The Amur River (Russian: река́ Аму́р, IPA: or Heilong Jiang is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China. The largest fish species in the Amur is the kaluga; the river basin is home to a variety of large predatory fish such as northern snakehead, Amur pike, Amur catfish, predatory carp and yellowcheek, as well as the northernmost populations of the Amur softshell turtle and Indian lotus. It was common to refer to a river as "water." There are similar words for "water" or "river" in a number of Asiatic languages: e.g. 물 mul in Korean, muren or mörön in Mongolian, 水 midu > mizu in Japanese. The name "Amur" may have evolved from a root word for water, coupled with a size modifier for "Big Water"; the Chinese name for the river, Heilong Jiang, means Black Dragon River in Chinese, its Mongolian name, Khar mörön, means Black River. The river rises in the hills in the western part of Northeast China at the confluence of its two major affluents, the Shilka River and the Ergune River, at an elevation of 303 metres.
It flows east forming the border between China and Russia, makes a great arc to the southeast for about 400 kilometres, receiving many tributaries and passing many small towns. At Huma, it is joined by the Huma River. Afterwards it continues to flow south until, between the cities of Blagoveschensk in Russia and Heihe in China, it widens as it is joined by one of its most important tributaries the Zeya River; the Amur arcs to the east and turns southeast again at the confluence with the Bureya River does not receive another significant tributary for nearly 250 kilometres before its confluence with its largest tributary, the Songhua River, at Tongjiang. At the confluence with the Songhua the river turns northeast, now flowing towards Khabarovsk, where it joins the Ussuri River and ceases to define the Russia–China border. Now the river spreads out into a braided character, flowing north-northeast through a wide valley in eastern Russia, passing Amursk and Komsomolsk-on-Amur; the valley narrows after about 200 kilometres and the river again flows north onto plains at the confluence with the Amgun River.
Shortly after, the Amur turns east and into an estuary at Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, about 20 kilometres downstream of which it flows into the Strait of Tartary. Many historical references distinguish two geopolitical entities in the area of the Amur: Outer Manchuria and Inner Manchuria; the Chinese province of Heilongjiang on the south bank of the river takes its name from the river, as does the Russian Amur Oblast on the north bank. The native Manchu people and their Qing Empire of China, who regarded this river as sacred, use the name sahaliyan ula; the Amur River is an important symbol of, geopolitical factor in, Chinese–Russian relations. The Amur became prominent in the period of the Sino–Soviet political split of 1956-1966. For many centuries inhabitants of the Amur Valley comprised the Tungusic, Mongol people, some Ainu and, near its mouth, the Nivkhs. For many of these groups, fishing in the Amur and its tributaries was the main source of their livelihood; until the 17th century these peoples were not known to Europeans, little known to the Han Chinese, who sometimes collectively described them as the Wild Jurchens.
The Chinese-language term Yupi Dazi came to apply to the Nanais and related groups as well, owing to their traditional clothes made of fish skins. The Mongols, ruling the region as the Yuan dynasty, established a tenuous military presence on the lower Amur in the 13–14th centuries. During the reigns of the Yongle and Xuande Emperors, the Ming dynasty reached the Amur in their drive to establish control over the lands adjacent to the Ming Empire to the northeast, which would become known as Manchuria. Expeditions headed by the eunuch Yishiha reached Tyr several times between 1411 and the early 1430s, re-building the Yongning Temple and obtaining at least the nominal allegiance of the lower Amur's tribes to the Ming government; some sources report a Chinese presence during the same period on the middle Amur – a fort existed at Aigun for about 20 years during the Yongle era on the left shore of the Amur downstream from the mouth of the Zeya River. This Ming Dynasty Aigun was located on the opposite bank to the Aigun, relocated during the Qing Dynasty.
In any event, the Ming presence on the Amur was as short-lived. Chinese cultural and religious influence such as Chinese New Year, the "Chinese god", Chinese motifs like the dragon, spirals and material goods like agriculture, heating, iron cooking-pots and cotton spread among Amur natives such as the Udeghes and Nanais. Russian Cossack expeditions led by Vassili Poyarkov and Yerofey Khabarov explored the Amur and its tributaries in 1643–44 and 1649–51, respectively; the Cossacks established the fort of Albazin on the upper Amur, at the site of the former capital of the Solons. At the time, the Manchus were busy with conquering China.
Eliyahu de Vidas was a 16th-century rabbi in Ottoman Palestine. He was a disciple of Rabbis Moses ben Jacob Cordovero and Isaac Luria. De Vidas is known for his expertise in the Kabbalah, he wrote Reshit Chochmah, or "The Beginning of Wisdom," a pietistic work, still studied by Orthodox Jews today. Just as his teacher Rabbi Moses Cordovero created an ethical work according to kabbalistic principles in his Tomer Devorah, Rabbi de Vidas created an more expansive work on the spiritual life with his Reishit Chochmah; this magnum opus is based on the Zohar, but reflects a wide range of traditional sources. The author lived in Safed and Hebron, was one of a group of prominent kabbalists living in Hebron during the late 16th and early 17th-century. Aaron ben Menahem Mendel of Kamenitz, the first hotelier in the Land of Israel, references his visit to the grave of Eliyahu de Vidas in his 1839 book Sefer Korot Ha-Itim, he states, "here I write of the graves of the righteous to which I paid my respects."
After describing the Cave of Machpela and the tombs of such Biblical figures as Ruth and Jesse, Othniel Ben Knaz and Abner Ben Ner, he reports, "I went to a grave said to be that of the Righteous Rav, author of "Reshit Hokhma." Today the grave site can be visited in the Old Jewish Cemetery in Hebron. Fine, Lawrence. Rodrigue, Aron. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. P. 480. ISBN 0-8047-4826-8. Retrieved 2010-08-16. Koch, Patrick B.. Human Self-Perfection: A Re-Assessment of Kabbalistic Musar-Literature of Sixteenth Century Safed. Los Angeles: Cherub Press. ISBN 1933379553. Photo of the grave of Eliyahu de Vidas from the Old Jewish Cemetery of Hebron Video of the grave of Eliyahu de Vidas from the Old Jewish Cemetery of Hebron Video of the grave of Eliyahu de Vidas from the Old Jewish Cemetery of Hebron
Birkenhead is a constituency recreated in 1950 represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2019 United Kingdom general election by Mick Whitley. A former constituency of the same name existed from 1861 to 1918. In the intervening years, the area on the Liverpool-facing side of the Wirral Peninsula was split in two and joined with other land which had become more developed. Birkenhead forms the densely populated mid-east of four parliamentary constituencies within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, itself a major contributor to the Metropolitan County of Merseyside envisaged in 1958 and created in 1974, considered as any other county for the enacted purposes of the Boundary Commission in its periodic reports; the urban parts of the town unite with Liverpool on the opposite side of the narrows of the estuary in having an early reformist movement in local measures and its choice of many elected representatives since the 1850s. The work was evidence in the building of large public buildings and institutions and the creation of supported workers' housing, creating Port Sunlight to the south among other such estates.
The southern border of the Borough controversially avoids the near-circular suburbs of the cathedral city of Chester, thereby creating a jagged boundary in local and national government. Transcending the dense 20th-century urban-semi-rural divide of Merseyside is the Victorian era-built town of Birkenhead, at the centre of which lies the archetype of city parks, Birkenhead Park, a social gift and early publicly subscribed community asset in the area; the seat is square and bounded by its sole motorway to the west. Its homes were 53% owner-occupied compared to 60% in the region; the seat's left-wing victories nationally since 1945 evidence commitment locally to public services and wealth redistribution instead of laissez-faire economics and low taxation. The 2015 general election result made the seat the fifteenth-safest of Labour's 232 seats by percentage of majority. Creation and recreationBirkenhead was enfranchised in 1861 by the Birkenhead Enfranchisement Act 1861 and was a single constituency until it was split under the terms of the Representation of the People Act 1918 which took effect for the 1918 general election.
Birkenhead East and West covered the former area between 1918-1950 and smaller neighbouring communities in The Wirral. The single constituency on revised boundaries was re-established at the 1950 general election. 1861–1918The seat's elections were won by Conservatives with one exception, the 1906 landslide victory for the Liberal Party. During splitting The two seats alternated between the three largest parties in the 1920s, before the 1931 and 1935 general elections, which saw a major Conservative and Unionist Party victory in Birkenhead West, the latter election heralding a ten-year Parliament. However, the Liberal Graham White, of the more radical faction, won the eastern seat at both elections, echoing his victory in 1922. Having had predominantly marginal majorities, the seats were won by the Labour Party in their nationwide landslide victory of 1945. Since 1950 re-creationSince 1950, Birkenhead has returned Labour MPs each winning large majorities — apart from a 7% majority in 1955. Further to the left, two Communist candidates, including Barry Williams stood between 1950-1970 obtaining a high point of 1.5% of the votes cast during the Cold War.
Frank Field, who has represented the constituency since 1979, was appointed as the Blair ministry's Welfare Reform Minister for one year and has chaired the related Work and Pensions Committee since 2015. Minor party candidates during the early 21st century At the 2001, 2005 and 2010 general elections no candidates apart from those selected by the Labour and Liberal Democrat parties contested the seat; until and including the 1966 general election, three or fewer candidates stood in more safe-than-marginal majority-seats nationally. The 2015 general election result saw the Liberal Democrat candidate fall behind the Green candidate and the parties narrowly lost their deposits; the enfranchising Act provided that the constituency was to consist of the Extra-parochial Chapelry of Birkenhead, the several townships of Claughton and Oxton, so much of the township of Higher Bebington as lies to the eastward of the road leading from Higher Tranmere to Lower Bebington.1950–1974: The County Borough of Birkenhead, except the wards included in the Bebington constituency.
1974–1983: The County Borough of Birkenhead wards of Argyle, Cathcart, Cleveland, Devonshire, Gilbrook, Holt, Oxton, St James. 1983–2010: The Metropolitan Borough of Wirral wards of Bidston, Claughton, Egerton and Tranmere. 2010–present: The Metropolitan Borough of Wirral wards of Bidston and St James and Tranmere, Oxton and Rock Ferry. The constituency covers the town of Birkenhead, on the Wirral Peninsula, the Birkenhead suburbs of Bidston, Oxton, Rock Ferry and Tranmere. Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Caused by Laird's death. Back to Elections While the seat was created in 1861, it is considered a new se