Grove Street Cemetery
Grove Street Cemetery or Grove Street Burial Ground is a cemetery in New Haven, surrounded by the Yale University campus. It was organized in 1796 as the New Haven Burying Ground and incorporated in October 1797 to replace the crowded burial ground on the New Haven Green; the first private, nonprofit cemetery in the world, it was one of the earliest burial grounds to have a planned layout, with plots permanently owned by individual families, a structured arrangement of ornamental plantings, paved and named streets and avenues. By introducing ideas like permanent memorials and the sanctity of the deceased body, the cemetery became "a real turning point... a whole redefinition of how people viewed death and dying", according to historian Peter Dobkin Hall. Many notable Yale and New Haven luminaries are buried in the Grove Street Cemetery, including 14 Yale presidents. In 2000, Grove Street Cemetery was designated a National Historic Landmark. Today, it is managed by Camco Cemetery Management. For the first 160 years of permanent settlement, New Haven residents buried their dead on the New Haven Green, the town's central open space and churchyard.
In 1794–95, a yellow fever plague swept the town. The increased demand for burial space prompted James Hillhouse, a businessman and U. S. Senator, to invite other prominent families in the town to establish a dedicated burial ground on farmland bordering the town. In 1796, thirty-two families purchased a tract just north of Grove Street, the tract was enclosed by a wooden fence, prone to rotting and needed to be replaced frequently. At first consisting of 6 acres, the cemetery was subscribed and thereafter expanded to nearly 18 acres. In 1821, the monuments on the green were removed to the Grove Street Cemetery. Completed in 1845, the entrance on Grove Street is a brownstone Egyptian Revival gateway, designed by New Haven architects Henry Austin and Hezekiah Augur, both of whom are buried at the cemetery; the style, popular in New England in that era, was chosen to reinforce the antiquity of the site. The lintel of the gateway is inscribed "The Dead Shall Be Raised." The quotation is taken from 1 Corinthians 15.52: "For the trumpet will sound, the dead shall be raised incorruptible, we will be changed."
Yale President Arthur Twining Hadley said of the inscription,"They will be, if Yale needs the property."In 1848–49, the perimeter of the cemetery was surrounded on three sides by an 8-foot stone wall. The cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997, it was designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Secretary of the Interior in 2000, citing its history and the architectural significance of its gateway. In 2008, Yale announced plans to construct two new residential colleges just north of the cemetery. In 2009, university administrators and affiliates suggested to the cemetery proprietors that an additional gate be constructed in the north section of the historic wall that surrounds the burial ground to permit pedestrians to walk through the cemetery from the main Yale campus to the planned new colleges. In addition, the proprietors considered a proposal brought forward by one proprietor that would replace portions of the stone sections of the wall bordering Prospect Street with iron fencing similar to that running along the cemetery's southern border on Grove Street.
The proposal, withdrawn following a public meeting, included architectural and landscaping designs by Yale Architecture School Dean Robert A. M. Stern. James Rowland Angell —President of Yale University Kanichi Asakawa —historian. Jehudi Ashmun —religious leader, social reformer, agent of the African Colonization Society Hezekiah Augur —wood carver and inventor. Henry Austin —architect, designed the gate of the cemetery, Yale's College Library, several mansions on Hillhouse Avenue. Alice Mabel Bacon —women educator Delia Bacon —originator of the proposition that Francis Bacon wrote the plays attributed to Shakespeare Leonard Bacon —clergyman and abolitionist Charles Montague Bakewell —politician Roger Sherman Baldwin —Governor of Connecticut Simeon Baldwin —Mayor of New Haven Simeon Eben Baldwin —Governor of Connecticut Ida Barney noted female American astronomer John Bassett —captain of the trainband. James Bishop -- was Lieutenant Governor and Deputy Governor of New Haven Jurisdiction. Eli Whitney Blake —manufacturer and inventor of the stone crusher.
His brother, invented the corkscrew. William Whiting Boardman —politician. Edward Gaylord Bourne —historian and educator. Leader in the American Historical Association. Phineas Bradley —soldier. Captain, commander of the artillery defending New Haven, July 5, 1779 William H. Brewer —scientist. Helped found the Yale Forestry School. S. Agricultural Experiment Station. James Brewster — founder of Brewster & Co.. Kingman Brewster, Jr. —President of Yale University William Bristol —Mayor of New Haven, Con
Cheshire known as New Cheshire Parish, is a town in New Haven County, United States. At the time of the 2010 census, the population of Cheshire was 29,261; the center of population of Connecticut is located in Cheshire. Cheshire, Connecticut was first settled in 1694 as part of Connecticut, it was known as New Cheshire Parish. After many attempts in securing their independence from Wallingford, New Cheshire Parish was granted secession and was incorporated as a town in May 1780 as Cheshire; the name is a transfer from Cheshire, in England. Prospect, Connecticut was part of Cheshire before 1829, was known as Columbia Parish. Cheshire has a Cold War-era fallout shelter constructed in 1966, located underneath the local AT&T tower. During a July 23, 2007 home invasion in Cheshire, a mother and her two daughters were murdered, leaving the father of the family as the sole survivor; the murder and the aftermath was featured in a segment that aired on the NBC-TV news magazine show Dateline NBC on October 5, 2010.
As of the census of 2000, there were 28,543 people, 9,349 households, 7,254 families residing in the town. The population density was 867.4 people per square mile. There were 9,588 housing units at an average density of 291.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 89.40% White, 4.67% African American, 0.22% Native American, 2.63% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.91% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.84% of the population. The largest ethnic groups in the town are Irish Americans. There were 9,349 households out of which 39.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.5% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.4% were non-families. 19.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.14. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.4 males. As of the 2000 census, the median income for a household in the town was $80,466, the median income for a family was $90,774; as of 2007, these figures had risen to $100,835 and $113,587 respectively. In 2000, males had a median income of $60,078 versus $38,471 for females; the per capita income for the town was $33,903. About 1.6% of families and 3.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.1% of those under age 18 and 4.3% of those age 65 or over. The central area of the town is a census-designated place identified as Cheshire Village; as of the 2010 census, Cheshire Village had a population of 5,786. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 33.4 square miles, of which 33.1 square miles is land and 0.31 square miles, or 0.89%, is water. Cheshire is situated in the midst of several major cities of Connecticut.
It lies 14 miles north of New Haven, 25 miles south of the capital Hartford, 30 miles northeast of Bridgeport, Waterbury is adjacent to Cheshire. Cheshire shares borders with Southington on the north and northeast, Meriden on the northeast, Wallingford on the east, Hamden on the south, Bethany for a short distance on the southwest, Prospect on the west, Waterbury on the northwest, Wolcott on the northwest Cheshire's voters have split tickets in recent statewide elections. In 2004, President Bush won a narrow plurality over John Kerry. Bush had lost the town in his 2000 bid. In 2006 Cheshire voters gave strong support to Republican Governor M. Jodi Rell, independent U. S. Senate candidate Joe Lieberman and local Democratic House candidate Chris Murphy, who defeated incumbent Nancy Johnson. In the 2008 presidential election, the town's voters supported Democrat Barack Obama with 8,177 votes over Republican John McCain with 6,839 votes. Voting tallies for the 2016 presidential election are as follows: Hillary Clinton 7,212, Donald Trump 6,907, Gary Johnson 519, Jill Stein 178.
Cheshire voted for Republican majorities to its Board of Selectmen every election from 1915 to 1971, to its Town Council every year from 1973 to 2001, when voters elected a Democratic majority for the first time. In 2003, a Republican majority was elected. A Democratic majority was elected in 2005 reelected in 2007. In the 2009 local elections, Cheshire voters ousted the Democratic majority on the Town Council and elected 8 Republicans and 1 Democrat, though due to local minority representation rules, only 7 Republicans were seated; the Barker Character and Cartoon Museum, located in the northern section of Cheshire, holds a large collection of memorabilia and ephemera such as lunch boxes and Pez dispensers bearing the likenesses of characters from television and comics. Cheshire Historic District — Roughly bounded by Main Street, Highland Avenue, Wallingford Road, South Main and Spring streets Farmington Canal Lock — 487 N. Brooksvale Road First Congregational Church of Cheshire — 111 Church Drive Marion Historic District The Farmington Canal Heritage Trail, a popular non-motorized recreational trail, runs through Cheshire along its route between Suffield, Connecticut to the north and New Haven, Connecticut to the south.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Governor's Guards of Connecticut are four distinct units of the Connecticut State Guard, a part of the organized militia under the Connecticut State Militia. There are two horse guard units. In colonial times, one foot guard unit and one horse guard unit served the Hartford area and the other two in the New Haven area; the First Company Governor's Foot Guard was created in 1771 with a Second Company raised in 1775. The First Company Governor's Foot Guard is the oldest American military formation in the United States with an unbroken lineage; the First Company Horse Guard was created in 1788 as the Independent Volunteer Troop of Horse Guards in Hartford. The Second Company Governor's Horse Guard was created in 1808 in New Haven. Both were created to serve and protect the governor between his travels between New Haven and Hartford; the First Company Governor’s Foot Guard was organized in Hartford in October 1771 as the Connecticut Governor's Guard, is the oldest military organization in continuous existence in the United States.
Although other organizations may have been formed at an earlier date, the First Company is unique in its record of unbroken service. Hartford, in 1771, was remote from larger towns, it was a small town of 3,000 inhabitants, with few schools. The journey to New York or Boston took three days in a stagecoach. Small as it was, Hartford was not lacking in public spirit. A group of leading young men in Hartford decided it was time to organize a select company for the purpose of escorting the Governor and General Assembly at the General Elections after an unfortunate incident in 1768, when a “trainband” made a farce out of the escort duty. Another reason for the decision was that a company from East Hartford did escort duty in 1769 and 1770. Accordingly, Samuel Wyllys and others petitioned the General Assembly; the petition was granted by the Assembly, Samuel Wyllys, a young man of 32, was elected Captain, William Knox and Ebenezer Austin, Ensign. The company was known at this time as the Governor’s Guard.
As Connecticut had two capitals at this time, it was not long before citizens of New Haven, its other capital, felt the need to establish a unit of Governor's Guards composed of their own citizens. The Second Company was organized in New Haven by Benedict Arnold, elected the company's captain; this caused the original unit to take the name First Company Governor's Guard and the new organization to take the name Second Company Governor's Guards. It was in 1778, with the establishment of a unit of Governor's Horse Guards, that the original unit changed its name for the final time to "First Company Governor's Foot Guard" and the newer unit adopted the name "Second Company Governor's Foot Guard". Both units of Foot Guard are recognized by the state of Connecticut as separate and distinct entities; the ceremonial uniform of the First Company, as far as can be determined, is the same as the original one, although it has picked up elements from different time periods over the years. Tradition hold that the original uniform was copied from that of the Coldstream Guards, the personal body guard of Queen Charlotte.
The uniform consists of a scarlet coat, the tails of which are faced with buff, a black velvet frond crossed with silver braid. The vest and breeches are of buff, the leggings are black velvet; the hat, or'bearskin' as it is known, is of bear skin with a shield in front bearing the State Coat of Arms and supports a red and black feather plume on the side. Enlisted men wear white cross straps. Sergeants dispense with the cross straps and wear a white belt and shoulder scales. Officers wear a black and silver belt, fringed epaulets, carry a saber instead of a sword; the First Company Governor’s Foot Guard has been connected with many historical events. In 1777, although not obligated to do so, it resolved to join the patriot army at Saratoga; as an advance guard of reinforcements under Captain Jonathon Bull, they were crossing the Rhineback Flats on their way to Saratoga when they were met by a messenger with the good news of Burgoyne’s surrender. Earlier, at the start of the American War of Independence recognizing that members of the Second Company Governor's Guards were keen to travel to Massachusetts where the fighting had begun at Lexington and Concord, the colonial authorities wished the Guards to remain at home and kept their weapons locked up.
On April 22, 1775, Captain Benedict Arnold called his men together at a tavern and demanded the keys to the magazine for his company's weapons or else they would break into the storehouse. He stated, "None but the Almighty God shall prevent my marching." During the American Civil War, men of the 2nd Company formed Company "K" 6th Connecticut Volunteers and fought in 26 battles in the conflict. All four units of the Governor's Guards remain active today as subordinate units of the Connecticut Military Department under the command & control of the Connecticut Adjutant General, their mission today remains ceremonial, but they can be called up to active service to augment the Connecticut National Guard for state emergency operations. They perform their annual training each August at Camp Niantic in East Lyme. Over the years, the location of their headquarters has changed due to space availability and financial costs; the headquarters are as follows: First Company Governor's Foot Guard - Hartford Second Company Governor's Foot Guard - Branford First Company Governor's Horse Guard - Avon Second Company Governor's Horse Guard - Newtown Connecticut Wing Civil Air Patrol National Lancers Naval militia United States Coast Guard Auxiliary History of First Company, Governor's Foot Guard Hartford 1771–1901
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus