas. Any given people, ethnic group or community may be described as indigenous in reference to some particular region or location that they see as their traditional indigenous land claim.
Other terms used to refer to indigenous populations are aboriginal, original, or first. The use of the term peoples in association with the indigenous is derived from the 19th century anthropological and ethnographic disciplines that Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines as "a body of persons that are united by a common culture, tradition, or sense of kinship, which have common language and beliefs, constitute a politically organized group". James Anaya, former Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, has defined indigenous peoples as "living descendants of pre-invasion inhabitants of lands now dominated by others, they are culturally distinct groups that find themselves engulfed by other settler societies born of forces of empire and conquest". They form at present non-dominant sectors of society and are determined to preserve and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal system.
The International Day of the World's Indigenous People falls on 9 August as this was the date of the first meeting in 1982 of the United Nations Working Group of Indigenous Populations of the Subcommission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the Commission on Human Rights. Throughout history, different states designate the groups within their boundaries that are recognized as indigenous peoples according to international or national legislation by different terms. Indigenous people include people indigenous based on their descent from populations that inhabited the country when non-indigenous religions and cultures arrived—or at the establishment of present state boundaries—who retain some or all of their own social, economic and political institutions, but who may have been displaced from their traditional domains or who may have resettled outside their ancestral domains; the status of the indigenous groups in the subjugated relationship can be characterized in most instances as an marginalized, isolated or minimally participative one, in comparison to majority groups or the nation-state as a whole.
Their ability to influence and participate in the external policies that may exercise jurisdiction over their traditional lands and practices is frequently limited. This situation can persist in the case where the indigenous population outnumbers that of the other inhabitants of the region or state. In a ground-breaking 1997 decision involving the Ainu people of Japan, the Japanese courts recognised their claim in law, stating that "If one minority group lived in an area prior to being ruled over by a majority group and preserved its distinct ethnic culture after being ruled over by the majority group, while another came to live in an area ruled over by a majority after consenting to the majority rule, it must be recognised that it is only natural that the distinct ethnic culture of the former group requires greater consideration."In Russia, definition of "indigenous peoples" is contested referring to a number of population (less
Fengbin Township is a rural township located in Hualien County, bordering Taitung County. The Pacific Ocean lies to the Hai'an Range to the west, it has the smallest population in Hualien County with around 4,706 inhabitants. The population consists of the indigenous Amis and Sakizaya peoples. Jingpu Village Gangkou Village Fengbin Village Xinshe Village Jici Village Taiwan East Coast National Scenic Area Xiuguluan River Rafting Fengbin Tropic of Cancer Marker Jici seaside resort Chenghong Bridge Recreation Area Shitiping Scenic Area Shitiping Port Whale Watching Provincial Highway No. 11 Provincial Highway No. 11A Office of Fung Bin Township Taiwan East Coast National Scenic Area