Latter Day Saint movement
The Latter Day Saint movement is the collection of independent church groups that trace their origins to a Christian primitivist movement founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s. Collectively, these churches have over 16 million members, although the vast majority of these—about 98%—belong to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; the predominant theology of the churches in the movement is Mormonism, a form of Christianity categorized as Restorationist. A minority of Latter Day Saint adherents, such as members of the Community of Christ, believe in traditional Protestant theology, have distanced themselves from some of the distinctive doctrines of the LDS Church. Other groups include the Remnant Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, which supports lineal succession of leadership from Smith's descendants, the more controversial Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, which defends the practice of polygamy; the movement began in western New York during the Second Great Awakening when Smith said that he received visions revealing a new sacred text, the Book of Mormon, which he published in 1830 as a complement to the Bible.
Based on the teachings of this book and other revelations, Smith founded a Christian primitivist church, called the "Church of Christ". The Book of Mormon attracted hundreds of early followers, who became known as "Mormons", "Latter Day Saints", or just "Saints". In 1831, moved the church headquarters to Kirtland, in 1838 changed its name to the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints". After the church in Ohio collapsed due to a financial crisis and dissensions, in 1838, Smith and the body of the church moved to Missouri where they were persecuted and forced to Illinois. After Smith's death in 1844, a succession crisis led to the organization splitting into several groups; the largest of these, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, migrated under the leadership of Brigham Young to the Great Basin and became known for its 19th-century practice of polygamy. The LDS Church renounced this practice in 1890, discontinued it, resulting in the Utah Territory becoming a U. S. state. This change resulted in the formation of a number of small sects who sought to maintain polygamy and other 19th-century doctrines and practices, now referred to as "Mormon fundamentalism".
Other groups originating within the Latter Day Saint movement followed different paths in Missouri, Illinois and Pennsylvania. For the most part, these groups rejected plural marriage and some of Smith's teachings; the largest of these, the Community of Christ, was formed in Illinois in 1860 by several groups uniting around Smith's son, Joseph Smith III. The founder of the Latter Day Saint movement was Joseph Smith, to a lesser extent, during the movement's first two years, Oliver Cowdery. Throughout his life, Smith told of an experience he had as a boy having seen God the Father and Jesus Christ as two separate beings, who told him that the true church of Jesus Christ had been lost and would be restored through him, that he would be given the authority to organize and lead the true Church of Christ. Smith and Cowdery explained that the angels John the Baptist, Peter and John visited them in 1829 and gave them priesthood authority to reestablish the Church of Christ; the first Latter Day Saint church was formed on April 6, 1830, consisting of a community of believers in the western New York towns of Fayette and Colesville.
The church was formally organized under the name of the "Church of Christ". By 1834, the church was referred to as the "Church of the Latter Day Saints" in early church publications, in 1838 Smith announced that he had received a revelation from God that changed the name to the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints". In 1844, William Law and several other Latter Day Saints in church leadership positions publicly denounced Smith's secret practice of polygamy in the Nauvoo Expositor, formed their own church; the city council of Nauvoo, led by Smith, subsequently had the printing press of the Expositor destroyed. In spite of Smith's offer to pay damages for destroyed property, critics of Smith and the church considered the destruction heavy-handed; some called for the Latter Day Saints to be either destroyed. Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum, the Assistant President of the Church, were both assassinated by a mob while in a Carthage, Illinois jail, several bodies within the church claimed to be the senior surviving authority and appointed successors.
These various claims resulted in a succession crisis. Many supported the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. Emma Hale Smith failed to persuade William Marks, the president of the Presiding High Council and a Rigdon supporter, to assume leadership and the surviving members of Smith's immediate family remained unaffiliated with any larger body until 1860, when they formed the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints with Joseph's eldest son as prophet; these various groups are sometimes referred to under two geographical headings: "Prairie Saints". Today, the vast majority of Latter Day Saints belong to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which reports over 16 million members worldwide; the second-largest
The Lamanites are one of the four civilizations of the Book of Mormon, a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, published in 1830 by its founder Joseph Smith, which purports to be an ancient history of God's dealings with people in the Western Hemisphere. In the Book of Mormon's narrative, the Lamanites began as wicked rivals to the more righteous Nephites, but when the Nephite civilization became decadent, it lost divine favor and was destroyed by the Lamanites. Mormons have associated Lamanites with present-day Native American cultures, but there is no scientific or archaeological evidence for that to be the case or that Lamanites or any of the three other groups existed. According to the Book of Mormon, the family of Lehi, described as a wealthy Hebrew prophet; some time after the death of Lehi in the Americas, Nephi, a son of Lehi, was concerned that his brothers and Lemuel, were plotting to kill him and so he, his family, his followers left and went into the wilderness. The followers of Nephi called themselves "Nephites" and referred to others as'"Lamanites," after Laman, Lehi's eldest son.
After the two groups separated from each other, the rebellious Lamanites were cursed and "cut off from the presence of the Lord." They received a "skin of blackness" so they would "not be enticing" to the Nephites. The Book of Mormon describes the animosity that the Lamanites held: Believing that they were driven out of the land of Jerusalem because of the iniquities of their fathers, that they were wronged in the wilderness by their brethren, they were wronged while crossing the sea; the Book of Mormon recounts that the Lamanites felt that they were wronged by Nephi and so swore vengeance against his descendants: were wroth with him because he departed into the wilderness as the Lord had commanded him, took the records which were engraven on the plates of brass, for they said that he robbed them. And thus they have taught their children that they should hate them, that they should murder them, that they should rob and plunder them, do all they could to destroy them. After the two groups warred for centuries, the narrative states that Jesus Christ appeared to the more righteous Nephites and the Lamanites, who, by had converted in large numbers to righteousness before God.
Soon after his visit, the Lamanites and Nephites merged into one nation and co-existed for two centuries in peace. The Book of Mormon further recounts, "There were no robbers, nor murderers, neither were there Lamanites, nor any manner of -ites; those who remained were again identified as Nephites, but both groups were reported to have fallen into apostasy. The Book of Mormon recounts a series of large battles over two centuries, ending with the extermination of the Nephites by the Lamanites. Mormons have identified the Lamanites as the primary ancestors of the indigenous peoples of the Americas; some publications of the LDS Church have accepted that position. However, the church has stated, "Nothing in the Book of Mormon precludes migration into the Americas by peoples of Asiatic origin." The non-canonical introduction to the 1981 LDS Church edition of the Book of Mormon states that "the Lamanites are the principal ancestors of the American Indians." The wording was changed in the 2006 Doubleday edition and the subsequent editions published by the LDS Church, to state only that the Lamanites "are among the ancestors of the American Indians."Many Latter Day Saints consider Polynesian peoples and the other indigenous peoples of the Americas to be Lamanites.
A 1971 church magazine article claimed that Lamanites "consist of the Indians of all the Americas as well as the islanders of the Pacific."The existence of a Lamanite nation has received no support in mainstream science or archaeology. Genetic studies indicate that the indigenous Americans are related to the present populations in Mongolia and the vicinity, Polynesians to those in Southeast Asia; some Mormon scholars now view Lamanites as one small tribe among many in the ancient Americas, the remainder of which are not discussed in the Book of Mormon, a tribe that intermarried with indigenous Native Americans, or a tribe that descended with modern Asians from common nomadic ancestry but diverged before Lehi's departure from Jerusalem. In the Book of Mormon, Lamanites are described as having received a "skin of blackness" to distinguish them from the Nephites; the "change" in skin color is mentioned in conjunction with God's curse on the descendants of Laman for their wickedness and corruption: "And he had caused the cursing to come upon, yea a sore cursing, because of their iniquity.
For behold, they had hardened their hearts against him, they had become like unto a flint. On the other hand, the Book of Mormon teaches that skin color is not a bar to salvation and that God "denieth none that come unto him and white, bond and free and female.
According to the Book of Mormon, Teancum was a Nephite military leader. He is described in the Book of Alma between Alma 50:35 and Alma 62:40. According to LDS teachings, he is known for the assassinations of King Amalickiah and the subsequent assassination of Amalickiah's brother, seven years later; the Book of Mormon states. He appears as a major character in the Tennis Shoes Adventure Series, a series of LDS fiction novels; the Book of Mormon narrative states that between the years between 71 and 68 BC, there was much peace in the land of the Nephites. The exception was a dispute that began to grow in the land of Lehi and the land of Morianton, which were neighboring lands; the inhabitants of the land of Morianton claimed ownership of a part of the land of Lehi. The dispute grew and led to the inhabitants of Morianton attacking the inhabitants of Lehi, led by a man called Morianton; the people of Lehi fled from the attack to the camp of Captain Moroni. Morianton's forces were afraid that Captain Moroni and his army would attack, so they changed their course and attempted to take the land in the North.
Captain Moroni caught hold of the plan when one of Morianton's maid servants, whom he had physically abused, escaped from him and allied herself with Captain Moroni. As a preventative measure, Captain Moroni dispatched a contingent of soldiers led by Teancum in order to stop Morianton and his people from fleeing to the North. In the battle which ensued, Teancum killed Morianton and defeated his army, afterward taking prisoners, he made an oath with the prisoners, allowing them to go back to their homes if they would "keep the peace. " Later in the narrative, the leader of the Lamanite army, a military leader called Amalickiah had been taking possession of many Nephite cities which were located on the eastern borders by the seashore. As his army was moving North and capturing Nephite cities, Teancum was marching south with his army attempting to take back those cities; the two armies came to a head on the seashore. The soldiers of Teancum and well trained in the ways of warfare gained the upper hand on Amalickiah's armies during the day and drove them back toward the beaches.
Amalickiah's army pitched their tents on the beach and slept for the night. During the night and his servant secretly infiltrated the camps of the Lamanites. After a brief search for the tent of the Lamanite king, Tenacum threw a javelin at Amalickiah, which struck him in the heart, killing him instantly. Teancum successfully fled back to his camp without being detected. Upon returning to his camp, the victorious Teancum awakened his armies and caused them to prepare for battle with the Lamanite forces; when the Lamanite army awoke that morning, they found their leader dead, which caused the army to retreat back to the city of Mulek for protection. Teancum was next sent to attack the city of Mulek, a Nephite city located south of Bountiful, captured by the Lamanites. Mulek had been fortified by Captain Moroni before falling into the hands of Amalickiah and thus was a stronghold for the Lamanite forces. Following the demise of Amalickiah, the Lamanite army, contending with Teancum's army abandoned their attempt to capture Bountiful and retreated to the city of Mulek.
While Teancum was employed in preparing for war, he received orders from Captain Moroni to attempt a retake of the city of Mulek. However, upon marching with his armies into Mulek, he observed that his army was not prepared to contend with the Lamanites in their fortified city, he returned to Bountiful and awaited the arrival of Captain Moroni and his forces. When Captain Moroni arrived with his armies, he called many chief captains of the Nephite forces together for a war council. A strategy was devised that would cause Teancum to take a small force and march near the city as a decoy while Captain Moroni and his forces would retake Mulek; the operation was successful and the leader of this Zoramite-Lamanite army was killed. The city of Mulek was again in the possession of the Nephites; the Book of Mormon states that a large battle occurred after the retaking of the city of Nephihah from the Lamanites. In the narrative, Teancum's forces marched to meet the Lamanites with the armies of Lehi and Captain Moroni.
Both sides were fatigued because of the long march. Teancum was angered by Ammoron for starting the war, he believed if he were to kill Ammoron, the Lamanite army would accept defeat. He, in striking similarity with his previous encounter with Amalickiah, went out into the night and let himself over the wall using a rope, he crept into Ammoron's tent, threw a javelin at him, struck him near the heart. The blow, was not fatal and Ammoron cried out, awakening his servants. Teancum fled, his death was mourned by Captain Moroni and Lehi. According to the Book of Mormon, Teancum is the name of a Nephite town that played an important role during the war in Mormon's time; the narrative states that the Lamanites took possession of it. Helaman Stripling Warriors Teancum - Book of Mormon index entry Book of Alma on the wikisource website
Book of Mormon
The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, which adherents believe contains writings of ancient prophets who lived on the American continent from 2200 BC to AD 421. It was first published in March 1830 by Joseph Smith as The Book of Mormon: An Account Written by the Hand of Mormon upon Plates Taken from the Plates of Nephi. According to Smith's account and the book's narrative, the Book of Mormon was written in otherwise unknown characters referred to as "reformed Egyptian" engraved on golden plates. Smith said that the last prophet to contribute to the book, a man named Moroni, buried it in the Hill Cumorah in present-day Manchester, New York before his death, returned to Earth in 1827 as an angel, revealing the location of the plates to Smith, instructing him to translate the plates into English for use in the restoration of Christ's true church in the latter days. Critics claim that it was authored by Smith, drawing on material and ideas from contemporary 19th-century works rather than translating an ancient record.
The Book of Mormon has a number of original and distinctive doctrinal discussions on subjects such as the fall of Adam and Eve, the nature of the Christian atonement, redemption from physical and spiritual death, the organization of the latter-day church. The pivotal event of the book is an appearance of Jesus Christ in the Americas shortly after his resurrection; the Book of Mormon is the earliest of the unique writings of the Latter-day Saint movement, the denominations of which regard the text as scripture, secondarily as a historical record of God's dealings with the ancient inhabitants of the Americas. The archaeological and scientific communities do not accept the Book of Mormon as an ancient record of actual historical events; the Book of Mormon is divided into smaller books, titled after the individuals named as primary authors and, in most versions, divided into chapters and verses. It is written in English similar to the Early Modern English linguistic style of the King James Version of the Bible, has since been or translated into 111 languages.
As of 2011, more than 150 million copies of the Book of Mormon had been published. According to Joseph Smith, he was seventeen years of age when an angel of God named Moroni appeared to him and said that a collection of ancient writings was buried in a nearby hill in present-day Wayne County, New York, engraved on golden plates by ancient prophets; the writings were said to describe a people whom God had led from Jerusalem to the Western hemisphere 600 years before Jesus' birth. According to the narrative, Moroni was the last prophet among these people and had buried the record, which God had promised to bring forth in the latter days. Smith stated that this vision occurred on the evening of September 21, 1823 and that on the following day, via divine guidance, he located the burial location of the plates on this hill. Smith's description of these events recounts that he was allowed to take the plates on September 22, 1827 four years from that date, was directed to translate them into English.
Accounts vary of the way. Smith himself implied that he read the plates directly using spectacles prepared for the purpose of translating. Other accounts variously state. Both the special spectacles and the seer stone were at times referred to as the "Urim and Thummim". During the translating process itself, Smith sometimes separated himself from his scribe with a blanket between them. Additionally, the plates were not always present during the translating process, when present, they were always covered up. Smith's first published description of the plates said that the plates "had the appearance of gold", they were described by Martin Harris, one of Smith's early scribes, as "fastened together in the shape of a book by wires." Smith called the engraved writing on the plates "reformed Egyptian". A portion of the text on the plates was "sealed" according to his account, so its content was not included in the Book of Mormon. In addition to Smith's account regarding the plates, eleven others stated that they saw the golden plates and, in some cases, handled them.
Their written testimonies are known as the Testimony of Three Witnesses and the Testimony of Eight Witnesses. These statements have been published in most editions of the Book of Mormon. Smith enlisted his neighbor Martin Harris as a scribe during his initial work on the text. In 1828, prompted by his wife Lucy Harris requested that Smith lend him the current pages, translated. Smith reluctantly acceded to Harris's requests. Lucy Harris is thought to have stolen the first 116 pages. After the loss, Smith recorded that he had lost the ability to translate, that Moroni had taken back the plates to be returned only after Smith repented. Smith stated that God allowed him to resume translation, but directed that he begin translating another part of the plates. In 1829, work resumed on the Book of Mormon, with the assistance of Oliver Cowdery, was completed in a short period. Smith said that he returned the plates to Moroni upon the publication of the book; the Book of Mormon went on sale at the bookstore of E. B.
Grandin in Palmyra, New York on March 26, 1830. Today, the building in which the Book of
In the Book of Mormon, Amalickiah was a Nephite leader of a movement to reestablish a king himself, as the king of the Nephites. When he failed to gain power through a popular uprising he dissented to the Lamanites becoming their king and using them as a means to gain power over the Nephites, he was killed during the ensuing war. The Amalickiahite movement arose during a power vacuum following the separation of church and state and by the transfer of leadership of the church from Alma the Younger to his son Helaman. Helaman succeeded his father as High Priest over the Nephite Church but did not have any political authority, his father was the last High Priest who held the post of Chief Judge of the Nephites. Alma the Younger had found that the church suffered from neglect due to his political duties and so resigned the latter office. Amalickiah is described as a large and strong man, an eloquent speaker, he may have been a lower judge, for many of his followers held that office. It is noted that he was a member of the Nephite Church, that the lower judges were members themselves.
They were upset with the reforms or "regulation" of the church established by Helaman following the last war with the Lamanites. They were angry over the preaching by Helaman and his high priests — So angry that they were willing to kill Helaman and all those that held an opposing view. Captain Moroni learned of the Amalickiahites' rebellion, rallied the Nephite people against it, he raised the Title of Liberty over the capital, over every city of the land where the rebellion was taking place. Those that followed the Title of Liberty and the reformed church called themselves Christians; the rebels were soon outnumbered in their hopes for power broken. Amalickiah led his followers away into the wilderness to join the Lamanites when he realized his political campaign had failed. Moroni did not want their enemy to gain any further strength. Moroni's army defeated the rebels, but Amalickiah and a small band of trusted followers escaped to the land of Nephi. Amalickiah and his men went to the court of the Lamanite king and persuaded him to issue a call to arms against the Nephites.
However, this proved unpopular with the majority of warriors, the Lamanites having just lost a costly war against the Nephites. Amalickiah got appointed to command the loyalists, he is ordered to compel the rest of the warriors into the army to fight for the king. The rebels outnumbered the loyalist army. Knowing he would fail to press the warriors into the army, he came up with plan to use his greatest strengths: flattery and treachery. Setting up camp at the base of a large hill where the rebels were in their defensive position, he secretly sent word to the rebel leader Lehonti that he will betray the loyalists into the rebels' hands if he is made second in command of the rebel army. Lehonti agrees, Amalickiah sets his own men as guards, allowing the rebel army to approach and surround the loyalist camp; when the loyal warriors woke to see themselves in a hopeless position, they begged Amalickiah to allow them to surrender and join the rebels to save their lives. Amalickiah gains standing with the rebels, "saves" his men, becomes second-in-command of the combined Lamanite army.
This was not enough for Amalickiah. He poisoned Lehonti while the army is marching to the capital; when Lehonti died on the march, command fell to Amalickiah. At the capital the Lamanite king got word that his army is approaching with general Amalickiah at the head; the king was pleased and, went to meet him. As the king neared, the henchmen of Amalickiah went before him bowing to the king; the king raised his arm beckoning them to rise. As the first henchman does he thrust it up into the chest of the king, he fell. The servants of the king turned to run away. Amalickiah's henchmen shouted to the army. Amalickiah led the warriors to the fallen king and feigns heartache at such treachery, he goaded to go and slay the king's servants. Despite pursuit, the servants tell the tale of Amalickiah's deceit. Meanwhile, as commander of the army, Amalickiah goes to the court to tell the queen the awful news. After telling of the treacherous attack by the king's servants, he brings forth his assassins who swear that the servants fled because of their perfidity.
Amalickiah woos the grieving queen. Soon he marries her to become the next king of the Lamanites; as the new king Amalickiah proceeded to aggravate the Lamanites to war against the Nephites. Staying behind with his new queen, he sent his armies to attack the Nephites under the command of Nephite dissenters, their plan was to attack those cities that had shown to be weakest. For them, Captain Moroni had fortified all the Nephite cities, in case of such a sneak attack; the Lamanites proceeded to assault the walls of these "weak" cities, never once managing to slay a single Nephite in the process, while losing many men and all their chief captains who led the forlorn hope. They returned to relate the tale of bad news to their king. King Amalickiah, was not to be deterred; as the Nephites were dealing with king-men, Amalickiah saw his advantage, began to capture Nephite cities on the eastern coast, well away from Captain Moroni and his main army. After taking seven cities, however, he was met by Te
Religious texts are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs. Religious texts may be used to provide meaning and purpose, evoke a deeper connection with the divine, convey religious truths, promote religious experience, foster communal identity, guide individual and communal religious practice. Religious texts communicate the practices or values of a religious traditions and can be looked to as a set of guiding principles which dictate physical, spiritual, or historical elements considered important to a specific religion; the terms'sacred' text and'religious' text are not interchangeable in that some religious texts are believed to be sacred because of their nature as divinely or supernaturally revealed or inspired, whereas some religious texts are narratives pertaining to the general themes, practices, or important figures of the specific religion, not considered sacred by itself. A core function of a religious text making it sacred is its ceremonial and liturgical role in relation to sacred time, the liturgical year, the divine efficacy and subsequent holy service.
It is not possible to create an exhaustive list of religious texts, because there is no single definition of which texts are recognized as religious. One of the oldest known religious texts is the Kesh Temple Hymn of Ancient Sumer, a set of inscribed clay tablets which scholars date around 2600 BCE; the Epic of Gilgamesh from Sumer, although only considered by some scholars as a religious text, has origins as early as 2150-2000 BCE, stands as one of the earliest literary works that includes various mythological figures and themes of interaction with the divine. The Rig Veda of ancient Hinduism is estimated to have been composed between 1700–1100 BCE, which not only denotes it as one of the oldest known religious texts, but one of the oldest written religious text, still used in religious practice to this day, though no actual evidence of this text exists prior to the 13th century AD. There are many possible dates given to the first writings which can be connected to Talmudic and Biblical traditions, the earliest of, found in scribal documentation of the 8th century BCE, followed by administrative documentation from temples of the 5th and 6th centuries BCE, with another common date being the 2nd century BCE.
Although a significant text in the history of religious text because of its widespread use among religious denominations and its continued use throughout history, the texts of the Abrahamic traditions are a good example of the lack of certainty surrounding dates and definitions of religious texts. High rates of mass production and distribution of religious texts did not begin until the invention of the printing press in 1440, before which all religious texts were hand written copies, of which there were limited quantities in circulation. A religious canon refers to the accepted and unchanging collection of texts which a religious denomination considers comprehensive in terms of their specific application of texts. For example, the content of a Protestant Bible may differ from the content of a Catholic Bible - insofar as the Protestant Old Testament does not include the Deuterocanonical books while the Roman Catholic canon does. Protestants and Catholics use the same 27 book NT canon, as well as the same 39 book OT protocanon shared by Jews.
The word "canon" comes from the Sumerian word meaning "standard". The terms "scripture" and variations such as "Holy Writ", "Holy Scripture" or "Sacred Scripture" are defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as terms which apply to Biblical text and the Christian tradition. Hierographology is the study of sacred texts; the following is an in-exhaustive list of links to specific religious texts which may be used for further, more in-depth study. A Course in Miracles The writings of Franklin Albert Jones a.k.a. Adi Da Love-Ananda Samraj Aletheon The Companions of the True Dawn Horse The Dawn Horse Testament Gnosticon The Heart of the Adi Dam Revelation Not-Two IS Peace Pneumaton Transcendental Realism The Nine Freedoms Havamal Eddur Great Hymn to the Aten The Akilathirattu Ammanai The Arul Nool The Borgia Group codices Books by Bahá'u'lláh The Four Valleys The Seven Valleys The Hidden Words of Bahá’u’lláh The Hidden Words of Bahá’u’lláh Gems of Divine Mysteries The Book of Certitude Summons of the Lord of Hosts Tabernacle of Unity Kitáb-i-Aqdas Tablets of Bahá’u’lláh Revealed After the Kitáb-i-Aqdas Epistle to the Son of the Wolf Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh Bon Kangyur and Tengyur Theravada BuddhismThe Tipitaka or Pāli Canon Vinaya Pitaka Sutta Pitaka Digha Nikaya, the "long" discourses.
Majjhima Nikaya, the "middle-length" discourses. Samyutta Nikaya, the "connected" discourses. Anguttara Nikaya, the "numerical" discourses. Khuddaka Nikaya, the "minor collection". Abhidhamma PitakaEast Asian Mahayana The Chinese Buddhist Mahayana sutras, including Diamond Sutra and the Heart Sutra Shurangama Sutra and its Shurangama Mantra Great Compassion Mantra Pure Land Buddhism Infinite Life Sutra Amitabha Sutra Contemplation Sutra other Pure Land Sutras Tiantai and Nichiren Lotus Sutra Shingon Mahavairocana Sutra Vajrasekhara SutraTibeta