Timothy Ingold, FBA, FRSE is a British anthropologist, Chair of Social Anthropology at the University of Aberdeen. He was educated at Leighton Park School in Reading, UK and his father was the world-renowned mycologist Cecil Terence Ingold, he attended Churchill College, Cambridge studying natural sciences but shifting to anthropology. His doctoral work was conducted with the Skolt Saami of northeastern Finland, studying their ecological adaptations, social organisation and ethnic politics. Ingold taught at the University of Helsinki and the University of Manchester, becoming Professor in 1990 and Max Gluckman Professor in 1995. In 1999 he moved to the University of Aberdeen. in 2015 he received the honorary doctorate by Leuphana University of Lüneburg. He has four children, his interests are wide-ranging and his scholarly approach is individualistic. They include environmental perception, language and skilled practice and architecture, theories of evolution in anthropology, human-animal relations, ecological approaches in anthropology.
Early concern was with northern circumpolar peoples, looking comparatively at hunting and ranching as alternative ways in which such peoples have based a livelihood on reindeer or caribou. In his recent work, he links the themes of environmental perception and skilled practice, replacing traditional models of genetic and cultural transmission, founded upon the alliance of neo-Darwinian biology and cognitive science, with a relational approach focusing on the growth of embodied skills of perception and action within social and environmental contexts of human development; this has taken him to examining the use of lines in culture, the relationship between anthropology, architecture and design. He discusses his entire career in From science to art and back again: The pendulum of an anthropologist. Writing within the anthropological realm of phenomenology, Ingold explores the human as an organism which'feels' its way through the world that "is itself in motion". Fellow of the British Academy Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Honorary doctorate of the Leuphana University of Lüneburg Ingold, T..
Anthropology and/as education. Routledge, London, UK. Ingold, T.. The Life of Lines. Routledge, London, UK. Ingold, T.. Making: Anthropology, Archaeology and Architecture. Routledge, London, UK. Ingold, T. & Palsson, G.. Biosocial Becomings: Integrating Social and Biological Anthropology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MS. Janowski, M. & Ingold, T.. Imagining Landscapes: Past and Future. Ashgate, Abingdon, UK. Ingold, T.. Being Alive: Essays on Movement and Description. Routledge, London, UK. Ingold, T.. Redrawing Anthropology: Materials, lines. Ashgate, Aldershot. Ingold, T. & Vergunst, J.. Ways of Walking: Ethnography and Practice on Foot. Ashgate, Aldershot. Ingold, T.. Lines: A Brief History. Routledge, Oxon, UK. Hallam, E. & Ingold, T.. Creativity and Cultural Improvisation. A. S. A. Monographs, vol. 44, Berg Publishers, Oxford. Ingold, T.. The perception of the environment: essays on livelihood and skill. London: Routledge. Ingold, T.. Key Debates In Anthropology Ingold, T.. Evolution and social life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ingold, T.. The appropriation of nature: essays on human ecology and social relations. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Ingold T.. Hunters and ranchers: reindeer economies and their transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ingold T.. The Skolt Lapps today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Taskscape Tim Ingold. On the Distinction between Evolution and History. Social Evolution & History. Vol. 1, num.1, 2002, pp. 5–24 Tim Ingold. Towards an Ecology of Materials. Audio recording of lecture given in University College Dublin, February 2012. Tim Ingold. Interview with Tim Ingold on October 05, 2011. In Ponto Urbe, Revista do Núcleo de Antropologia Urbana da USP, Num.11, Dec. 2012
William Marsh Rice University known as Rice University, is a private research university in Houston, Texas. The university is situated on a 300-acre campus near the Houston Museum District and is adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. Opened in 1912 after the murder of its namesake William Marsh Rice, Rice is now a research university with an undergraduate focus, its emphasis on education is demonstrated by a small student body and 6:1 student-faculty ratio, it has been nationally recognized as a leading university for undergraduate teaching. The university has a high level of research activity, with $140.2 million in sponsored research funding in 2016. Rice is noted for its applied science programs in the fields of artificial heart research, structural chemical analysis, signal processing, space science, nanotechnology, it was ranked first in the world in materials science research by the Times Higher Education in 2010. Rice is a member of the Association of American Universities; the university is organized into eleven residential colleges and eight schools of academic study, including the Wiess School of Natural Sciences, the George R. Brown School of Engineering, the School of Social Sciences, School of Architecture, Shepherd School of Music and the School of Humanities.
Undergraduates select from more than fifty majors and two dozen minors, have a high level of flexibility in pursuing multiple degree programs. Additional graduate programs are offered through the Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Business and the Susanne M. Glasscock School of Continuing Studies. Rice students are bound by the strict Honor Code, enforced by a student-run Honor Council. Rice competes in 14 NCAA Division I varsity sports and is a part of Conference USA competing with its cross-town rival the University of Houston. Intramural and club sports are offered in a wide variety of activities such as jiu jitsu, water polo, crew; the university has produced numerous prominent alumni, including more than two dozen Marshall Scholars and a dozen Rhodes Scholars. Given the university's close links to NASA, it has produced a disproportionate number of astronauts and space scientists. In business, Rice graduates have become founders of Fortune 500 companies. Two alumni have won the Nobel Prize, numerous others are leading researchers in science and engineering.
Rice University's history began with the untimely demise of Massachusetts businessman William Marsh Rice, who made his fortune in real estate, railroad development and cotton trading in the state of Texas. In 1891, Rice decided to charter a free-tuition educational institute in Houston, bearing his name, to be created upon his death, earmarking most of his estate towards funding the project. Rice's will specified the institution was to be "a competitive institution of the highest grade" and that only white students would be permitted to attend. On the morning of September 23, 1900, age 84, was found dead by his valet, Charles F. Jones, presumed to have died in his sleep. Shortly thereafter, a suspiciously large check made out to Rice's New York City lawyer, signed by the late Rice, was noticed by a bank teller due to a misspelling in the recipient's name; the lawyer, Albert T. Patrick announced that Rice had changed his will to leave the bulk of his fortune to Patrick, rather than to the creation of Rice's educational institute.
A subsequent investigation led by the District Attorney of New York resulted in the arrests of Patrick and of Rice's butler and valet Charles F. Jones, persuaded to administer chloroform to Rice while he slept. Rice's friend and personal lawyer in Houston, Captain James A. Baker, aided in the discovery of what turned out to be a fake will with a forged signature. Jones was not prosecuted since he cooperated with the district attorney, testified against Patrick. Patrick was found guilty of conspiring to steal Rice's fortune and convicted of murder in 1901, although he was pardoned in 1912 due to conflicting medical testimony. Baker helped Rice's estate direct the fortune, worth $4.6 million in 1904, towards the founding of what was to be called the Rice Institute to become Rice University. The board took control of the assets on April 29 of that year. In 1907, the Board of Trustees selected the head of the Department of Mathematics and Astronomy at Princeton University, Edgar Odell Lovett, to head the Institute, still in the planning stages.
He came recommended by Woodrow Wilson. In 1908, Lovett accepted the challenge, was formally inaugurated as the Institute's first president on October 12, 1912. Lovett undertook extensive research before formalizing plans for the new Institute, including visits to 78 institutions of higher learning across the world on a long tour between 1908 and 1909. Lovett was impressed by such things as the aesthetic beauty of the uniformity of the architecture at the University of Pennsylvania, a theme, adopted by the Institute, as well as the residential college system at Cambridge University in England, added to the Institute several decades later. Lovett called for the establishment of a university "of the highest grade," "an institution of liberal and technical learning" devoted "quite as much to investigation as to instruction." "keep the standards up and the numbers down," declared Lovett. "The most distinguished teachers must take their part in undergraduate teaching, their spirit should dominate it all."
In 1911, the cornerstone was laid for the Institute's first building, the Administration Building, now known as Lovett Hall in honor of the founding president. On September 23, 1912, the annive
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee
The University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee is a public urban research university located in Milwaukee, United States. It is the largest university in the Milwaukee metropolitan area and a member of the University of Wisconsin System, it is one of the two doctoral degree-granting public universities and the second largest university in Wisconsin. The University consists of 14 schools and colleges, including the only graduate school of freshwater science in the U. S. the first CEPH accredited dedicated school of public health in Wisconsin, the State's only school of architecture. As of the 2015-2016 school year, the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee had an enrollment of 27,156, with 1,604 faculty members, offering 191 degree programs, including 94 bachelor's, 64 master's and 33 doctorate degrees; the university is categorized as an R1: Doctoral Universities – Highest research activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. In 2015, the university had research expenditure of $62 million.
The university's athletic teams are called the Panthers. A total of 15 Panther athletic teams compete in NCAA Division I. Panthers have won the James J. McCafferty Trophy as the Horizon League's all-sports champions seven times since 2000, they have earned 133 Horizon League titles and made 40 NCAA tournament appearances as of 2016. In 1885, the Wisconsin State Normal School opened for classes at 18th and Wells in downtown Milwaukee. Over the next 42 years, the Milwaukee State Normal School saw seven different presidents, the addition of music and liberal arts programs and rapid growth from an initial enrollment of 76. In 1919, the School moved from downtown to the current location near the lakefront when a new building, now Mitchell Hall, was completed. In 1927, the Milwaukee normal school changed its name to Wisconsin State Teachers College-Milwaukee in an effort by the State Normal School Regents to refocus on the instruction of teachers; the college became one of the nation's top teacher's training colleges in the 1940s.
In 1951, the Legislature empowered all state colleges to offer liberal arts programs. The Milwaukee State Teachers College subsequently became Wisconsin State College–Milwaukee, but was still casually referred to as "Milwaukee State," as it had been throughout its previous incarnations. University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee was founded with the belief that Milwaukee needed a great public university to become a great city. In 1955, the Wisconsin state legislature passed a bill to create a large public university that offered graduate programs in Wisconsin's largest city. In 1956, Wisconsin State College-Milwaukee merged with the University of Wisconsin–Extension's Milwaukee division to form the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee; the new university consisted of the WSC campus near the lakefront and the University of Wisconsin extension building in downtown Milwaukee. The first commencement of the new University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee was held on June 16, 1957. On June 13, 1958, Socialist mayor Frank P. Zeidler was the first person to receive an honorary doctorate from the university.
In 1964, the campus of the neighboring private women's institution, Milwaukee-Downer College, was purchased by the state to expand the UWM campus. The university had purchased the former campuses and buildings of the former Milwaukee-Downer Seminary and Milwaukee University School along Hartford Avenue. From 1956 to 1971, UW–Milwaukee, UW–Madison, the latter's affiliated 10 freshman-sophomore centers and statewide extensions were part of the original University of Wisconsin System. In 1971, the state legislature merged this entity with the Wisconsin State Universities to form a united University of Wisconsin System under a single board of regents. In 1988, the UW System designated eight Centers of Excellence at UWM. In 1994, UWM was designated a Research II University by the Carnegie Foundation. UWM has expanded to 12 schools and colleges and now offers 84 undergraduate programs and 48 graduate programs, including 22 doctoral degree programs, with a university-wide focus on academic research and community service.
In 2005, UW–Milwaukee surpassed UW–Madison in the number of Wisconsin resident students and became the university with the largest enrollment of Wisconsin residents. In 2006, UW–Milwaukee was ranked as the ninth best "Saviors of Our Cities" by the New England Board of Higher Education, because of its strong positive contribution of careful strategic planning and thoughtful use of resources that have strengthened the economy and quality of life of Milwaukee, was voted by the public as one of the top ten "Gems of Milwaukee". In 2008 and 2009, the school saw the establishments of the School of Public Health and the School of Freshwater Sciences. In 2010, UW–Milwaukee purchased its neighboring Columbia St. Mary's Hospital complex. In the early 2011, UW-Milwaukee closed the land purchase for its Innovation Park in Wauwatosa; the university consists of 14 colleges and schools, 70 academic centers and laboratory facilities. It offers a total of 191 degree programs, including 94 bachelor's, 64 master's and 33 doctorate degrees.
The School of Freshwater Sciences is the only graduate school of freshwater science in the U. S. and the third in the world. The Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health is the first CEPH accredited dedicated school of public health in Wisconsin; the School of Architecture and Urban Planning, the Col
University of Sydney
The University of Sydney is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1850, it was Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities; the university is colloquially known as one of Australia's sandstone universities. Its campus is ranked in the top 10 of the world's most beautiful universities by the British Daily Telegraph and The Huffington Post, spreading across the inner-city suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington; the university comprises 9 faculties and university schools, through which it offers bachelor and doctoral degrees. In 2018-19, the QS World University Rankings ranked Sydney as one of the world's top 25 most reputable universities, its graduates as the top 5 most employable in the world and first in Australia. Five Nobel and two Crafoord laureates have been affiliated with the university as graduates and faculty; the university has educated seven Australian prime ministers, two Governors-General of Australia, nine state governors and territory administrators, 24 justices of the High Court of Australia, including four chief justices.
Sydney has produced 110 Rhodes Scholars and several Gates Scholars. The University of Sydney is a member of the Group of Eight, CEMS, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities and the Worldwide Universities Network. In 1848, in the New South Wales Legislative Council, William Wentworth, a graduate of the University of Cambridge and Charles Nicholson, a medical graduate from the University of Edinburgh Medical School, proposed a plan to expand the existing Sydney College into a larger university. Wentworth argued that a state secular university was imperative for the growth of a society aspiring towards self-government, that it would provide the opportunity for "the child of every class, to become great and useful in the destinies of his country", it would take two attempts on Wentworth's behalf, before the plan was adopted. The university was established via the passage of the University of Sydney Act, on 24 September 1850 and was assented on 1 October 1850 by Sir Charles Fitzroy. Two years the university was inaugurated on 11 October 1852 in the Big Schoolroom of what is now Sydney Grammar School.
The first principal was John Woolley, the first professor of chemistry and experimental physics was John Smith. On 27 February 1858 the university received its Royal Charter from Queen Victoria, giving degrees conferred by the university rank and recognition equal to those given by universities in the United Kingdom. By 1859, the university had moved to its current site in the Sydney suburb of Camperdown. In 1858, the passage of the electoral act provided for the university to become a constituency for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as soon as there were 100 graduates of the university holding higher degrees eligible for candidacy; this seat in the Parliament of New South Wales was first filled in 1876, but was abolished in 1880 one year after its second member, Edmund Barton, who became the first Prime Minister of Australia, was elected to the Legislative Assembly. Most of the estate of John Henry Challis was bequeathed to the university, which received a sum of £200,000 in 1889.
This was thanks in part due to William Montagu Manning who argued against the claims by British Tax Commissioners. The following year seven professorships were created: anatomy. A significant figure from 1927 to 1958, termed'Sydney's best known academic', was the Professor of Philosophy at the University John Anderson. A native of Scotland, Anderson's controversial views as a self-proclaimed Atheist and advocate of free thought in all subjects raised the ire of many to the point of being censured by the state parliament in 1943; the New England University College was founded as part of the University of Sydney in 1938 and separated in 1954 to become the University of New England. During the late 1960s, the University of Sydney was at the centre of rows to introduce courses on Marxism and feminism at the major Australian universities. At one stage, newspaper reporters descended on the university to cover brawls, secret memos and a walk-out by David Armstrong, a respected philosopher who held the Challis Chair of Philosophy from 1959 to 1991, after students at one of his lectures demanded a course on feminism.
The philosophy department split over the issue to become the Traditional and Modern Philosophy Department, headed by Armstrong and following a more traditional approach to philosophy, the General Philosophy Department, which follows the French continental approach. Under the terms of the Higher Education Act 1989 the following bodies were incorporated into the university in 1990: Sydney Branch of the Sydney Conservatorium of Music Cumberland College of Health Sciences Sydney College of the Arts of the Institute of the Arts Sydney Institute of Education of the Sydney College of Advanced Education Institute of Nursing Studies of the Sydney College of Advanced Education Guild Centre of the Sydney College of Advanced Education. Prior to 1981, the Sydney Institute of Education was the Sydney Teachers College; the Orange Agricultural College was transferred to the University of New England under the Act, but transferred to the University of Sydney in 1994, as part of the reforms to the University of New England undertaken by the University of New England Act 1993 and the Southern Cross University Act 1993.
In January 2005, the University of Sydney transferred the OAC to Charles Sturt University. In February 2007, the university agreed to acquire a portion of the land granted to St John's College to develop the Sydney