Khabarovsk Krai is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District; the administrative center of the krai is the city of Khabarovsk, home to half of the krai's population and the second largest city in the Russian Far East. Khabarovsk Krai is the fourth-largest federal subject by area, with a population of 1,343,869 as of the; the southern region lies in the basin of the lower Amur River, with the mouth of the river located at Nikolaevsk-on-Amur draining into the Strait of Tartary, which separates Khabarovsk Krai from the island of Sakhalin. The north occupies a vast mountainous area along the coastline of the Sea of Okhotsk, a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean. Khabarovsk Krai is bordered by Magadan Oblast to the north, Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast and the Sakha Republic to the west, Primorsky Krai to the south, Sakhalin Oblast to the east; the population is ethnic Russians, but indigenous people of the area are various Tungusic peoples and Amur Nivkhs.
Khabarovsk Krai shares its borders with Magadan Oblast in the north, with the Sakha Republic and Amur Oblast in the west, with the Jewish Autonomous Oblast and Primorsky Krai in the south, is limited by the Sea of Okhotsk in the east. In terms of area, it is the fourth-largest federal subject within Russia. Major islands include Shantar Islands. Taiga and tundra in the north, swampy forest in the central depression, deciduous forest in the south are the natural vegetation in the area. Khabarovsk Krai has a continental climate with its northern areas being subarctic with stronger maritime summer moderation in the north. In its southerly areas inland, annual swings are strong, with Khabarovsk itself having hot and humid summers which transforms into cold and long winters, where temperatures hardly go above freezing; this is because of the influence of the East Asian monsoon in summer and the bitterly cold Siberian High in winter. The second largest city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur has more violent temperature swings than Khabarovsk with winter average lows below −30 °C but in spite of this avoiding being subarctic because of the significant heat in shoulder seasons.
There are a number of peninsulas along the Krai's extensive coast, the main ones being the Lisyansky Peninsula, Nurki Peninsula, Tugurskiy Peninsula and the Tokhareu Peninsula. The main islands of Khabarovsk Krai are Malminskiye Island, the Shantar Islands, Menshikov Island, Reyneke Island, Chkalov Island, Baydukov Island and the Chastye Islands; the island of Sakhalin is administered separately as Sakhalin Oblast, along with the Kuril Islands. According to various Chinese and Korean records, the southern part of Khabarovsk Krai was occupied by one of the five semi-nomadic Shiwei, the Bo Shiwei tribes and the Black Water Mohe tribes living on the west and the east of the Bureinsky and the Lesser Khingan ranges. In 1643, Vassili Poyarkov's boats descended the Amur, returning to Yakutsk by the Sea of Okhotsk and the Aldan River, in 1649–1650 Yerofey Khabarov occupied the banks of the Amur; the resistance of the Chinese, obliged the Cossacks to quit their forts, by the Treaty of Nerchinsk Russia abandoned her advance into the basin of the river.
Although the Russians were thus deprived of the right to navigate the Amur River, the territorial claim over the lower courses of the river was not settled in the Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689. The area between Uda River and Greater Khingan mountain range was left undemarcated and the Sino-Russian border was allowed to fluctuate. In the nineteenth century, Nikolay Muravyov would conduct an aggressive policy with China by claiming that the lower reaches of the Amur River belonged to Russia. In 1852, a Russian military expedition under Muravyov explored the Amur, by 1857 a chain of Russian Cossacks and peasants had been settled along the whole course of the river. In 1858, in the Treaty of Aigun, China recognized the Amur River downstream as far as the Ussuri River as the boundary between Russia and the Qing Empire, granted Russia free access to the Pacific Ocean; the Sino-Russian border was further delineated in the Treaty of Peking of 1860 when the Ussuri Territory, a joint possession, became Russian.
Modern Khabarovsk Krai was established on October 20, 1938, when the Far Eastern Krai was split into the Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krais. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Khabarovsk CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee. Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament; the Charter of Khabarovsk Krai is the fundamental law of the krai. The Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai is the regional standing legislative body; the Legislative Duma exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Krai Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilita
Primorsky Krai (Russian: Примо́рский край, tr. Primorsky kray, IPA: is a federal subject of Russia, located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District; the city of Vladivostok is the administrative center of the krai, as well as the largest city in the Russian Far East. The krai has the largest economy among the federal subjects in the Russian Far East, a population of 1,956,497 as of the 2010 Census; the name of the krai is derived from the Russian words "приморский", meaning "maritime", "край, meaning "edge" or "frontier". It is informally known as Primorye in Russian, is translated as Maritime Territory in English; the krai shares Russia's only border with North Korea, along the Tumen River in Khasansky District in the southwestern corner of the krai. Peter the Great Gulf, the largest gulf in the Sea of Japan, is located along the south coast. Part of Manchuria, Primorsky Krai was ceded to the Russian Empire by Qing China in 1860 as part of a region known as Outer Manchuria, forming most of the territory of Primorskaya Oblast.
During the Russian Civil War it became part of the Far Eastern Republic before joining the Soviet Union, going through numerous changes until reaching its current form in 1938. Primorsky Krai is home to the Russian Navy's Russian Pacific Fleet. Borders length — over 3,000 kilometers, including 1,350 kilometers of the sea borders. Highest peak — Anik Mountain, 1,933 meters Railroads length — 1,628 kilometers. Automobile roads length — 12,633 kilometers Primorsky Krai, bordered by China, North Korea, the warm—although freezing in winter—waters of the Sea of Japan, is the southeasternmost region of Russia, located between the 42° and 48° north latitude and 130° and 139° east longitude, it is stretched in the meridianal direction, the distance from its extreme northern point to its most southerly point being about 900 kilometers. Highlands dominate the territory of the krai. Most of the territory is mountainous, 80% of it is forested; the average elevation is about 500 meters. Sikhote-Alin is a mountainous formation.
It consists of a number of parallel ranges: the Partizansky, the Siny, the Kholodny, others. There are many karst caves in the South of Primorye; the accessible Spyashchaya Krasavitsa cave in the Ussuriysky Nature Preserve could be recommended for tourists. There are comparatively well-preserved fragments of the ancient volcanoes in the area; the ranges are cut by the picturesque narrow and deep valleys of the rivers and by large brooks, such as the Partizanskaya, the Kiyevka, the Zerkalnaya, the Cheryomukhovaya, the Yedinka, the Samarga, the Bikin, the Bolshaya Ussurka. Most rivers in the Krai have limpid water; the largest among them is the Ussuri, with a length of 903 kilometers. The head of the Ussuri River originates 20 kilometers to the East of Oblachnaya Mountain; the vast Khanka Lowlands extends into the West and the South-West of Primorye, carpeted by coniferous-deciduous forests. A part of the Lowland surrounding the largest lake in the Russian Far East, Khanka Lake, is occupied by a forest-steppe.
The krai's coastline is straight, except for the southern-most section around Vladivostok which contains the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula There are numerous islands in this area, the main ones being Lisy Island, Askold Island, Putyatin Island, Skrebtsov island, Sibiryakov Island, the Eugénie Archipelago, the Rimsky-Korsakov Archipelago and Furugelm Island. The geographic location of Primorye accounts for the variety of its flora; the territory of Primorye has not been subjected to the ice cover in the past in contrast to the rest of Siberia during the ice ages. This circumstance, as well as the specifics of the geographical situation and the specific features of climate, determine the unique, diversity of the plant world at species and cenotic levels and the richness of plant resources. In the flora of Primorye there are more than two thousand species of higher plants, of which are about 250 species of trees and ligneous lianas. Flora of mosses and lichens are diverse; as part of the coastal flora, there are many valuable medicinal and food plants, many relict and endemic species.
About 200 species are listed in the IUCN Red List as threatened extermination. There are mountainous tundra areas and coniferous-deciduous forests, forest-steppe, sometimes called the Far Eastern Prairie, where many ancient plant species have been preserved, including ferns and the Chosenia willow; the flora of the territory contains such plants as Taxus cuspidata, Juniperus rigida, Phellodendron amurense, Aralia elata, Maackia amurensis, Alnus japonica, Actinidia kolomikta, Schisandra chinensis, Celastrus orbiculatus, Thladiantha dubia, Eleutherococcus, Flueggea suffruticosa, Nelumbo nucifera, Betula schmidtii, Carpinus cordata, Acer mandshuricum, Parthenocissus tricuspidata, Vitis amurensis, Panax ginseng and many others. The fauna of Primorye is diverse; the following animals are found in the Krai: Ussuri black bear, Amur tiger, Amur leopard, Eurasian lynx, wild boar, Manchurian deer, Siberian roe deer, musk deer, long-tailed goral, sika deer, sable (Martes zib
Karl Robert Reichsgraf von Nesselrode-Ehreshoven known as Charles de Nesselrode, was a Baltic German diplomat. His mother was Jewish by Protestant by faith. For forty years guided Russian policy. Karl Nesselrode was born at sea near Lisbon, Portugal into the Uradel Nesselrode family which originated in the Bergisches Land, his father Wilhelm Karl Nesselrode, a count of the Holy Roman Empire, served at the time as the ambassador of the Russian Empress to Portugal. In deference to his mother's Protestantism he was baptized in the chapel of the British Embassy, thus becoming a member of the Church of England. After his father became the Russian ambassador to the Prussian court about 1787, Nesselrode's education in a Berlin gymnasium re-inforced his Germanic roots. Though Nesselrode would work for the Russians for the next few decades of his life, he could neither read nor write Russian and spoke it only brokenly. In 1788, at the age of 8, he entered the Russian Navy. With his father's influence, he secured the position of naval aide-de-camp to Emperor Paul.
He transferred to the army, entered diplomatic service under Paul I's son and successor, Emperor Alexander I. He was attached to the Russian embassy at Berlin, transferred thence to the Hague. In August 1806 Nesselrode received a commission to travel in southern Germany to report on the French troops there, he was present at the inconclusive Battle of Eylau in January 1807, fought by Count von Bennigsen, assisted at the negotiations of the Peace of Tilsit, which Spanish Bonapartist Diego Fernandez de Velasco, 13th Duke of Frías, congratulated and was seated at table with Napoleon I. Nesselrode became State Secretary in 1814 and was the head of Russia's official delegation to the Congress of Vienna, but for the most part Alexander I acted as his own foreign minister. In 1816, Nesselrode became Russian foreign minister, sharing influence with Count Ioannis Kapodistrias until the latter's retirement in 1822. For forty years, Nesselrode guided Russian policy and was a leading European conservative statesman of the Holy Alliance.
Between 1845 and 1856, he served as Chancellor of the Russian Empire. As Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1824, he was a plenipotentiary during negotiations with the United States in defining the boundary between Russian America and the American claims known as the Oregon Country, which were resolved with the Russo-American Treaty of 1824, a parallel treaty with Britain concerning British claims which overlapped with those of the U. S. A century in 1924, Mount Nesselrode in the Boundary Ranges of the Alaska-British Columbia boundary was named for him. In 1849 Nesselrode sent Russian troops to aid Austria in putting down the Hungarian revolution led by Lajos Kossuth. One frequently-overlooked facet of Nesselrode's activity involved his attempts to penetrate Japan's self-isolation. In 1853 he dispatched Yevfimiy Putyatin with a letter to the shōgun. Nesselrode's efforts to expand Russia's influence in the Balkans and Mediterranean led to conflicts with Turkey, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Duchy of Savoy and France, which all became allies opposing Russia in the Crimean War.
Britain and France, unhappy with Russia's growing influence, determined to support Turkey and so restrict Russia. Nesselrode's autobiography was published posthumously in 1866. Knight of the Order of Saint Alexander Nevsky. Knight grand Cross of the Order of Saint Vladimir. Knight of the Order of the Elephant. Knight grand Cross of the Order of the Polar Star. Knight grand Cross of the Order of the Crown. Knight grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order. Knight grand Cross of the House Order of Fidelity. Knight of the Order of the White Eagle. Knight grand Cross of the Order of Saint Stephen of Hungary. Knight grand Cross of the Order of the Holy Ghost. Knight grand Cross of the Order of Saint Michael. Knight grand Cross of the Order of the Black Eagle. Knight grand Cross of the Order of the Red Eagle. Knight grand Cross of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation. Knight grand Cross of the Order of Charles III. Knight grand Cross of the Order of Saint Ferdinand and of Merit. Grand Cross in the Legion of Honour.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Nesselrode, Karl Robert, Count". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 405–406. Cowles, Loyal. "The Failure to Restrain Russia: Canning and the Greek Question, 1825–1827." International History Review 12.4: 688-720. Grimsted, Patricia Kennedy; the foreign ministers of Alexander I: political attitudes and the conduct of Russian diplomacy, 1801-1825 Ingle, Harold N. Nesselrode and the Russian rapprochement with Britain, 1836-1844 Jelavich, Barbara. St. Petersburg and Moscow: Tsarist and Soviet Foreign Policy, 1814-1974 Schroeder, Paul W; the transformation of European politics, 1763-1848
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Gennady Ivanovich Nevelskoy was a Russian navigator. In 1848 Nevelskoy led the expedition in the Russian Far East, exploring the area of the Sakhalin and the outlet of the Amur River, he proved that the Strait of Tartary was not a gulf, but indeed a strait, connected to Amur's estuary by a narrow section called Nevelskoy Strait. On 13 August 1850 he founded the first Russian settlement in the region. Not knowing about the efforts of Japanese navigator Mamiya Rinzō who explored the same area forty years earlier, the Russians took Nevelskoy's report as the first proof that Sakhalin is indeed an island, they renamed the Gulf of Tartary the Strait of Tartary, named the northernmost, narrowest section of the strait, the Strait of Nevelskoy, in the captain's honour. It connects the strait's main body with the Amur Liman; the following entities are named after Nevelskoy: The Gulf and the Strait of the Far East, the city Nevelskoi in the Sakhalin Oblast, a street in the city of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Novosibirsk, village Wrangell Nakhodka and several other places.
Monuments in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur, as the founder of the city. The passenger ship" Amur River Shipping Company; the Maritime State University in Vladivostok. The Nevelskoi Nautical School, Kholmsk. In 1997, the Russian Yacht Admiral Nevelskoi, «Адмирал Невельской», forty-foot-long, was found in the lagoon of Rodrigues Island after a two years crew-less voyage; the yacht belonged to the Maritime State University in Vladivostok. It was given to Honorable Bernard Eric Typhis Degtyarenko in 2010 by the Government of Russia and declared a Maritime Museum. According to experts it is one of the most expensive yacht of the world in its category due to its historical value reaching several millions US dollars. Planes of the Russian airline Aeroflot Since 2007, the Ivanovo-Voznesensk sea cadet corps has been named after Nevelskoy. On 25.07.2011, the name "Admiral Nevelskoy" is a large landing ship project 775. Memorials: Until the mid-1990s there was a monument of Nevelskoy in Khabarovsk. During the night of 17 to 18 May 1996 the monument in Central Park of Culture and Rest of Khabarovsk was destroyed by minors.
The sculpture has not been restored. July 16, 2008, in the city of Irkutsk, on the wall of Holy Cross Church was a memorial plaque; the idea belongs to the installation of Irkutsk poet and member of the Board of Navy veterans Irkutsk Gennady Haidee. The monument in the city of Korsakov Sakhalin Oblast. Opened in July 2013
Treaty of Nerchinsk
The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 was the first treaty between Russia and China. The Russians gave up the area north of the Amur River as far as the Stanovoy Range and kept the area between the Argun River and Lake Baikal; this border along the Argun River and Stanovoy Range lasted until the Amur Annexation in 1860. For background see History of Sino-Russian relations; the agreement was signed in Nerchinsk on August 27, 1689. The signatories were Songgotu on behalf of the Kangxi Emperor and Fyodor Golovin on behalf of the Russian tsars Peter I and Ivan V; the authoritative version was in Latin, with translations into Russian and Manchu, but these versions differed considerably. There was no official Chinese text for another two centuries, but the border markers were inscribed in Chinese along with Manchu and Latin. In 1727, the Treaty of Kiakhta fixed what is now the border of Mongolia west of the Argun and opened up the caravan trade. In 1858 Russia in 1860 took the coast down to Vladivostok; the current border runs along the Argun and Ussuri Rivers.
Treaty of Nerchinsk is written in other languages as follows: Latin: Tractatus pacis de Nipkoa Russian: Нерчинский договор Manchu: ᠨᡳᠪᠴᡠ ᡳᠪᠣᠵᡳᠪᡳᡨᡥᡝ, simplified Chinese: 尼布楚条约. The Manchus had, by the 1680s, completed the conquest of China and eliminated the last Ming successor states in the south. With the Manchu Qing dynasty now in control of the South, it was in a position to deal with what they saw as Russian encroachment in Manchuria, the dynasty's ancient homeland. By 1685 most of the Russians had been driven out of the area. See Sino–Russian border conflicts for details. After their first victory at Albazin in 1685, the Qing government sent two letters to the Tsar suggesting peace and demanding that Russian freebooters leave the Amur; the Russian government, knowing that the Amur could not be defended and being more concerned with events in the west, sent Fyodor Golovin east as plenipotentiary. Golovin left Moscow in January 1686 with 500 streltsy and reached Selenginsk near Lake Baikal in October 1687, from whence he sent couriers ahead.
It was agreed the meeting would be in Selenginsk in 1688. At this point the Oirats under Galdan attacked the eastern Mongols in the area between Selenginsk and Peking and negotiations had to be delayed. To avoid the fighting Golovin moved east to Nerchinsk where it was agreed that talks would take place; the Manchus with 3,000 to 15,000 soldiers under Songgotu left Peking on June 1689 and arrived in July. Talks went on from August 22 to September 6; the language used was Latin, the translators being, for the Russians, a Pole named Andrei Bielobocki and for the Chinese the Jesuits Jean-Francois Gerbillon and Thomas Pereira. To avoid problems of precedence, tents were erected side by side so that neither side would be seen as visiting the other. G. P. March remarks that there were no mandarins with them though two Han mandarins were assigned to Selenginsk negotiations, but since the venue was changed to Nerchinsk, the journey had to be made on horseback and few Han gentlemen had mastered this undignified skill.
However, there was little need for Han mandarins, just as there was no need for an immediate Chinese translation. Both Manchu and Chinese were the official languages of the Qing court and both continued to be official languages into the eighteenth century. Dulimbai Gurun is the Manchu name for China. In the Treaty of Nerchinsk the name "China", was used to refer to the Qing territory in Manchuria in both the Manchu and Chinese language versions of the treaty, the term "the wise Emperor of China" was referred to in the text of the treaty in Manchu. More Russian acceptance of the treaty required a relaxation of what had been, in Ming times, an iron rule of Chinese diplomacy, requiring the non-Chinese party to accept language which characterized the foreigner as an inferior or tributary; the conspicuous absence of such linguistic gamesmanship from the Treaty of Nerchinsk, together with the conspicuous absence of Chinese language or personnel, suggests that the Kangxi emperor was using the Manchu language as a deliberate end-run around his more conservative Han bureaucracy.
This was a tactic used by early Qing emperors in matters which were delicate or confidential. The Yuan Empire's rule of Mongol tribes living around Lake Baikal was claimed by the Qing, who incited the defection of the Nerchinsk Onggut and Buryat Mongols away from the Russians; the Manchus wished to remove the Russians from the Amur. They were interested in the Amur, they could ignore the area west of the Argun since it was controlled by the Oirats. The Kangxi Emperor wished to settle with Russia in order to free his hands to deal with the Zunghar Mongols of Central Asia, to his northwest; the Manchus wanted a delineated frontier to keep nomads and outlaws from fleeing across the border. The Russians, for their part, knew that the Amur was indefen
Siege of Petropavlovsk
The Siege of Petropavlovsk was a military operation in the Pacific Theatre of the Crimean War. The Russian casualties are estimated at 115 soldiers and sailors killed and wounded, whilst the British suffered 105 casualties and the French 104; the primary concern of the Anglo-French allies was that cruisers of the Russian Siberian flotilla would operate against British trade in the area. The British force on the station was under Rear-Admiral David Price and the French under Rear-Admiral Auguste Febvrier-Despointes. On 9 May 1854 the bulk of the British and French squadrons were at Callao, Peru when they received orders to operate against the Russian cruisers in the Pacific. There were three potential bases for the Russians: the island of Sitka in Russian America, Okhotsk on the Sea of Okhotsk, the largest Russian settlement on the Pacific Coast, Petropavlovsk on the Kamtchatka Peninsula. Given the importance of allied trade with California, two British frigates and a French corvette were detached to cruise off that coast and defend the California trade.
The remaining vessels set out to hunt down the Russian ships in the Pacific. These six ships were crew by 1,700 men and mounted 200 guns; the allied squadron concentrated at Honolulu and on 25 July 1854 set out to hunt down the Russian ships. Their first objective was Sitka, taken but no Russian warships were found, they set sail for Petropavlovsk. Putyatin decided he could not meet the allied forces on the open sea, could not raid allied trade, he had with him only the frigate Aurora, 44 and Dvina, 10. He decided to concentrate all his available forces at Petropavlovsk, using the Dvina to transfer the Okhotsk garrison to Petropavlovsk, his only other vessel on the station was the frigate Pallada, 52 guns at Imperial Harbour on the river Amur. Her captain lightened her by offloading all her guns and took her as far upriver as he could to hide from the allies; the winter would destroy the frigate, as the frozen river crushed the ship's hull. The Russian frigate Diana, 54 rounded Asia and arrived at Simoda, Japan with the Russian ambassador on 21 November 1854, but was destroyed by an earthquake on 7 January 1855 before she could operate against the allies.
Her crew sailed it to the Amur. The allied squadron hove to in Avocha Bay on 28 August 1854. Admiral Price took the steamer Virago forward to reconnoiter, he observed that the Russians had withdrawn their ships behind a fortified spit in the bay. He decided to mount a direct bombardment against the "eleven gun battery", the main heavy earthwork defending the spit and the ships within; the next day the Virago and the President mounted a reconnaissance-in-force against the central position, exchanging fire with the batteries to gauge their strength. That evening Price announced his plan; the attack would be broken into two phases. 2, they would edge around "the corner" of the spit to engage first Battery no. 2 and the Aurora in detail. Meanwhile, the lighter vessels would suppress the other batteries; the 30th of August was windless and the Virago had to tow the sailing vessels into place. With the movement underway to place the attackers in bombardment positions Admiral Price suffered a fatal gunshot wound in his cabin self-inflicted.
With the chain of command in doubt, Captain Nicholson of the Pique ordered a delay of 24 hours. On the 31st of August, Price's plan was put into effect; the President suppressed Battery no. 1, Forte Battery no. 2 and the Virago and Pique Battery no. 4. Batteries no. 1 and 4 were suppressed and small Royal Navy landing party took possession and spiked the guns of Battery no. 4. The main force moved against Battery no. 2. Fire from the frigates President and Forte suppressed Battery no. 2 and caused a great deal of damage to the Aurora, rendering her unseaworthy until more than six months' repairs were effected. The Virago took a large hole below the waterline from a Russian shell, but this was plugged; however the French frigate Forte signaled that it wished to withdraw, so the Virago towed her beyond the Russian range. The remaining allied ships thus disengaged. On the 1st of September the Virago was despatched to bury Admiral Price on the other side of the bay. There they encountered four American whalers living in a tent who told them that the port was vulnerable to an attack from the landward side, with a path though the woods of Nikalski Hill that would allow light artillery to crest the hill.
Meanwhile, the French commander, Admiral Febvrier-Despointes and the British commander, Captain Nicholson were engaged in a fierce argument. Despointes wanted to retreat, whereas Nicholson was more bellicose believing that the Russians had expended most of their ammunition and that one more push would overwhelm the defenders. Since Despointes refused to place his ships back under enemy fire Nicholson took the report of the Americans and proposed a landing, with the ships suppressing the enemy Batteries and a force of 700 men landing near Battery no. 6 to attack two objectives. The matter was put to a vote, all the British Captains voted to attack, two of the Fre