Manezhnaya Square, Moscow
Manezhnaya is a pedestrian open space in the Tverskoy District, at the heart of Moscow. It is bound by the Hotel Moskva to the east, the State Historical Museum and the Alexander Garden to the south, the Moscow Manege to the west, the 18th-century headquarters of the Moscow State University to the north; the square forms a vital part of downtown Moscow, connecting Red Square with the major traffic artery Tverskaya Street, which starts here and runs northwestward in the direction of Saint Petersburg. It is served by three Moscow Metro stations: Okhotny Ryad, Ploshchad Revolyutsii, Teatralnaya; the Manezhka had its origins in Moiseyevskaya Square, formed in 1798 in consequence of the demolition of the medieval Moiseyevsky Monastery which had stood on the banks of the muddy Neglinnaya River since the times of Ivan the Terrible. Although the river was culverted, the neighbourhood remained crammed with public houses and taverns which gave the area its infamous nickname of "Moscow's belly". A decision was reached in 1932 to pull down these "ugly relics of the bourgeois lifestyle" in order to make room for Communist meetings and demonstrations.
As a result, the 19th-century Grand Hotel and several Neoclassical mansions by Osip Bove were dismantled, whereupon the Moiseyevskaya Square was expanded to its present size and renamed Manezhnaya after the Moscow Manege it now abutted upon. Notwithstanding its new name, the eastern side of the square came to be dominated by another building, the newly built Hotel Moskva, a hybrid of several styles, most notable for its huge proportions and uptight look. In 1967, the square was renamed after the 50th Anniversary of the October Revolution. Furthermore, in order to commemorate that event, the Communist authorities laid a foundation stone for a grandiose sculptural monument, which failed to materialize. In August 1991, Manezhnaya Square became a venue for great demonstrations celebrating the fall of Communism after the abortive Soviet coup attempt of 1991. More it made the news in connection with riots following the Russia national football team's defeat at the 2002 FIFA World Cup; the place became a stage of rioting again in December 2010, when thousands of youth representing football fans and/or those who support nationalist slogans held a rally at Manezhnaya which turned violent.
It resulted in local rioting and ethnically motivated violence across Moscow and nationwide and made the square's name common in media when it comes to growth of nationalist sentiments in modern Russia. During the 1990s Moscow mayor Yury Luzhkov had the square closed to traffic and renovated; the centrepiece of the refurbished square is a four-story underground shopping mall and parking lot, surmounted by a rotating glass cupola, which forms a world clock of the Northern hemisphere with major cities marked and a scheme of lights below each panel to show the progression of the hour. Another innovation is the former river-bed of the Neglinnaya River, which has become a popular attraction for Muscovites and tourists alike on sultry summer days; the course of the river is imitated by a rivulet dotted with fountains and statues of Russian fairy-tale characters, as sculpted by Zurab Tsereteli. In 1995, Vyacheslav Klykov's equestrian statue of Marshal Zhukov was unveiled in front of the State Historical Museum to mark the 50th anniversary of the Moscow Victory Parade, when the Soviet commander had spectacularly ridden a white stallion through Red Square and Manege Square.
Векслер А.Г. Пирогов В.Ю. Манежная площадь в Москве. История освоения и застройка территории, в сборнике: Архитектура в истории русской культуры. М. 1996
The Moscow Kremlin, or the Kremlin, is a fortified complex in the center of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, the Alexander Garden to the west. It is the best known of the kremlins and includes five palaces, four cathedrals, the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. In addition, within this complex is the Grand Kremlin Palace, the Tsar's Moscow residence; the complex now serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation and as a museum with 2,746,405 visitors in 2017. The name "Kremlin" means "fortress inside a city", is also used metonymically to refer to the government of the Russian Federation in a similar sense to how "White House" refers to the Executive Office of the President of the United States, it referred to the government of the Soviet Union and its highest members. The term "Kremlinology" refers to the study of Russian politics; the site had been continuously inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples since the 2nd century BC.
The Slavs occupied the south-western portion of Borovitsky Hill as early as the 11th century, as evidenced by a metropolitan seal from the 1090s, unearthed by Soviet archaeologists in the area. The Vyatichi built a fortified structure on the hill where the Neglinnaya River flowed into the Moskva River. Up to the 14th century, the site was known as the'grad of Moscow'; the word "Kremlin" was first recorded in 1331. The grad was extended by Prince Yuri Dolgorukiy in 1156, destroyed by the Mongols in 1237 and rebuilt in oak in 1339. Dmitri Donskoi replaced the oak walls with a strong citadel of white limestone in 1366–1368 on the basic foundations of the current walls. Dmitri's son Vasily I resumed construction of cloisters in the Kremlin; the newly built Cathedral of the Annunciation was painted by Theophanes the Greek, Andrei Rublev, Prokhor in 1406. The Chudov Monastery was founded by Metropolitan Alexis. Grand Prince Ivan III organised the reconstruction of the Kremlin, inviting a number of skilled architects from Renaissance Italy, including Petrus Antonius Solarius, who designed the new Kremlin wall and its towers, Marcus Ruffus who designed the new palace for the prince.
It was during his reign that three extant cathedrals of the Kremlin, the Deposition Church, the Palace of Facets were constructed. The highest building of the city and Muscovite Russia was the Ivan the Great Bell Tower, built in 1505–08 and augmented to its present height in 1600; the Kremlin walls as they now appear were built between 1485 and 1495. Spasskie gates of the wall still bear a dedication in Latin praising Petrus Antonius Solarius for the design. After construction of the new kremlin walls and churches was complete, the monarch decreed that no structures should be built in the immediate vicinity of the citadel; the Kremlin was separated from the walled merchant town by a 30-meter-wide moat, over which Saint Basil's Cathedral was constructed during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. The same tsar renovated some of his grandfather's palaces, added a new palace and cathedral for his sons, endowed the Trinity metochion inside the Kremlin; the metochion was administrated by the Trinity Monastery and contained the graceful tower church of St. Sergius, described by foreigners as one of the finest in the country.
During the Time of Troubles, the Kremlin was held by the Polish forces for two years, between 21 September 1610 and 26 October 1612. The Kremlin's liberation by the volunteer army of prince Dmitry Pozharsky and Kuzma Minin paved the way for the election of Mikhail Romanov as the new tsar. During his reign and that of his son Alexis and grandson Feodor, the eleven-domed Upper Saviour Cathedral, Armorial Gate, Terem Palace, Amusement Palace and the palace of Patriarch Nikon were built. Following the death of Alexis's son and the Moscow Uprising of 1682, Tsar Peter escaped with much difficulty from the Kremlin and as a result developed a dislike for it. Three decades Peter abandoned the residence of his forefathers for his new capital, Saint Petersburg. Although still used for coronation ceremonies, the Kremlin was abandoned and neglected until 1773, when Catherine the Great engaged Vasili Bazhenov to build her new residence there. Bazhenov produced a bombastic Neoclassical design on a heroic scale, which involved the demolition of several churches and palaces, as well as a portion of the Kremlin wall.
After the preparations were over, construction was delayed due to lack of funds. Several years the architect Matvey Kazakov supervised the reconstruction of the dismantled sections of the wall and of some structures of the Chudov Monastery, built the spacious and luxurious Offices of the Senate, since adapted for use as the principal workplace of the President of Russia. During the Imperial period, from the early 18th and until the late 19th century, the Kremlin walls were traditionally painted white, in accordance with fashion. French forces occupied the Kremlin from 2 September to 11 October 1812, following the French invasion of Russia; when Napoleon retreated from Moscow, he ordered the whole Kremlin to be blown up. The Kremlin Arsenal, several portions of the Kremlin Wall and several wall towers were destroyed by explosions and the Faceted Chamber and other churches were damaged by fire. Explosions continued for
Alexis of Russia
Aleksey Mikhailovich was the tsar of Russia from 1645 until his death in 1676. His reign saw wars with Poland and Sweden, schism in the Russian Orthodox Church, the major Cossack revolt of Stenka Razin. At the time of his death Russia spanned 2,000,000,000 acres. Born in Moscow on 19 March 1629, the son of Tsar Michael and Eudoxia Streshneva, the sixteen year old Alexei acceded to the throne after his father's death on 12 July 1645. In August, the Tsar's mother died, following a pilgrimage to Sergiyev Posad he was crowned on 28 September in the Dormition Cathedral, he was committed to the care of his tutor Boris Morozov, a shrewd boyar open to Western ideas. Morozov's pursued a peaceful foreign policy, securing a truce with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and avoiding complications with the Ottoman Empire, his domestic policy aimed at limiting the privileges of foreign traders and abolishing a useless and expensive court offices. On 17 January 1648 Morozov procured the marriage of the tsar with Maria Miloslavskaya, himself marrying her sister, ten days both daughters of Ilya Danilovich Miloslavsky.
Morozov was accused of sorcery and witchcraft. In May 1648 Muscovites rose against his faction in the Salt Riot, the young Tsar was compelled to dismiss them and exile Boris to the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery. Four months Boris secretly returned to Moscow to regain some of his power; the popular discontent demonstrated by the riot was responsible for Alexis' 1649 issuance of a new legal code, the Sobornoye Ulozhenie. In 1648, using the experience of creating regiments of the foreign system during the reign of his father, Alexis began reforming the army; the main direction of the reform was the mass creation of New Order Regiments: Reiters, Soldiers and Hussars. These regiments formed the backbone of the new army of Tsar Alexis. To fulfill the reform goals, a large number of European military specialists were hired for service; this became possible because of the end of the Thirty Years' War, which created a colossal market for military professionals in Europe. Throughout his reign, Alexei faced rebellions across Russia.
After resolving the 1648 Salt Riot Alexei faced rebellions in 1650 in the cities of Pskov and Great Novgorod. Alexei put down the Novgorod rebellion but was unable to subdue Pskov, was forced to promise the city amnesty in return for surrender; the Metropolitan Nikon distinguished himself at Great Novgorod and in 1651 became the Tsar's chief minister. By the 1660s, Alexei's wars with Poland and Sweden had put an increasing strain on the Russian economy and public finances. In response, Alexei's government had begun minting large numbers of copper coins in 1654 to increase government revenue but this led to a devaluation of the ruble and a severe financial crisis; as a result, angry Moscow residents revolted in the 1662 Copper Riot, put down violently. In 1669, the Cossacks along the Don in southern Russia erupted in rebellion; the rebellion was led by Stenka Razin, a disaffected Don Cossack who had captured the Russian terminus of Astrakhan. From 1670 to 1671, Razin seized multiple towns along the Volga River.
The turning point in his campaign was his failed siege of Simbirsk in October 1670. Razin was captured on the Don in April 1671, was drawn and quartered in Moscow. In 1651 Safavid troops attacked Russian fortifications in the North Caucasus; the main issue involved the expansion of a Russian garrison on the Koy Su River, as well as the construction of several new fortresses, in particular the one built on the Iranian side of the Terek River. The successful Safavid offensive resulted in the destruction of the Russian fortress and its garrison being expelled. In 1653 Alexis thinking about sending the Zaporozhian Cossacks decided to send an embassy to Persia for a peaceful settlement of the conflict. In August 1653 courtier Prince Ivan Lobanov-Rostov and steward Ivan Komynin traveled from Astrakhan to Isfahan. Shah Abbas II agreed to settle the conflict, stating that the conflict was initiated without his consent. In 1653 the weakness and disorder of Poland, which had just emerged from the Khmelnytsky Uprising, encouraged Alexei to attempt to annex the old Rus’ lands.
On 1 October 1653 a national assembly met at Moscow to sanction the war and find the means of carrying it out, in April 1654 the army was blessed by Nikon, elected patriarch in 1652. The campaign of 1654 was an uninterrupted triumph, scores of towns, including the important fortress of Smolensk, fell into the hands of the Russians. Ukrainian Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky appealed to Tsar Alexei for protection from the Poles, the Treaty of Pereyaslav brought about Russian dominance of the Cossack Hetmanate in Left-Bank Ukraine. In the summer of 1655, a sudden invasion by Charles X of Sweden swept the Polish state out of existence, in what became known as the Deluge; the Russians, unopposed appropriated nearly everything, not occupied by the Swedes. When the Poles offered to negotiate, the whole grand-duchy of Lithuania was the least of the demands made by Alexei; however Alexei and the king of Sweden quarrelled over the apportionment of the spoils, at the end of May 1656, with encouragement by the Habsburg emperor and the other enemies of Sweden, Alexei declared war on Sweden.
Great things were expected by Russia of the Swedish war. Dorpat was taken. In the meantime Poland had so far recovered herself as to become a much mo
Grand Kremlin Palace
The Grand Kremlin Palace translated Great Kremlin Palace, was built from 1837 to 1849 in Moscow, Russia on the site of the estate of the Grand Princes, established in the 14th century on Borovitsky Hill. Designed by a team of architects under the management of Konstantin Thon, it was intended to emphasise the greatness of Russian autocracy. Konstantin Thon was the architect of the Kremlin Armoury and the Cathedral of Christ the Savior; the Grand Kremlin Palace was the tsar's Moscow residence. Its construction involved the demolition of the previous Baroque palace on the site, designed by Rastrelli, the Church of St. John the Baptist, constructed to a design by Aloisio the New in place of the first church built in Moscow. Thon's palace is 125 metres long, 47 metres high, has a total area of about 25,000 square metres, it includes the earlier Terem Palace, nine churches from the 14th, 16th, 17th centuries, the Holy Vestibule, over 700 rooms. The buildings of the Palace form a rectangle with an inner courtyard.
The building appears to be three stories, but is two. The upper floor has two sets of windows; the west building of the Palace held state reception halls and the imperial family's private chambers. Its five reception halls are named for orders of the Russian Empire: the Orders of St. George, Alexander and Catherine. Georgievsky Hall is used today for state and diplomatic official ceremonies. International treaties are signed at the Vladimirsky Hall, it leads to the Palace of Facets, Tsarina's Golden Chamber, Terem Palace, the Winter Palace, the Palace of Congresses. Aleksandrovsky Hall and Andreyevsky Hall were combined in Soviet times to be used for meetings and conferences of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, it is the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation though it is used for this purpose. Russian site on the Kremlin palaces Official Kremlin Museums Site Большой Кремлевский дворец
Peter the Great
Peter the Great, Peter I or Peter Alexeyevich ruled the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire from 7 May 1682 until his death in 1725, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars, he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power and laid the groundwork for the Russian navy after capturing ports at Azov and the Baltic Sea, he led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific and based on the Enlightenment. Peter's reforms made a lasting impact on Russia, many institutions of Russian government trace their origins to his reign, he is known for founding and developing the city of Saint Petersburg, which remained the capital of Russia until 1917. The imperial title of Peter the Great was the following: By the grace of God, the most excellent and great sovereign prince Pyotr Alekseevich the ruler of all the Russias: of Moscow, of Kiev, of Vladimir, of Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan and Tsar of Siberia, sovereign of Pskov, great prince of Smolensk, Yugorsk, Vyatsky and others, sovereign and great prince of Novgorod Nizovsky lands, Chernigovsky, of Ryazan, of Rostov, Belozersky, Udorsky and the sovereign of all the northern lands, the sovereign of the Iverian lands, of the Kartlian and Georgian Kings, of the Kabardin lands, of the Circassian and Mountain princes and many other states and lands western and eastern here and there and the successor and sovereign and ruler.
Named after the apostle, described as a newborn as "with good health, his mother's black, vaguely Tatar eyes, a tuft of auburn hair", from an early age Peter's education was put in the hands of several tutors, most notably Nikita Zotov, Patrick Gordon, Paul Menesius. On 29 January 1676, Tsar Alexis died, leaving the sovereignty to Peter's elder half-brother, the weak and sickly Feodor III of Russia. Throughout this period, the government was run by Artamon Matveev, an enlightened friend of Alexis, the political head of the Naryshkin family and one of Peter's greatest childhood benefactors; this position changed when Feodor died in 1682. As Feodor did not leave any children, a dispute arose between the Miloslavsky family and Naryshkin family over who should inherit the throne. Peter's other half-brother, Ivan V of Russia, was next in line for the throne, but he was chronically ill and of infirm mind; the Boyar Duma chose the 10-year-old Peter to become Tsar with his mother as regent. This arrangement was brought before the people of Moscow, as ancient tradition demanded, was ratified.
Sophia Alekseyevna, one of Alexis' daughters from his first marriage, led a rebellion of the Streltsy in April–May 1682. In the subsequent conflict some of Peter's relatives and friends were murdered, including Matveev, Peter witnessed some of these acts of political violence; the Streltsy made it possible for Sophia, the Miloslavskys and their allies to insist that Peter and Ivan be proclaimed joint Tsars, with Ivan being acclaimed as the senior. Sophia exercised all power. For seven years, she ruled as an autocrat. A large hole was cut in the back of the dual-seated throne used by Peter. Sophia would sit behind the throne and listen as Peter conversed with nobles, while feeding him information and giving him responses to questions and problems; this throne can be seen in the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow. Peter was not concerned that others ruled in his name, he engaged in such pastimes as sailing, as well as mock battles with his toy army. Peter's mother sought to force him to adopt a more conventional approach and arranged his marriage to Eudoxia Lopukhina in 1689.
The marriage was a failure, ten years Peter forced his wife to become a nun and thus freed himself from the union. By the summer of 1689, Peter age 17, planned to take power from his half-sister Sophia, whose position had been weakened by two unsuccessful Crimean campaigns against the Crimean Khanate in an attempt to stop devastating Crimean Tatar raids into Russia's southern lands; when she learned of his designs, Sophia conspired with the leaders of the Streltsy, who continually aroused disorder and dissent. Peter, warned by the Streltsy, escaped in the middle of the night to the impenetrable monastery of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra. Sophia was overthrown, with Peter I and Ivan V continuing to act as co-tsars. Foy de la Neuville records that Sophia requested influential members of Peter's family, notably her aunts Tatyana and Anna, to mediate with him. Peter forced Sophia to enter a convent, where she gave up her name and her position as a member of the royal family. Still, Peter could not acquire actual control over Russian affairs.
Power was instead exercised by Natalya Naryshkina. It was only. Formally, Ivan V remained a co-ruler with Peter. Peter became the sole ruler when Ivan died in 1696. Peter was 24 years old. Peter grew to be tall as an a
Taynitsky Garden is an urban park located within the walls of the Moscow Kremlin, in Russia. The park is named after the Taynitskaya Tower in the Kremlin Wall, is part of the portion of the Kremlin, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. During the time of the Russian Empire, the location of the Taynitsky Garden was occupied by a church to Saints Constantine and Helena, dating from the late 14th century, it housed a granary associated with the Cathedral of the Annunciation. On a hill in the area, a monument to Tsar Alexander II was erected in 1898. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, the church was among the historic buildings within the Kremlin ordered to be destroyed by Bolshevicks as part of the state atheism campaign to raze religious structures throughout Russia; the area became a public garden, with the upper portion, bordering Ivanovskaya Square called the Grand Kremlin Public Garden. The garden was the location of the first Subbotnik, or voluntary labor program, in which Lenin publicly participated.
One highlight of this garden was an oak tree named Cosmos, planted by Yuri Gagarin on April 14, 1961, just two days after his return from his historic space flight. From 1967-1995, the area contained a garden with a seated monument to Lenin, opened to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution; the statue is now at the Gorki Leninskiye museum. Archaeological investigations at Taynitsky Garden in 2007 uncovered the foundations of ancient houses and artifacts from everyday medieval life. During a state visit to Russia in 2008 Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi lived on a tent set up in the Taynitsky garden. In 2013, a helipad was constructed for the use of Vladimir Putin; this is to help minimize congestion on Moscow roads caused by motorcades. Klein, Mina; the Kremlin: Citadel of History. MacMillan Publishing Company. ISBN 0-02-750830-7 Tropkin, Alexander; the Moscow Kremlin: history of Russia's unique monument. Publishing House "Russkaya Zhizn". ASIN: B0010XM7BQ
Ivanovskaya Square is the largest Kremlin square. Its name comes from the Ivan the Great Bell Tower. In the 16th and 17th centuries, many government bodies were situated in the Ivanovskaya Square, it was the site of the equivalent of today's Ministries. Yamskoi Prikaz, one of the offices, handled the delivery of private letters. Thus, it became the first postal address in Moscow. Court services and chanceries of various departments were situated here. At the end of the 1920s and early 1930s, the square was enlarged after the demolition of the Lesser Nicholas Palace and the Ascension Convent. Today, the square is cobbled like most of the territory of the Kremlin, it offers a view of one of the three corners of the Kremlin Senate and the facade of the Presidium, one of the Kremlin’s administrative blocks, erected in 1929, in place of the destroyed historic buildings. "About Ivanovskaya Square". Moscow. Info. Retrieved 2007-12-07. "About Ivanovskaya Square". Archived from the original on 2007-11-30. Retrieved 2007-12-07