Church of Saint-Bruno des Chartreux
The Church of Saint-Bruno des Chartreux is a Roman Catholic church located in Lyon, France. Until the French Revolution, it was the church of Lyon Charterhouse, the cathedral is dedicated to Saint Bruno of Cologne, known as Saint Bruno of the Carthusians, and is the citys only Baroque church. The first monastic communities here were established by Carthusian monks from Grenoble and they initially came to help the clergy of Lyon when the city was pillaged by Forez Guy in the 12th century and obtained privileges such as an exemption from tolls on their journeys to Lyon. On a visit by King Henri III in August 1584, however and they were successful, and the king pledged 30,000 livres for its construction and chose its name, Chartreuse du Lys St Esprit. Contrary to what might be supposed, their extension of their property bore no relation to an expansion in their numbers, instead they related the expansion of their estate to their monastic rule, they were eliminating all their neighbours so as better to live their life of solitary contemplation.
It took six years after the gift for the first stone of the church to be laid. Finally and extensions occurred during the 19th century, mainly affecting the chapels, the choir now has only 5 windows, after several were blocked up during the second phase of works by the architect Ferdinand-Sigismond Delamonce in 1733-37. The Rococo stalls found here show reversed volutes and garlands of foliage as well as asymmetrical shells, typical of the 17th century Baroque style, the 1628 statues now located on the pilasters of the Munet arch were originally in the choir. They are by Sarazin and represent Saint Bruno of Cologne and Saint John the Baptist, the drapery of these figures is dynamically carved, and their thin faces and tense eyes add to their pathetic expressions. Today the church organ is located in the choir, but the church has only had one since 1890. It is now known as the best of the keyboards in Lyon. Before 1890 the austerity of the Carthusian Rule made for an austere liturgy unadorned by organ music, the offices were celebrated in the choir until 1737, when it was separated from the rest of the church for building works by a partition.
It thus unites the three persons of the Holy Trinity, the transition between the choir and the crossing is formed by the Munet arch, built by the architect Melchior Munet in the 18th century. It is supported by powerful deflecting pillars in the Baroque style, here there are two nested pilasters of the Doric Order, whose niches are now occupied by the Sarazin statues. The tabernacle was originally decorated with stones, but these disappeared during the Revolution. The 18th century baldachino is by Servandoni, one of the most beautiful examples in France, it aims to magnify the presence of Christ in the Eucharist and in effect to form a hyper-tabernacle around the Host. Its columns are of marble, whilst the capitals are wooden but stuccoed with powdered marble and powdered chalk to imitate marble. On top of the baldachino are a globe and a cross, both in copper gilded with gold leaf, and drapery made of cloth dipped in liquid plaster and painted gold before drying
Tunnel de la Croix-Rousse
It follows the line of the Route nationale 6 and is a link between the Rhône to the Saône rivers. It crosses the hill of la Croix-Rousse, the roadway was composed of 2 x 2 routes with no real separation of roadways until the construction of a central wall in 1999. Its use is only for vehicles with less than 3.5 tonnes. The tunnel length is 1,782 meters, the speed is limited to 50 km/h and an automatic radar used to be located at its exit in the direction Lyon-Vaise. A separate route for busses and cyclists was opened in 2013 and this route is a safety access to the car tunnel and is illuminated with colored lights, and video displays and music are played as entertainment for the pedestrians and cyclists. List of tunnels by location La Croix-Rousse
Tiberius was a Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Born Tiberius Claudius Nero, a Claudian, Tiberius was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and his mother divorced Nero and married Octavian, known as Augustus, in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian. Tiberius would marry Augustus daughter, Julia the Elder, and even be adopted by Augustus, by which act he officially became a Julian, bearing the name Tiberius Julius Caesar. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the thirty years, historians have named it the Julio-Claudian dynasty. In relations to the emperors of this dynasty, Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus, grand-uncle of Caligula, paternal uncle of Claudius. Tiberius was one of Romes greatest generals, his conquest of Pannonia, Dalmatia and temporarily, parts of Germania, laid the foundations for the northern frontier. But he came to be remembered as a dark and sombre ruler who never really desired to be emperor, Pliny the Elder called him tristissimus hominum, after the death of Tiberius’ son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23 AD, he became more reclusive and aloof.
In 26 AD Tiberius removed himself from Rome and left largely in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian Prefects Lucius Aelius Sejanus and Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro. Caligula, Tiberius grand-nephew and adopted grandson, succeeded Tiberius upon his death, Tiberius was born in Rome on 16 November 42 BC to Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. In 39 BC his mother divorced his father and remarried Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus shortly thereafter. In 38 BC his brother, Nero Claudius Drusus, was born, little is recorded of Tiberiuss early life. In 32 BC Tiberius at the age of nine, delivered the eulogy for his father at the rostra. In 29 BC, both he rode in the chariot along with their adoptive father Octavian in celebration of the defeat of Antony. In 23 BC Emperor Augustus became gravely ill and his possible death threatened to plunge the Roman world into chaos again, in response, a series of potential heirs seem to have been selected, among them Tiberius and his brother Drusus. Similar provisions were made for Drusus, shortly thereafter Tiberius began appearing in court as an advocate, and it is presumably here that his interest in Greek rhetoric began.
In 20 BC, Tiberius was sent East under Marcus Agrippa, the Parthians had captured the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus, Decidius Saxa, and Marc Antony. Augustus was able to reach a compromise whereby the standards were returned, Tiberius married Vipsania Agrippina, the daughter of Augustus’s close friend and greatest general, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. He was appointed to the position of praetor, and sent with his legions to assist his brother Drusus in campaigns in the west
An amphitheatre or amphitheater /ˈæmfᵻˌθiːətər/ is an open-air venue used for entertainment and sports. The term derives from the ancient Greek ἀμφιθέατρον, from ἀμφί, ancient Roman amphitheatres were oval or circular in plan, with seating tiers that surrounded the central performance area, like a modern open-air stadium. In contrast both ancient Greek and ancient Roman theatres were built in a semicircle, with tiered seating rising on one side of the performance area. In modern usage, amphitheatre is used to describe theatre-style stages with spectator seating on only one side, theatres in the round. Natural formations of similar shape are known as natural amphitheatres. Ancient Roman amphitheatres were major public venues, circular or oval in plan and they were used for events such as gladiator combats, chariot races and executions. About 230 Roman amphitheatres have been found across the area of the Roman Empire, the earliest Roman amphitheatres date from the middle of the 1st century BC, but most were built under Imperial rule, from the Augustan period onwards.
Imperial amphitheatres were built throughout the Roman empire, the largest could accommodate 40, the most elaborate featured multi-storeyed, arcaded façades and were elaborately decorated with marble and statuary. After the end of games in the 5th century and of staged animal hunts in the 6th. Their materials were mined or recycled, some were razed, and others were converted into fortifications. A few continued as convenient open meeting places, in some of these, in modern usage, an amphitheatre is a circular, semicircular or curved, acoustically vibrant performance space, particularly one located outdoors. Small-scale amphitheatres can serve to host outdoor local community performances, notable modern amphitheatres include the Shoreline Amphitheatre and the Hollywood Bowl. The term amphitheatre is used for some indoor venues such as the Gibson Amphitheatre. The term amphitheatre can be used to naturally occurring formations which would be ideal for this purpose. Arena Stadium Thingplatz List of Roman amphitheatres List of contemporary amphitheatres List of indoor arenas List of ancient Greek theatres Roman theatre Bomgardner, the Story of the Roman Amphitheatre
Saint Blandina was a Christian martyr during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. She belongs to the band of martyrs of Lyon who, after some of their number had endured frightful tortures, almost all we know of Blandina comes from a letter sent from the Church of Lyon to the Churches of Asia Minor. Eusebius gives significant space of her life and death in his book as he quotes from the epistle to Asia Minor. The fanaticism of the Roman populace in Lyon had been excited against the Christians so that the latter, when they ventured to show themselves publicly, were harassed and ill-treated. While the imperial legate was away, the chiliarch, a commander, and the duumvir, a civil magistrate, threw a number of Christians. When the legate returned, the believers were brought to trial. Among these Christians was Blandina, a slave, who had taken into custody along with her master. Her companions greatly feared that on account of her bodily frailty she might not remain steadfast under torture, Blandina was therefore subjected to new tortures with a number of companions in the towns amphitheater at the time of the public games.
She was bound to a stake and wild beasts were set on her, according to legend, they did not, touch her. After enduring this for a number of days she was led into the arena to see the sufferings of her companions, the tradition of the story is recounted by Eusebius in his Historia Ecclesiastica. If accurate, these events would suggest a shift from the policy from a few decades earlier. This previous policy declared Christianity to be illegal, but that members of the faith were not to be sought, there were some local anti-Christian persecutions in the early years of Christianity. It would seem from the Epistle from the Gallican Churches to the churches in Asia minor that such localized persecution had broken out in Lyon, while it would seem that Emperor Marcus Aurelius personally had nothing to do with the Lyon affair, he was criticized for not intervening. Two communes in France are named after her and her feast is celebrated June 2
Rue de l'Arbre-Sec
The Rue de lArbre-Sec is an old street located in the 1st arrondissement of Lyon, near the Place des Terreaux and the Opera Nouvel. It starts perpendicular to the rue Édouard-Herriot and ends with the Quai Jean Moulin crossing the rue de la République, the name dates from the 14th century and was probably chosen because of a dry tree that could be seen in this street and of an inn sign. The 1745 almanac of Lyon justified the name of the stating that a stunted tree which was very dry could be seen at one end of the street. In 1518, a plan for drainage and crossing of the street was decided by Jean de Paris. In the nineteenth century, the zone between the Rue Garet and the Rhône was named Rue Basseville in which there were six silk workshops, the street was already on a plan of 1550 and was inhabited almost exclusively by silk workers and tile makers. When he restructured the quarter, prefect Claude-Marius Vaïsse decided to demolish some old buildings to build the rue de lHôtel de Ville, on 25 June 1778, cobbler Durant, who lived in the street, was convicted of illegally practicing medicine.
In 1831, a lot of umbrellas with handle containing a triangular dagger were discovered at No.14, in 1844, there was the Hôtel de France at No.13. In 1847, a chapel in the street was the only place of worship in Lyon at the time. Among the famous residents of the street, there were the family of Louise Labé, painter Salomon Bernard and it is first wide and lined with buildings of about 1870 with wrought iron balconies and decorations. Further, the SocGen has wrought iron arches, after the rue Garet, the street is narrower and older, with simple facades and stone arches. The street name is engraved in stone of the last building that is fairly recent, the iron balcony at No.8 dates from 1863. The houses at No.10 and 12 have arcades, there are many restaurants and bouchons, including Le Petit Damier and Le Connétable. There is a blocked up traboule at No.8 which starts with a building of 1863
Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum was an important Roman city in Gaul. The city was founded in 43 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus and it served as the capital of the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis and was an important city in the western half of the Roman Empire for centuries. Two emperors and Caracalla, were born in Lugdunum, in the time period 69–192 AD the city population could be as large as 50,000 to 100,000. Even figures of up to 200,000 people are proposed by Albert Grenier, the original Roman city was situated west of the confluence of the Rhône and Saône, on the Fourvière heights. By the late centuries of the much of the population was located in the Saône River valley at the foot of Fourvière. The Roman city was founded as Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity, the city became increasingly referred to as Lugdunum by the end of the 1st century AD. During the Middle Ages, Lugdunum was transformed to Lyon by natural sound change, Lugdunum is a latinization of the Gaulish *Lugudunon, meaning Fortress of Lugus or, alternately Fortress of the champion.
The Celtic god Lugus was apparently popular in Ireland and Britain as is found in medieval Irish literature as Lug and in medieval Welsh literature as Lleu. According to Pseudo-Plutarch, Lugdunum takes its name from an otherwise unattested Gaulish word lugos, that he says means raven, an early folk-etymology of Gaulish Lugduno as Desired Mountain, is recorded in a gloss in the 9th-century Endlichers Glossary. But this may in fact reflect a native Frankish speakers attempt at linking the first element of the name, Lugu- with the similar-sounding Germanic word for love, *luβ. Another early medieval folk-etymology of the name, found in gloss on the Latin poet Juvenal, connects the element Lugu- to the Latin word for light and translates the name as Shining Hill. Archeological evidence shows Lugdunum was a settlement as far back as the neolithic era. It was situated on the Fourvière heights above the Saône river, there was trade with Campania for ceramics and wine, and use of some Italic-style home furnishings before the Roman conquest.
Gaul was conquered for the Romans by Julius Caesar between 58 and 53 BC and his description, De Bello Gallico, is our principal written source of knowledge of pre-Roman Gaul, but there is no specific mention of this area. In 44 BC, ten years after the conquest of Gaul, Julius Caesar was assassinated, Dio Cassius says this was to keep them from joining Mark Antony and bringing their armies into the developing conflict. Epigraphic evidence suggests Munatius Plancus was the founder of Lugdunum. Lugdunum seems to have had a population of several thousand at the time Roman foundation, the citizens were administratively assigned to the Galerian tribe. The aqueduct of the Monts dOr, completed around 20BC, was the first of at least four aqueducts supplying water to the city, within 50 years Lugdunum increased greatly in size and importance, becoming the administrative centre of Roman Gaul and Germany
Lyon or Lyons is a city in east-central France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, about 470 km from Paris and 320 km from Marseille. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais, Lyon had a population of 506,615 in 2014 and is Frances third-largest city after Paris and Marseille. Lyon is the capital of the Metropolis of Lyon and the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, the metropolitan area of Lyon had a population of 2,237,676 in 2013, the second-largest in France after Paris. The city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy and historical and architectural landmarks and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Lyon was historically an important area for the production and weaving of silk. It played a significant role in the history of cinema, the city is known for its famous light festival, Fête des Lumières, which occurs every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a centre for banking, as well as for the chemical, pharmaceutical. The city contains a significant software industry with a focus on video games.
Lyon hosts the headquarters of Interpol and International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lyon was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014 and it ranked second in France and 39th globally in Mercers 2015 liveability rankings. These refugees had been expelled from Vienne by the Allobroges and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers, dio Cassius says this task was to keep the two men from joining Mark Antony and bringing their armies into the developing conflict. The Roman foundation was at Fourvière hill and was officially called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity, the city became increasingly referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as Desired Mountain is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary, in contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, and dúnon. It became the capital of Gaul, partly due to its convenient location at the convergence of two rivers, and quickly became the main city of Gaul.
Two emperors were born in city, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic senators. Today, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as Primat des Gaules, the Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimus Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, in the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was the Easterner, Irenaeus. Burgundian refugees fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled by the commander of the west, Aëtius. This became the capital of the new Burgundian kingdom in 461, in 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, with the country beyond the Saône, went to Lothair I