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Ammonium sulfate

Ammonium sulfate. The most common use is as a soil fertilizer, it contains 24 % sulfur. The primary use of ammonium sulfate is as a fertilizer for alkaline soils. In the soil the ammonium ion is released and forms a small amount of acid, lowering the pH balance of the soil, while contributing essential nitrogen for plant growth; the main disadvantage to the use of ammonium sulfate is its low nitrogen content relative to ammonium nitrate, which elevates transportation costs. It is used as an agricultural spray adjuvant for water-soluble insecticides and fungicides. There, it functions to bind iron and calcium cations that are present in both well water and plant cells, it is effective as an adjuvant for 2,4-D, glufosinate herbicides. Ammonium sulfate precipitation is a common method for protein purification by precipitation; as the ionic strength of a solution increases, the solubility of proteins in that solution decreases. Ammonium sulfate is soluble in water due to its ionic nature, therefore it can "salt out" proteins by precipitation.

Due to the high dielectric constant of water, the dissociated salt ions being cationic ammonium and anionic sulfate are solvated within hydration shells of water molecules. The significance of this substance in the purification of compounds stems from its ability to become more so hydrated compared to more nonpolar molecules and so the desirable non-polar molecules coalesce and precipitate out of the solution in a concentrated form; this method is called salting out and necessitates the use of high salt concentrations that can reliably dissolve in the aqueous mixture. The percentage of the salt used is in comparison to the maximal concentration of the salt in the mixture can dissolve; as such, although high concentrations are needed for the method to work adding an abundance of the salt, over 100%, can oversaturate the solution, contaminating the non-polar precipitate with salt precipitate. A high salt concentration, which can be achieved by adding or increasing the concentration of ammonium sulfate in a solution, enables protein separation based on a decrease in protein solubility.

Precipitation by ammonium sulfate is a result of a reduction in solubility rather than protein denaturation, thus the precipitated protein can be solubilized through the use of standard buffers. Ammonium sulfate precipitation provides a convenient and simple means to fractionate complex protein mixtures. In the analysis of rubber lattices, volatile fatty acids are analyzed by precipitating rubber with a 35% ammonium sulfate solution, which leaves a clear liquid from which volatile fatty acids are regenerated with sulfuric acid and distilled with steam. Selective precipitation with ammonium sulfate, opposite to the usual precipitation technique which uses acetic acid, does not interfere with the determination of volatile fatty acids; as a food additive, ammonium sulfate is considered recognized as safe by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, in the European Union it is designated by the E number E517, it is used as an acidity regulator in breads. In the treatment of drinking water, ammonium sulfate is used in combination with chlorine to generate monochloramine for disinfection.

Ammonium sulfate is used on a small scale in the preparation of other ammonium salts ammonium persulfate. Ammonium sulfate is listed as an ingredient for many United States vaccines per the Center for Disease Control. A saturated solution of ammonium sulfate in heavy water is used as an external standard in sulfur NMR spectroscopy with shift value of 0 ppm. Ammonium sulfate has been used in flame retardant compositions acting much like diammonium phosphate; as a flame retardant, it increases the combustion temperature of the material, decreases maximum weight loss rates, causes an increase in the production of residue or char. Its flame retardant efficacy can be enhanced by blending it with ammonium sulfamate, it has been used in aerial firefighting. Ammonium sulfate has been used as a wood preservative, but due to its hygroscopic nature, this use has been discontinued because of associated problems with metal fastener corrosion, dimensional instability, finish failures. Ammonium sulfate is made by treating ammonia as a by-product from coke ovens, with sulfuric acid: 2 NH3 + H2SO4 → 2SO4A mixture of ammonia gas and water vapor is introduced into a reactor that contains a saturated solution of ammonium sulfate and about 2 to 4% of free sulfuric acid at 60 °C.

Concentrated sulfuric acid is added to keep the solution acidic, to retain its level of free acid. The heat of reaction keeps reactor temperature at 60 °C. Dry, powdered ammonium sulfate may be formed by spraying sulfuric acid into a reaction chamber filled with ammonia gas; the heat of reaction evaporates all water present in the system. 6000M tons were produced in 1981. Ammonium sulfate is manufactured from gypsum. Finely divided gypsum is added to an ammonium carbonate solution. Calcium carbonate precipitates as a solid, leaving ammonium sulfate in the solution. 2CO3 + CaSO4 → 2SO4 + CaCO3Ammonium sulfate occurs as the rare mineral mascagnite in volcanic fumaroles and due to coal fires on some dumps. Ammonium sulfate becomes ferroelectric at temperatures below -49.5 °C. At room temperature it crystallises in the orthorhombic system, with cell sizes of a = 7.729 Å, b = 10.560 Å, c = 5.951 Å. When chilled into the ferrorelectric state, the symmetry of the cry

Raglan, Victoria

Raglan is a town in western Victoria, Australia. It is located 177 kilometres north west of the state capital, Melbourne in the Shire of Pyrenees local government area. At the 2006 census and the surrounding area had a population of 456. Many of the residents of Raglan are descendants of the first European settlers of the area who displaced Aboriginal hunter-gatherers from the valleys and slopes below Mount Cole, with various roads and lanes bearing the family names of those settlers. Djab wurrung was the primary language before European settlement and some early arrivals in the region like Tom Wills of Ararat, spoke it. Major Thomas Mitchell, reported surprising two women of the Utoul balug and their children near Mount Cole in 1836. Conflicts with settlers continued into the 1840s, broken by 1848 by the Border Police and the Native Police Corps; the remaining Mount Cole clans were taken to Coranderrk stations. The Campbell brothers on Mount Cole protected Beeripmo balug and Utoul balug clans on their sheep property until the 1860s.

Raglan was named after FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan, a Field Marshal during the Crimean War. It was surveyed in 1855, a few kilometres north-west of Musical Gully, the first of the finds which provoked the Fiery Creek gold rush. After the initial flurry of mining and wood cutting emerged as the main industries. Messmate from the westerly Mount Cole forest was cut in large quantities, in the 1860s there were two sawmills at Raglan. There were two hotels and a school. Gold mining had taken off in the 1850s, took the form of extensive digging of individual pits in the Fiery Creek valley and on the slopes of Mount Cole; the gold areas followed the Beaufort-Amphitheatre Road. There was a population influx to nearby Beaufort. 1002 men occupied 18 police were stationed there to keep law and order. The Mitchell’s Gully water race supplied water to the Ballarat Goldmining Company, from Mount Cole to the head of Mitchell’s Gully. About 5 km north-east of Raglan was Chute a goldfield village. Chute had school.

By 1900 Raglan town had a population of only 300, the gold yield had diminished to 6,000 oz/yr. The town has, like many in central Victoria, rusty remnants of gold mining equipment from the intensive Victorian gold rush scattered around owned land. There are interesting examples of "bush Architecture" in the area, with a number of buildings still standing from the late 19th and the early 20th century. Belmont at 643 Main Lead Road dates from 1858, was built by a successful mining engineer, James Frazer Watkins; the main industry of Raglan is sheep grazing with sundry support businesses including livestock transport. Other financially independent residents have relocated rurally, moved from the state capital, Melbourne or from the regional center of Ballarat. Mount Cole Road hosts a former artist's colony of mud brick houses and studios built in the 1970s, constructed on cheap land scarred by gold mining. One was occupied by Walkley Award-winning cartoonist George Haddon until 2016. There are no retail businesses or public services so residents travel to Beaufort for essential services, including schooling.

Raglan Post Office opened on 1 January 1865 and closed in 1960. The Primary School closed in 1996. Media related to Raglan, Victoria at Wikimedia Commons

Platte River (Wisconsin)

The Platte River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in southwestern Wisconsin in the United States. Its watershed lies entirely within Grant County, with only a small portion in neighboring Iowa County, its main tributary is the Little Platte River, it is about 47 mi long. The name Platte is derived from the French meaning "flat" or "shallow"; the Platte River rises near Montfort and follows a southwesterly course through Grant County. It flows into the Mississippi River about 3 mi southwest of Dickeyville, across from Mud Lake, Iowa, it is navigable from Ellenboro downstream to its confluence with the Mississippi. At one time, steamboats could navigate the lowest reaches of the river; the Platte's largest tributary is the Little Platte River. It joins the Platte River 42 miles to the southwest about 2 miles west of Paris; the Platte and Little Platte Rivers lie in exceptionally hilly terrain known as the Driftless Area. Many steep limestone bluffs dominate the landscape covered by white pine, uncharacteristic in the region.

The vast majority of the area is covered in forest. The combination of the rugged terrain and extensive agriculture leads to significant runoff after storms, contributing to the many rapids along both rivers. One notable feature of the landscape is Platte Mound, which rises out of the level surrounding terrain; this is the site of the world's largest letter M. The rivers are part of the larger Grant-Platte Basin; the 455.07 miles of streams comprising the Platte River watershed cover 197.74 square miles. The watershed of the Little Platte River, which spills into adjoining Iowa and Lafayette Counties, was considered part of the Platte River watershed when surveyed by the Wisconsin DNR in 1979, its 184 miles drain 154.94 square miles. All told, the combined watersheds drain 352.68 square miles 30% of Grant County. The largest communities within the combined watersheds are Platteville, Potosi and Livingston. Dickeyville sits on the border of the two watersheds, while Livingston marks the three-way divide between the two watersheds and that of the Upper West Branch Pecatonica River.

U. S. Route 61 crosses downstream of the confluence of the Platte and Little Platte Rivers; the University of Wisconsin -- Platteville is college in the basin. Recreation in the area includes boating and whitewater kayaking. Local fishing is popular, with the most common species being smallmouth bass, channel catfish, northern pike. Public access to the Platte River is limited. A county canoe trail was proposed in 2001, the city of Platteville offers several parks and trails; the regional importance of agriculture is reflected in the fact that cattle outnumber people in the area nearly 4 to 1. Farming's effect on natural resources in the watershed is described by the Wisconsin DNR: "Approximately 8.6 tons per acre per year of soil is lost from farm fields in the watershed. This watershed ranked second in the county as a'priority area for erosion control.' DNR staff believe runoff from barnyards and feedlots in some headwaters areas, to be a severe problem in this watershed." According to a 2001 report, the main environmental issues are nonpoint source pollution in the forms of agricultural and urban runoff.

The rivers are a major source of sediment. In 1997, the sedimentary discharge was estimated at 182 tons per square mile per year. In addition, Grant County has many abandoned galena mines. In addition to the DNR, local citizen groups are addressing conservation issues; the Friends of the Platte River, Inc. bills itself as a "group that exists to serve as a forum to address issues affecting the Platte/Little Platte River watershed and to seek impartial solutions that restore and protect this valuable resource." Friends of the Platte River website List of rivers of Wisconsin

Assembly of the Friends of Azerbaijan

The Assembly of the Friends of Azerbaijan is a non-profit organization based in Houston, incorporated in 2012 to promote Azerbaijans economic potential, to encourage trade and investment between it and the United States. The country's largest energy company, SOCAR, State Oil Company of the Azerbaijan Republic used AFAZ as a conduit to fund a 2013 energy conference for high-level former White House officials and members of Congress, reviewed by the Office of Congressional Ethics; the Assembly of the Friends of Azerbaijan describes itself as an "educational, business, congressional advocacy and charitable build bridges between the United States and Azerbaijan". Its 19 mission statements are clear: "Encouraging trade and investment" and "encouraging the development of social and business relationships and cooperation among organizations and individuals in the United States and Azerbaijan" and "promoting Azerbaijan’s economic potential"; as of 2015, the AFAZ website contained no information about the Board of Directors or staff.

The US-Azerbaijan Convention was an annual meeting in celebration of the two decades of strengthening relations and deepening strategic partnership between the US and Azerbaijan. On May 28–29, 2013, Baku hosted the “Azerbaijan-US: Vision for Future” convention in Baku, attended by State and Government Officials, Azerbaijani parliamentarians, US congressmen, ministers of the two countries` ministers and journalists. In 2013, AFAZ sponsored this one program and declared nearly all of its funding as coming from this event. Kemal Oksuz has been described as "an executive in charge", a Houston businessman, who runs another non profit organization, the Turquoise Council of Americans and Eurasians out of the same office tower in the Uptown District and "has been active for years in several nonprofits of the so-called Gülen movement, a loose network of Turkic-American organizations". AFAZ was one of two Houston-based non profit organizations, which financed a 2013 visit of more than 40 high-level former White House officials, members of Congress and state officials to Baku upon invitation of the State Oil Company of the Azerbaijan Republic.

No such information surfaced in 2013, when the Washington Post, Politico reported and The Washington Diplomat wrote with particular detail about the "conference" at the time. In 2014, the Houston Chronicle first wrote about ethics questions resulting in, for example, former US Senator Richard Luger urging U. S. Congress "to exempt a natural gas field in the Caspian Sea from economic sanctions against Iran". In 2015 the Washington Post cited a confidential report by the Office of Congressional Ethics that the state oil company SOCAR had transferred $750,000 to an AFAZ bank account in May 2013, that AFAZ and the other Houston-based nonprofit, Turquoise Council of Americans and Eurasians, used as the source of funding.” The 70-page OCE report is not yet public because the House Ethics Committee started its own investigation. New Mexico State University and AFAZ have signed an affiliation agreement to strengthen their academic links and cooperation between both institutions. An affiliation agreement signed between Texas A&M International University and AFAZ at the TAMIU Killam Library will allow these two institutions to collaborate on research, sponsorship of conferences and symposia exchanges of faculty and students, education materials related to the international oil and gas industry.

This initial project will allow students and faculty at both TAMIU and Laredo Community College to participate in the Baku Summer Energy School, an annual two week certificate program held in July in Baku, Azerbaijan. Participants will be issued a certificate by the Azerbaijan Diplomatic Academy University. Official website Will Tucker. "Travel by ethics panel members add wrinkle to Azerbaijan probe". Center for Responsive Politics. Retrieved 30 October 2015


Dajabón is the capital city of the Dajabón province in the Dominican Republic, located on the border with Haiti. It is a market town with a population of about 40,000, north of the Cordillera Central mountain range; the city was founded between 1771 and 1776 but was soon after abandoned during the War of Independence. It was settled again shortly after the Restoration War in 1865. During the 1822–44 Haitian occupation, the city was designated in French as Dahabon. Dajabón is located on the Dajabón River known as the Massacre River due to an incident that took place in 1728 in which 30 French Buccaneers were killed by Spanish settlers. A battle that took place here between the Spanish and the French in 1690. At the time of this battle, the governor of the French colony, Mr. Cussy, was killed in the Battle of the Sabana Real de la Limonada, near modern-day Limonade in northern Haiti; the bridge across the river connects Dajabón to its larger Haitian sister city of Ouanaminthe. On Mondays and Fridays, Haitians are permitted to temporarily cross the bridge to sell their goods.

Most of the goods are used clothes, bulk dry goods, housewares. On these days, an area of several acres on the Western edge of the city becomes a crowded business place. In addition to the Haitians, Dominicans go to the market to sell food. Dajabon, Encyclopædia Britannica

E.M.G. Yadava Women's College

E. M. G. Yadava Women's College is in Thiruppalai, India, it is run by the Yadava Community Educational Trust. The motto of the college is "Magalir Arivu, Kudumba Uyarvu" which means "By educating a woman we educate the whole family." It was established with the aim of providing education to the underprivileged women students. The mission of the institution is to achieve gender parity through women education and thereby creating a society in which the women become respectable, self-reliant and self-sufficient; the college was started only with pre-university courses at E. M. G. Kalyana Mandabam at Tallakulam, Madurai in 1974; the college was shifted to the present campus at New Natham Road, Thiruppalai on 15 acres of land donated by E. M. G. Charitable Trust in 1980, it was upgraded as First Grade College in 1979 offering undergraduate courses. B. A. History B. A. English Literature B. Sc. Zoology B. Com B. Sc. Mathematics B. B. A. B. Sc. Computer Science B. Sc. Information Technology B. A. Tamil Literature B. Com B. Sc.

Mathematics B. Sc. Physics with IT B. Sc. Nutrition & Dietetics with IT B. Com BCA B. Sc. Chemistry M. Sc. Mathematics with CA M. Sc. Information Technology MCA Certificate in Gandhian Thought Add-On Certificate Course in Spoken English Computerized Accounting - Tally Diploma in Gandhian Thought Computer Applications Diploma in Biotechnology Information Technology Diploma in Food & Nutrition Computerized Accounting - Tally Advanced Diploma in Tally Research Programme Mphil The college has a women's hostel named after politician Mulayam Singh Yadav of the Samajwadi Party because the hostel was constructed using a donation from him. Yadava College College Official Website