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Amphiphile

An amphiphile is a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic and lipophilic properties. Such a compound is called amphipathic; this forms the basis for a number of areas of research in chemistry and biochemistry, notably that of lipid polymorphism. Organic compounds containing hydrophilic groups at both ends of a prolate molecule are called bolaamphiphilic. Common amphiphilic substances are soaps and lipoproteins; the lipophilic group is a large hydrocarbon moiety, such as a long chain of the form CH3n, with n > 4. The hydrophilic group falls into one of the following categories: Charged groups Anionic. Examples, with the lipophilic part of the molecule represented by an R, are: carboxylates: RCO2−. Phosphates: The charged functionality in phospholipids. Cationic. Examples: ammoniums: RNH3+. Polar, uncharged groups. Examples are alcohols with large R groups, such as diacyl glycerol, oligoethyleneglycols with long alkyl chains. Amphiphilic species have several lipophilic parts, several hydrophilic parts, or several of both.

Proteins and some block copolymers are such examples. Amphiphilic compounds have hydrophilic polar functional groups; as a result of having both lipophilic and hydrophilic portions, some amphiphilic compounds may dissolve in water and to some extent in non-polar organic solvents. When placed in an immiscible biphasic system consisting of aqueous and organic solvents, the amphiphilic compound will partition the two phases; the extent of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions determines the extent of partitioning. Phospholipids, a class of amphiphilic molecules, are the main components of biological membranes; the amphiphilic nature of these molecules defines the way. They arrange themselves into bilayers, by positioning their polar groups towards the surrounding aqueous medium, their lipophilic chains towards the inside of the bilayer, defining a non-polar region between two polar ones. Although phospholipids are principal constituents of biological membranes, there are other constituents, such as cholesterol and glycolipids, which are included in these structures and give them different physical and biological properties.

Many other amphiphilic compounds, such as pepducins interact with biological membranes by insertion of the hydrophobic part into the lipid membrane, while exposing the hydrophilic part to the aqueous medium, altering their physical behavior and sometimes disrupting them. Aβ proteins form antiparallel β sheets which are amphiphilic, which aggregate to form toxic oxidative Aβ fibrils. Aβ fibrils themselves are composed of amphiphilic 13-mer modular β sandwiches separated by reverse turns. Hydropathic waves optimize the description of the small plaque-forming Aβ fragments. Antimicrobial peptides are another class of amphiphilic molecules, a big data analysis showed that amphipathicity best distinguished between AMPs with and without anti-gram-negative bacteria activities; the higher amphipathicity, the better chances for AMPs possessing antibacterial and antifungal dual activities. There are several examples of molecules that present amphiphilic properties: Hydrocarbon-based surfactants are an example group of amphiphilic compounds.

Their polar region can be non-ionic. Some typical members of this group are: sodium dodecyl sulfate, benzalkonium chloride, cocamidopropyl betaine, 1-octanol. Many biological compounds are amphiphilic: phospholipids, glycolipids, fatty acids, bile acids, local anaesthetics, etc. Soap is a common household amphiphilic compound. Soap mixed with water is useful for cleaning oils and fats from kitchenware, skin, etc. Amphoterism Bubbles in abiogenesis Emulsion Free surface energy Hydrophile Lipid polymorphism Sodium dodecyl sulfate Wetting Estimating intestinal permeability by surface activity profiling

Michael D. Murphy

Michael D. Murphy is a former lawyer and United States Air Force officer, he was a commander of the Air Force Legal Operations Agency. A former top lawyer in the Air Force, Murphy was relieved of his command on November 30, 2006 after Air Force officials discovered that he had been disbarred more than 20 years earlier and did not have a law license. Air Force Times reported that Murphy was disbarred in Texas in 1984 and Louisiana in 1985. Murphy had never disclosed to his commanders that he was disbarred, despite Air Force rules requiring such disclosure. Murphy had held two of the most elite postings in the Air Force Judge Advocate General's Corps: Commandant of the Judge Advocate General's School and Commander of the Air Force Legal Operations Agency, the latter being the only commander position within the JAG Corps. Air Force Times reported that Murphy failed to file an appeal on time for a client convicted of burglary in 1981; as a result, the state of Texas sued Murphy in 1982 accusing him of professional misconduct.

Texas suspended Murphy's law license for seven years. In January 1983 Murphy applied to be admitted to the Louisiana bar, stating under oath that he had never been sued nor been the subject of a disciplinary action. Both Texas and Louisiana permanently disbarred Murphy for lying on his Louisiana bar application, Texas doing so in May 1984 and Louisiana in September 1985. Murphy joined the Air Force after being suspended by Texas but before being disbarred by either state. On May 29, 2007, court-martial charges were preferred against Colonel Murphy; the charges were absence without leave. The charges were forwarded to Major General Robert L. Smolen, Air Force District of Washington, for disposition. On April 14, 2008, Colonel Murphy was arraigned. If convicted of all charges, Murphy could have faced up to 41 years in prison. Military members facing punishment may raise a "good soldier defense" that draws in specifics of their duty performance as mitigation against the charges against them. Murphy's performance record while assigned as White House Military Office general counsel from late 2001 to early 2005 remains under a nondisclosure agreement Murphy was required to sign as part of his assignment.

The WHMO declined to release Murphy from his nondisclosure agreement, so Murphy was unable to discuss specifics of his assignment to his lawyers. Records show Murphy had served with distinction, earning praise and promotion recommendations from superiors; the military judge ruled that without the WHMO records, Murphy would be unable to present a good soldier defense or adequately present mitigation evidence, that the maximum punishment authorized would be no further punishment. On March 30, 2009, Murphy's court-martial began at Bolling Air Force Base in the District of Columbia, where he once was head of the Air Force Legal Operations Agency. Murphy was convicted of three counts of conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman, one count of failure to obey a general regulation, two counts of larceny greater than $500 and one count of larceny less than $500; the charges for conduct unbecoming and officer and a gentleman and failure to obey a regulation relate to Murphy's alleged failure to inform the Air Force of his disbarment in Texas and Louisiana while continuing to serve in positions that require a valid law license.

On February 22, 2010, Air Force spokeswoman Lt. Col. Barbara Carson announced that Murphy would be honorably retired from the Air Force effective April 1, 2010. A commissioned officer is retired in the highest grade. Murphy was retired in the grade of first lieutenant

Point of zero charge

The point of zero charge is described as the pH at which the net charge of total particle surface is equal to zero, which concept has been introduced in the studies dealt with colloidal flocculation to explain pH affecting the phenomenon. A related concept in electrochemistry is the electrode potential at the point of zero charge; the pzc in electrochemistry is the value of the negative decimal logarithm of the activity of the potential-determining ion in the bulk fluid. The pzc is of fundamental importance in surface science. For example, in the field of environmental science, it determines how a substrate is able to adsorb harmful ions, it has countless applications in technology of colloids, e.g. flotation of minerals. Therefore, the pzc value has been examined in many application of adsorption to the environmental science; the pzc value is obtained by titrations and several titration method has been developed. Related values associated with the soil characteristics exist along with the pzc value, including zero point of charge, point of zero net charge, etc.

The point of zero charge is the pH. This concept has been introduced by an increase of interest in the pH of the solution during adsorption; the reason why pH has attracted much attention is that the adsorption of some substances is dependent on pH. The pzc value is determined by the characteristics of an adsorbent. For example, the surface charge of adsorbent is described by the ion that lies on the surface of the particle structure like image. At the lower pH, hydrogen ions would be adsorbed more than other cations so that the other cations would be less adsorbed in the case of the negatively charged particle. On the other hand, if the surface is positively charged and pH is increased, anions will be less adsorbed as hydroxide ions are increased. From the view of the adsorbent, if the pH is below the pzc value, the surface charge of adsorbent would be positive so that the anions can be adsorbed. Conversely, if the pH is above the pzc value, the surface charge would be negative so that the cations can be adsorbed.

For example, the charge on the surface of silver iodide crystals may be determined by the concentration of iodide ions in the solution above the crystals. The pzc value of the AgI surface will be described by the concentration of I− in the solution; the pzc is the same as the isoelectric point if there is no adsorption of other ions than the potential determining H+/OH− at the surface. This is the case for pure oxides in water. In the presence of specific adsorption and isoelectric point have different values; the pzc is obtained by acid-base titrations of colloidal dispersions while monitoring the electrophoretic mobility of the particles and the pH of the suspension. Several titrations are required to distinguish pzc from iep. Once satisfactory graphs are obtained, the pzc is established as the common intersection point of the lines. Therefore, pzc is sometimes referred to as cip. Besides pzc and cip, there are numerous other terms used in the literature expressed as initialisms, with identical or near-identical meaning: zero point of charge, point of zero net charge, point of zero net proton charge, pristine point of zero charge, point of zero salt effect, zero point of titration of colloidal dispersion, isoelectric point of the solid and point of zero surface tension.

In electrochemistry, the electrode-electrolyte interface is charged. If the electrode is polarizable its surface charge depends on the electrode potential. IUPAC defines the potential at the point of zero charge as the potential of an electrode at which one of the charges defined is zero; the potential of zero charge is used for determination of the absolute electrode potential in a given electrolyte. IUPAC defines the potential difference with respect to the potential of zero charge as: Epzc = E - Eσ=0where: Epzc - the electrode potential difference with respect to the point of zero charge,Eσ=0 E - the potential of the same electrode against a defined reference electrode, V Eσ=0 - the potential of the same electrode when the surface charge is zero, in the absence of specific adsorption other than that of the solvent, against the reference electrode as used above, VThe structure of electrolyte at the electrode surface can depend on the surface charge, with a change around the pzc potential.

For example, on a platinum electrode, water molecules have been reported to be weakly hydrogen-bonded with "oxygen-up" orientation on negatively charged surfaces, hydrogen-bonded with nearly flat orientation at positively charged surfaces. At pzc, the colloidal system exhibits zero zeta potential, minimum stability, maximum solubility of the solid phase, maximum viscosity of the dispersion, other peculiarities. In the field of environmental science, adsorption is involved in many parts of technologies that can eliminate pollutants and governs the concentration of chemicals in soils and/or atmosphere; when studying pollutant degradation or the geochemical process, the pzc value related to adsorption has been examined. For example and organic substrates including wood ash, etc. are to be used as an

BVE Trainsim

BVE Trainsim is a Japanese three-dimensional computer-based train simulator. It is notable for focusing on providing an accurate driving experience as viewed from inside the cab, rather than creating a network of other trains —other trains passed along the route are only displayed as stationary objects. BVE Trainsim was designed and developed by Takashi "Mackoy" Kojima starting in 1996 with the original program name coming from the Japanese 255 series multiple unit trains found in routes in Japan. Although the internal working of the BVE Trainsim program itself cannot be modified, additional routes and train cab views can be added via a number of text-based configuration files. Route builders have produced over 300 additional routes for the program, along with matching cab environments. Routes built by independent developers simulate rail activity in Africa, North America, South America, Europe. BVE Trainsim 1 was released in 1996 as an Alpha version under the name Boso View Express and 1999 as a Beta Version.

This version, the first version of BVE to be produced, had an interface, similar to BVE Trainsim 2, but did not have a logo. Instead, the official symbol of BVE up until the release of BVE 2 in 2001 featured the words: 暴走 VIEW EXPRESS; the first stable version released in 2001. BVE Trainsim 2 featured ATS and ATC; the latest version of BVE 2 is ver. 2.6.3, released on 27 March 2004. Unreleased and cancelled, BVE Trainsim 3 was started in 2003 as an improvement over BVE Trainsim 2, but was stopped due to problems encountered with development of the aforementioned program. BVE Trainsim 4, released in 2005, added support for plugins to simulate train safety systems other than ATS and ATC; because of the cancellation of version three, this was the first follow-on stable version since version two. It has better graphics than BVE 2 with the latter being a major update; the latest version of BVE 4 is ver. 4.2.1947.25355, released on 1 May 2005. The London Transport Museum used BVE Trainsim 4 to provide a simulation platform, within a mock underground rolling stock of the London Underground 1996 Stock, before porting to openBVE in 2010.

BVE Trainsim 5 was released on 5 September 2011 as the successor to BVE 4. In July 2008, the developer stated that he was rewriting BVE Trainsim from scratch because the released versions do not work with DirectX 9, that the new version would support Windows Vista and Windows 7; the first BVE 5 version features a new format for storing train routes and route dependencies and a redesigned interface including a distance to next station indicator and a passenger comfort indicator. The latest version of BVE 5 is ver. 5.7.6224.40815, released on 17 March 2017. The BVE 5 download page includes a route converter which can convert BVE 4 routes into a format recognised by BVE 5. OpenBVE is an independently developed open-source train simulator. Although the name and logo were based on BVE Trainsim, openBVE is free and open-source software developed and written from scratch, it features support for animated 3D cab environments and animated scenery. Internally, openBVE makes use of OpenGL for rendering, as well as OpenAL for three-dimensional positional audio.

The program is noted for its cab realism. It is distributed in the public domain, along with full C# and C source code. OpenBVE was conceived in 2009, as a free and open-source simulator, capable of running routes from BVE Trainsim, but with the eventual aim of loading content form other simulations, the development of a separate route format. Initial development was done over four years from 2009 to 2013, by a team of four developers, lead by Michelle Boucquemont and odakyufan. In 2007 most active development has ended, as the main developer Michelle Boucquemont ended her active work. Despite the lacking developer support, around 2009 openBVE was capable of running most BVE Trainsim routes and supported additional features, including an exterior view, animated 3D cabs, animated objects. To end the stalled development in October 2015 a continuation of OpenBVE was announced on BVEWorldwide by another group of developers; the group transferred the codebase to a new repository on GitHub. To date, numerous additions were made by the project: new parameters for animated objects and the plugin API, several unfixed errata from the previous openBVE 1.4.3 errata fixed, Dynamic lighting and backgrounds added, a basic package format has been added to make the installation of addons easier.

OpenBVE was selected in September 2013 as "HotPick" by Linux Format. Barten, Alfred; this Is V-scale. ISBN 1-4276-0738-8. BVE Trainsim website openBVE Project website

Keith Duckworth

David Keith Duckworth was an English mechanical engineer. He is most famous for designing the Cosworth DFV engine, an engine that revolutionised the sport of Formula One. Duckworth was born in Blackburn and was educated at Giggleswick School, he served his two years of national service with the Royal Air Force, during which time he trained to become a pilot but was grounded for dangerous and incompetent flying and was reclassified as a navigator. Duckworth claimed that allergy to medication he was receiving caused his flying problem - in civilian life he became a keen light aircraft and helicopter pilot. After completing his tour of duty, which he finished as a navigator, Duckworth studied engineering at Imperial College London. After completing his BSc degree in 1955 he began working for Lotus as a gearbox engineer. Given the task of fixing the'Queerbox's' unreliability problems, he fell out with Chapman who would not support the cost of the fix that Duckworth felt was needed. After only three years with Lotus, along with fellow Lotus employee Mike Costin, founded Cosworth, a racing engine design and development firm, in 1958.

Costin was obliged to remain with Lotus, having signed a restrictive contract. From the start the company was associated with the Ford Motor Company and Lotus, the two companies found early success in the newly formed Formula Junior in the early 1960s. Not only did these successes finance Cosworth's move from Friern Barnet to Edmonton to Northampton but they inspired Lotus founder Colin Chapman to persuade Ford to finance the production of Duckworth's DFV engine. Chapman's idea was to reduce weight by using the engine as a stressed part of the chassis, bolted straight on to the front monocoque tub, removing the need for a spaceframe around the engine and making it easier for mechanics to maintain the cars; this arrangement has been standard in F1 since. The DFV made a famous debut in the third race of the 1967 season, in the Dutch Grand Prix at Zandvoort. In the back of the Lotus 49, it proved lightning-quick straight out of the box, with Graham Hill taking pole position and Jim Clark taking the win.

Teething problems prevented Clark mounting a serious title challenge but the Lotus-Ford was undoubtedly the class of the field. In 1968 the DFV was made available to all teams, with its enviable power and low price the DFV began to fill up the grid; this spawned a plethora of small English-based low-budget teams throughout the 1970s, with the DFV last racing in a Tyrrell in 1985. The DFV's last race was the Austrian Grand Prix, held on the fast Österreichring circuit, where driver Martin Brundle failed to qualify the underpowered car. By 1985 the DFV, now upgraded as the DFY, was rated at around 540 bhp, though it was up against 950 bhp turbocharged cars and had become uncompetitive; the DFV's last win was at the 1983 Detroit Grand Prix with Italian driver Michele Alboreto piloting his Tyrrell 011 to a surprise, but popular victory. The final podium finish by a DFV powered car came a year in Detroit when Brundle drove his Tyrrell 012 to second place, it was at the 1984 British Grand Prix at Brands Hatch that Duckworth and Ford agreed to build a turbo powered engine to replace the DFV.

An old Straight-4 sportscar engine was tested, but it proved to be unreliable and unable to produce the necessary power required to be competitive in Formula One. Duckworth had wanted to use the 4 cyl engine as he believed it to be more compact and had better fuel economy than a V6 engine, though project manager Mike Baldwin had been against that idea from the start. After four of the 4 cyl engines had been destroyed during a 4-month development period, finding that with a turbo increasing power the engine had formed an incurable vibration at the crankshaft it was decided that an all-new V6 engine would be built and tested throughout 1985; the new 850 bhp, 120° Ford-Cosworth TEC V6 turbo engine, made its debut at the 1986 San Marino Grand Prix in the Team Haas Ltd entered Lola THL2, the car driven by 1980 World Champion Alan Jones. Its development was rushed, while the engine proved somewhat reliable, it was well down on power compared to the other turbo charged engines used in 1986 such as the Honda, BMW, Renault and TAG-Porsche engines, which were producing in excess of 1,000 bhp.

As a result, neither Haas Lola drivers Jones or Patrick Tambay were able to exploit the good Lola chassis due to the underpowered engine, scoring only 8 points for the season, with a best finish of 4th for Jones at the Austrian Grand Prix. The Duckworth designed. With the Haas team leaving Formula One, the engine would be supplied to the Benetton team; the restriction of turbo boost to just 4.0 Bar in 1987 helped the Ford engine to be more competitive, although some unreliability had crept in with 9 engine or turbo related retirements during the season. Drivers Thierry Boutsen and Teo Fabi were able to claim one podium finish each during the season, at Austria and Australia, while Boutsen led his first Grand Prix when he led the Mexican Grand Prix. With turbo engines to be banned by the FIA from 1

1984 Munster Senior Hurling Championship Final

The 1984 Munster Senior Hurling Championship Final was a hurling match played on Sunday 15 July 1984 at Semple Stadium. It was contested by Tipperary. Cork captained by John Fenton claimed the title beating Tipperary on a scoreline of 4–15 to 3–14. Regarded at the time as the'best ever', the 1984 Munster final was a fitting game to celebrate the centenary year of the GAA; the game was a classic encounter, the final seven minutes have entered Munster folklore. Cork trailed Tipp by four points with seven minutes left and the game looked lost. John Fenton launched the comeback with a point before Tony O'Sullivan sent the sliotar crashing into the net for an equalizing goal. A draw seemed however, a Tipp attack was halted and turned into a Cork one. O'Sullivan tried for the winning point, his shot was stopped by the goalkeeper only to fall to the hurley of Seánie O'Leary who scored the winning goal. John Fenton tacked on an insurance point to give Cork the centenary year Munster title. Hogan Stand Article on the match Match Highlights Match Programme Cover