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Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage or disease, but it can be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs. The memory can be either wholly or lost due to the extent of damage, caused. There are two main types of amnesia: anterograde amnesia. Retrograde amnesia is the inability to retrieve information, acquired before a particular date the date of an accident or operation. In some cases the memory loss can extend back decades, while in others the person may lose only a few months of memory. Anterograde amnesia is the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store. People with anterograde amnesia cannot remember things for long periods of time; these two types are not mutually exclusive. Case studies show that amnesia is associated with damage to the medial temporal lobe. In addition, specific areas of the hippocampus are involved with memory. Research has shown that when areas of the diencephalon are damaged, amnesia can occur.

Recent studies have shown a correlation between deficiency of RbAp48 memory loss. Scientists were able to find that mice with damaged memory have a lower level of RbAp48 protein compared to normal, healthy mice. In people suffering with amnesia, the ability to recall immediate information is still retained, they may still be able to form new memories. However, a severe reduction in the ability to learn new material and retrieve old information can be observed. Patients can learn new procedural knowledge. In addition, priming can assist amnesiacs in the learning of fresh non-declarative knowledge. Amnesic patients retain substantial intellectual and social skill despite profound impairments in the ability to recall specific information encountered in prior learning episodes; the term is from Ancient Greek, meaning'forgetfulness'. Individuals with amnesia can learn new information if the information is non-declarative knowledge. However, in some situations, people with dense anterograde amnesia do not remember the episodes during which they learned or observed the information.

Some people who suffer from amnesia show abnormal amounts of memory loss and difficulty recalling other people or places. People who recover do not remember having amnesia; some patients with anterograde amnesia can still acquire some semantic information though it might be more difficult and might remain rather unrelated to more general knowledge. H. M. could draw a floor plan of the home in which he lived after surgery though he had not lived there in years. The reason patients could not form new episodic memories is because the CA1 region of the hippocampus was a lesion, thus the hippocampus could not make connections to the cortex. After an ischemic episode following surgery, an MRI of patient R. B. showed his hippocampus to be intact except for a specific lesion restricted to the CA1 pyramidal cells. Some retrograde and anterograde amnesics are capable of non-declarative memory, including implicit learning and procedural learning. For example, some patients show improvement on the pseudorandom sequences experiment as healthy people do.

Therefore, procedural learning can proceed independently of the brain system required for declarative memory. According to fMRI studies, the acquisition of procedural memories activates the basal ganglia, the premotor cortex and the supplementary motor area, regions which are not associated with the formation of declarative memories; this type of dissociation between declarative and procedural memory can be found in patients with diencephalic amnesia such as Korsakoff's syndrome. Another example demonstrated by some patients, such as K. C. and H. M, who have medial temporal damage and anterograde amnesia, still have perceptual priming; those patients did well in the word fragment completion test. There are three generalized categories; the three categories are traumatic events, or physical deficiencies. The majority of amnesia and related memory issues derive from the first two categories as these are more common and the third could be considered a subcategory of the first. Head trauma is a broad range as it deals with any kind of injury or active action toward the brain which might cause amnesia.

Retrograde and anterograde amnesia is more seen from events like this, an exact example of a cause of the two would be electroconvulsive therapy, which would cause both for the receiving patient. Traumatic events are more subjective. What is traumatic is dependent on what the person finds to be traumatic. Regardless, a traumatic event is an event where something so distressing occurs that the mind chooses to forget rather than deal with the stress. A common example of amnesia, caused by traumatic events is dissociative amnesia, which occurs when the person forgets an event that has disturbed them. An example would be a person forgetting a graphic car accident involving their loved ones. Physical deficiencies are different from head trauma because physical deficiencies lean more toward passive physical issues. Among specific causes of amnesia are the following: Electroconvulsive therapy in which seizures are electrically induced in patients for therapeutic effect can have acute effects including both retrograde and anterograde amnesia.

Alcohol can both cause blackouts and have deleterious effects on memory formation

Kigali accord

At their twenty-eighth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol l held on October 15, 2016 in Kigali, the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer reached an agreement on a gradual reduction in their consumption and production of hydrofluorocarbons. In decision XXVIII / 1, they adopted an amendment to the Protocol ); the Kigali Amendment is a binding international agreement designed to create rights and obligations in international law. The Amendment is only binding on a Party if it has entered into force with respect to that Party As of November 5, 2018, 59 States had ratified the Kigali Ammendment. Many industrial products, including heat pumps that operate on a refrigerant and propellant aerosol s, require non-flammable fluids capable of passing from gaseous state to liquid state and having significant latent heat. Chlorofluorocarbons s were used in these applications, but we discovered in the 1970s the deleterious effect of these gases on the ozone layer, rewarded by a Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1995.

The Montreal Protocol, signed in 1985 by many states and entered into force in 1989, decided to phase out CFCs. The use of hydrofluorocarbons s developed as a replacement. However, if these gases save the ozone layer, they are powerful greenhouse gases, their lifespan in the atmosphere is quite short, but they filter infrared strongly: for example, HFC-23 has a global warming potential at 100 years 12400. It therefore appears that eliminating emissions of these gases could limit, in the short term, global warming; the Montreal Protocol creates a separate regime for developing countries. The Kigali Accord, on the other hand, divides states into 4 groups: Parties "article 5 - Group 1" Parties "Article 5 - Group 2": Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates. Parties

Montechiaro d'Asti

Montechiaro d'Asti is a town and comune in the Province of Asti in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 35 kilometres east of Turin and about 13 kilometres northwest of Asti. Montechiaro d'Asti borders the following municipalities: Camerano Casasco, Chiusano d'Asti, Cossombrato, Montiglio Monferrato and Villa San Secondo. Montechiaro is home to a notable example of Romanesque architecture in the Lower Montferrat, the church of St. Nazarius and Celsus. Giovanni Pastrone known as Piero Fosco, pioneer of Italian film. Finale Ligure, Italy Tourism websites

Black Country Chamber of Commerce

Black Country Chamber of Commerce is a membership organisation that represents businesses across Dudley, Sandwell and Wolverhampton. The Black Country Chamber was formed by an amalgamation of the Dudley, Walsall and Wolverhampton Chambers in 2001; the organisation was merged with the Department of Trade and Industry's Business Link support service for the region in 2003, becoming known as Black Country Chamber and Business Link. As of April 30th 2006, the organisation de-merged into its separate Chamber and Business Link elements, thereafter became known as the Black Country Chamber of Commerce; the current President of the Black Country Chamber is now Jude Thompson. Black Country Chamber of Commerce can provide help, advice and a range of support services for local businesses through a team of dedicated relationship managers who keep members updated on the latest news, business opportunities and business advice. In addition, the Black Country Chamber offers a busy calendar of events from networking and trade shows to their annual awards ceremony as well as offering training solutions for businesses.

The Chamber has a reputation for being the voice of business across the region, representing the views of their members to decision makers in local and national Government and campaigning on their behalf. Their activity focuses upon on five key policy areas; each of these areas has a respective group, chaired by local business people discussing the challenges facing the region and coordinating lobbying activity to assure positive change. The Chamber ensures that members can have their say through regular business forums to discuss issues that matter locally and put their business view at the top of the political agenda; the Chamber is a delivery partner for the UK Trade and Investment contract so members and non-members can get support from the dedicated International Trade Team. The International Trade Team delivers advice and practical support to UK-based companies wishing to grow their business overseas. With 2,400 staff nationwide and a presence in 96 countries, UK Trade & Investment can assist businesses on every step of the exporting journey.

The Black Country Chamber team is able to offer support and advice to anyone who has established a business and is looking for support around international trade and representation, skills and training and sponsorship and essential business support. Black Country Chamber of Commerce

Daniel Healy (musician)

Daniel Healy is a Scottish singer-songwriter and actor. He was a member of Glasgow-based jazz/pop trio Eoscene. In 2013, as a solo artist, he supported Lawson on their UK tour. Healy has collaborated with Ronan Keating and co-wrote six songs which feature on Keating's tenth studio album, Time Of My Life, released on 12 February 2016. Keating and Healy met when they were both cast members in the West End Musical OnceHealy played Paul McCartney in Iain Softley's theatre production of Backbeat which had its World premiere at Citizen's Theatre Glasgow on 9 February 2010; the play transferred to the West End for six months in 2011–12 at the Duke of York's Theatre before relocating to Toronto at the Royal Alexandra Theatre in 2012 and to Los Angeles at the Ahmanson Theatre in 2013. Healys other theatre credits include:'Eamon' in the West End production of Once and the title role in Peter Pan at the King's Theatre, Edinburgh. Continuing the Beatles theme, Healy played the young John Lennon in Bob Eaton's Lennon at the Royal Court Theatre, Liverpool.

Television credits include: River City. Healy runs an internet comedy group called The Bad News Crew and in 2013 won the ‘Best Online Content Award’ at the Lovie Awards presented by Stephen Fry. Daniel played "Guy" in the regional premier of "Once" at the "New Wolsey Theatre" and "Queen's Theatre, Hornchurch" Daniel Healy on IMDb

Raven: A Journal of Vexillology

Raven: A Journal of Vexillology is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the scholarly examination of flags, including the social and political significance of flags of all kinds. The journal is named for the Raven banner of the Vikings, reported by the editor to be the first to fly over North America, it is indexed in America: History and Life and Historical Abstracts. Raven is published by the North American Vexillological Association. All back issues are available online from the Philosophy Documentation Center. Four active vexillologists have served as the journal's editors: Dr. Scot M. Guenter, Edward B. Kaye, Dr. Kenneth W. Reynolds, Dr. Scott D. Mainwaring. Raven publishes special issues dedicated to particular flags. Vol. 25 – Vatican Flags Vol. 18 – Canadian City Flags Vol. 16 – Russian Regional Flags Vol. 9/10 – American City Flags Vol. 5 – The United States Flag Vol. 3/4 – Flags of the Native Peoples of the United States Whitney Smith Official website Journals of semiotics in the world