The Penguin is a fictional supervillain appearing in comic books published by DC Comics as an adversary of the superhero Batman. The character made his first appearance in Detective Comics #58 and was created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger; the Penguin is one of Batman's most enduring enemies and belongs to the collective of adversaries that make up Batman's rogues gallery. The Penguin is a Gotham City mobster who fancies himself a "gentleman of crime" wearing a monocle, top hat, tuxedo; the character is a short, obese man with a long nose, he uses high-tech umbrellas as weapons. The Penguin runs a nightclub called the Iceberg Lounge which provides a cover for his criminal activity, Batman sometimes uses the nightclub as a source of criminal underworld information. Unlike most of Batman's rogues gallery, the Penguin is sane and in control of his actions, giving him a unique relationship with Batman. According to Kane, the character was inspired by the advertising mascot of Kool cigarettes, a penguin with a top hat and cane.
Finger thought that the image of high-society gentlemen in tuxedos was reminiscent of emperor penguins. The character has been featured in various media adaptations, including feature films, television series, video games. For example, the Penguin has been voiced by Paul Williams and David Ogden Stiers in the DC animated universe, Tom Kenny in The Batman, Nolan North in the Batman: Arkham video game series, his live-action portrayals include Burgess Meredith in the 1960s Batman television series and its spinoff film, Danny DeVito in Batman Returns, Robin Lord Taylor in the television series Gotham. The Penguin has been named one of the best Batman villains and one of the greatest villains in comics. Penguin was ranked #51 in IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time. Born Oswald Chesterfield Cobblepot, the Penguin was bullied as a child for his short stature, way of walking and beak-like nose. Several stories relate that he was forced, as a child, always to carry an umbrella by his overprotective mother due to his father's death from bronchial pneumonia caused by going out in the rain without an umbrella.
His mother owned a bird shop, the birds of which Cobblepot lavished with attention and that served as his only friends growing up. His love of birds would lead him to study ornithology in college – only to find out that he knew more about birds than most of his professors did. In some versions, Cobblepot turns to crime after his mother dies and the bird shop and birds are repossessed to pay her debts. In others, he is an outcast in his high-society family and their rejection drives him to become a criminal. In keeping with his aristocratic origins, the Penguin pursues his criminal career while wearing formal attire such as a top hat and tuxedo of the "white-tie-and-tails" design, he is one of the few villains in Batman's rogues gallery, sane, although ruthless and capable of extreme violence. He is highly intelligent and can match wits with Batman. Known only by his alias, the Penguin first appeared in Gotham City as a skilled thief, sneaking a priceless painting out of the museum by hiding the rolled-up canvas in the handle of his umbrella.
The Penguin used the canvas as proof of his intellect to a local mob, which he was allowed to join. With the Penguin's help, the mob pulled off a string of ingenious heists, but the mob's leader and the "be-monocled bird" fell out, leading Cobblepot to kill him with his umbrella gun; the Penguin attempted to neutralize Batman by framing him for theft. The Penguin's plans were prevented, but the bandit himself escaped; the Penguin was a persistent nemesis for Batman and Robin throughout the Golden and Silver Ages, pulling off ploy after ploy, such as teaming up with the Joker, attempting to extort money from a shipping company by pretending to flash-freeze a member of its board of directors, participating in Hugo Strange's auction of Batman's secret identity. The Penguin made his last appearance during the last appearance of the Earth-One Batman. After he and a multitude of Batman's enemies are broken out of Arkham Asylum and Gotham State Penitentiary by Ra's al Ghul, the Penguin carries out Ra's' plans to kidnap Batman's friends and allies.
The Penguin, along with the Joker, the Mad Hatter, Cavalier and Killer Moth, lay siege to Gotham City Police Headquarters, but are infuriated when the Joker sabotages their attempt at holding Commissioner James Gordon for ransom. A standoff ensues, with the Joker on the Mad Hatter on the other; the Joker subdues both with a burst of laughing gas from one of his many gadgets. Following the Crisis rebooting the history of the DC Universe, the Penguin was relegated to sporadic appearances, until writer Alan Grant and artist Norm Breyfogle brought him back, deadlier than ever. During the era of Tim Drake as Robin, the Penguin forms a brief partnership with hypnotist Mortimer Kadaver, who helps him fake his own death as a ploy to strike an unsuspecting Gotham; the Penguin kills Kadaver, after plugging his own ears with toilet paper so that the hypnotist no longer has power over him. After Batman foils this particular endeavor, the Penguin embarks on one of his grandest schemes in the three-part story "The Penguin Affair".
Finding Harold Allnut being tormented by two gang members, the Penguin takes in the technologically gifted hunchback, showing him kindness in exchange for services. Harold builds a gadget that allows the Penguin to control flocks of birds from miles away, w
"Knightfall" is a 1993–1994 Batman story arc published by DC Comics. It consists of a trilogy of storylines that ran from 1993 to 1994, consisting of "Knightfall", "Knightquest", "KnightsEnd"; the story takes place over six months. Bruce Wayne suffers burnout and is systematically assaulted and crippled by a "super steroid"-enhanced genius named Bane. Wayne is replaced as Batman by an apprentice named Jean-Paul Valley, who becomes violent and unstable, tarnishing Batman's reputation. Wayne is healed through paranormal means and reclaims his role as Batman. "Knightfall" resulted in long-term ramifications for the Batman continuity, as Batman's trust from the police, the public, fellow superheroes had to be rebuilt due to Azrael's violence. Additionally, Wayne realizes the peril and burden of attempting to work in solitude, leading to the eventual creation of the modern incarnation of the Batman family; the events of Knightfall led to the resignation of Wayne's loyal butler, Alfred Pennyworth. The entire "Knightfall" storyline took over a year to complete in the comic book serials.
In years, the comics were reprinted several times, though never in full, as the Knightquest: The Search arc had not been collected until the second omnibus edition in 2017. The initial idea for the character of Azrael stemmed from a two-part story idea pitched by Detective Comics writer Peter Milligan circa 1991, as he was leaving that position. After line editor Dennis O'Neil decided to expand it into a larger epic, he and the Batman line writers Chuck Dixon, Doug Moench and Alan Grant convened an authors' summit over a long weekend to flesh out the details and story points. At the same time, the Superman team was planning for a similar character-altering storyline, neither they nor the Batman group had any knowledge of each other's plans. Dennis O'Neil denies the Knightfall storyline was in any way inspired by the Death of Superman storyline and states that it was in development by as much as three years, saying that if the Batman staff had known, the storyline would have been pushed down a year.
The serial stories of the monthly Batman comics titles began building toward the "Knightfall" arc several months prior, in conjunction with the publication of the four-issue Sword of Azrael miniseries and the Vengeance of Bane one-shot, which laid foundation for the larger story. "Knightfall" ran from April to October 1993, Batman issues #492-500 and Detective Comics issues #659-666, with the two titles sharing a single narrative during this time. The two series each hit numerical milestones at the end of the arc, with a triple-size 500th issue of Batman and the ominous Detective Comics number 666 wrapping up the storyline only one month apart; the massive story was collected into two volumes of trade paperbacks. Volume One was subtitled Volume Two Who Rules the Night. “Knightfall” was the first time that multiple Batman titles had shared a single narrative for an extended period since the Crisis on Infinite Earths era. "Knightfall" was followed by "Knightquest" in the monthly serials. "Knightquest" is divided into two storylines, one following Bruce Wayne and the other on the new Batman.
The stories were not treated as crossovers and the Batman titles continued as they had before "Knightfall" where the creative teams each pursued its own storyline. Instead of a crossover, "Knightquest" was more of an umbrella title that encompassed some issues of Batman: Shadow of the Bat. Additionally, The Crusade served as a launching point for the first ongoing monthly series featuring Robin in solo adventures. Neither thread of "Knightquest" was collected in book format until over two decades later. Although previous parts of the "KnightSaga" had taken considerable time to run their course, the entirety of "KnightsEnd" was published within a two-month span, as the Batman books had to prepare themselves for DC's impending company-wide crossover Zero Hour, which would follow the "KnightSaga". Nothing was truncated, as the Batman editorial line made use of all of the Batman-related titles at their disposal, such as Catwoman and Batman: Legends of the Dark Knight. "KnightsEnd" was collected in trade paperback as Knightfall Volume 3 soon after completion.
The serial nature of the Batman titles continued beyond the end of KnightsEnd, with the "Prodigal" and "Troika" storylines, into subsequent unbannered stories. This setup resurfaced in arcs such as "Contagion", "Legacy", "Cataclysm", "No Man's Land", "War Games", has on occasion continued into the present; the intent of Knightfall's writers was to counter the then-popular style of violent heroes in comics and demonstrate that the traditional Batman made for a better hero. The issues featuring Jean-Paul Valley as Batman on the cover depict him with exaggerated musculature and legs which taper into disproportionally tiny feet, mimicking the styles of contemporary "violent hero" artists such as Rob Liefeld; the prelude to "Knightfall" began with the introduction of two new characters key to its storyline in issues prior to the release of "Knightfall": Azrael, a.k.a. Jean-Paul Valley, a graduate student at Gotham University who discovers he has been unconsciously trained since birth as an assassin for an ancient religious order.
Bane, introduced in Batman: Vengeance of Bane #1 by Chuck Dixon and Graham Nolan, an o
Secret Society of Super Villains
The Secret Society of Super Villains is a group of supervillains appearing in comic books published by DC Comics. First introduced in their own eponymous series with issue #1, the group consists of enemies of members of the Justice League of America. Editor Gerry Conway created the team to be "a kind of'evil' Justice League". Since other editors were somewhat possessive towards the more popular DC Comics supervillains, Conway resorted to sifting through DC's back issues in search of members selecting a lineup of obscure and/or forgotten villains; the first issue of Secret Society of Super Villains was drafted with artwork by Pablo Marcos. According to Conway's assistant Paul Levitz, Custom in those years was for the editor to bring the finished inks of an issue in to Carmine for a cover conference, during which Carmine would sketch a cover design in pen on typing paper. While I wasn’t in the room, I recall Gerry coming back down the hall to his office, confused, as Carmine had looked through the issue wanting to see the villains’ clubhouse or headquarters, when that wasn’t in the book, asking Gerry to redo it.
In my time at DC in Carmine’s years, this was the most significant change in an issue I recall his asking for at that late stage. In the original story, Darkseid founds the group under the title of the Brotherhood of Crime in a bid to hold the world ransom by stealing the world's deadliest nerve gas; the group, made up of Captain Cold, Gorilla Grodd, Star Sapphire, a clone of Manhunter, turns on their benefactor when Manhunter raises the issue of Darkseid's history of trying to enslave humanity. Darkseid is revealed to be an android. Manhunter suspects Darkseid controls it from afar and suggests forming the Secret Society of Super Villains to combat Darkseid while pursuing their own goals. Due to the delays caused by having to redo the first issue from scratch, Conway assigned David Anthony Kraft to script the next three issues of Secret Society of Super Villains over his plots. After issue #4 both Conway and Kraft abruptly left DC, leading to a mad scramble to produce a fill-in issue. Jack C. Harris took over as editor, Conway returned as writer only with issue #8, but artists on the series rotated nearly as as the lineup of the titular supergroup, with Rich Buckler, Mike Vosburg, Dick Ayers all contributing short stints as penciler, while inkers changed from issue to issue.
Harris felt that the series' mediocre sales might have been his fault: "The cover concepts were one of my editorial duties. Rich Buckler turned my ideas into the best he could do, but I never felt as if my ideas were good enough for his art. I think there was a ‘sameness’ to my ideas which might have hurt the title in that casual readers might have missed buying an issue because they thought they’d seen it."Secret Society of Super Villains was cancelled with issue #15 as part of the DC Implosion. Issue #16 was at the printer at the time of the cancellation and would have been the final issue, but writer Bob Rozakis appealed to DC to pull the issue since it was the beginning of a three-part story and he did not want to leave the readers hanging. Issue #17 was near completion at the time, both it and issue #16 would see publication of a sort in the printed Cancelled Comics Cavalcade #2. Issue # 18, which concluded the three-part story, was never drawn. Rozakis revealed where the story would have gone had the series not been cancelled in a weekly column for Silver Bullet Comics.
This series, along with the unpublished #16 & #17, were collected in a two-volume hardcover edition with the volumes published in 2011 and 2012, respectively. First organized by Darkseid, the Secret Society of Super-Villains were based out of the Sinister Citadel in San Francisco. From early on, the team was plagued with power struggles. Lex Luthor, Gorilla Grodd, Funky Flashman all sought to control the powerful team. After discovering the true identity of their benefactor, the team rebelled against the alien overlord. To quash their uprising, Darkseid sent Kalibak. At the end of the struggle, Manhunter sacrificed himself to kill Darkseid. After this, the team splintered, with Luthor, the Wizard, Gorilla Grodd and Flashman leading the team at different times. However, the Wizard proved to be the most tenacious and created the definitive incarnation of the SSoSV, they went on to fight the original Crime Syndicate of America of Earth-Three and the Justice Society of America. While traveling between dimensions, back on Earth-1 Silver Ghost, Mirror Master and Copperhead formed yet another team and fought the Freedom Fighters.
The Wizard's group returned from Earth-2 and battled against the Justice League of America aboard their satellite headquarters. At one point in the battle, the two teams swapped bodies, allowing the supervillains to discover the true identities of their nemeses. After gaining the upper hand, the Justice League wiped the memories of the supervillains, precipitating Identity Crisis and the formation of the current Society years later. Notable in this series' run is the first appearance of Captain Comet in over 20 years as well as the introduction of a new Star Sapphire. Both were regular; the next incarnation of the Secret Society was organized by the Ultra-Humanite, who organized foes of both Earth-One's Justice League of America and Earth-Two's Justice Society of America. This marked the first appearance of the now-classic albino ape bod
Alan Grant (writer)
Alan Grant is a Scottish comic book writer known for writing Judge Dredd in 2000 AD as well as various Batman titles from the late 1980s to the early 2000s. He is the co-creator of the characters Anarky, Victor Zsasz, the Ventriloquist. Alan Grant first entered the comics industry in 1967 when he became an editor for D. C. Thomson before moving to London from Dundee in 1970 to work for IPC on various romance magazines. After going back to college and having a series of jobs, Grant found himself back in Dundee and living on Social Security, he met John Wagner, another former D. C. Thompson editor, helping put together a new science fiction comic for IPC, 2000 AD, was unable to complete his other work. Wagner asked Grant. Wagner asked Grant to write a strip for Starlord, a 2000 AD spin off, which got Grant noticed within IPC. On a trip to London, Grant was introduced to Kelvin Gosnell editor of 2000 AD, who offered Grant an editorial position on the comic. One of Grant's first jobs was to oversee the merger of 2000 AD and Tornado, an unsuccessful boys adventure comic.
Grant featured as a character in the comic in the form of Tharg's Scottish Robot assistant. Grant found himself in conflict with IPC and resigned to become a freelance writer, writing the occasional issue of Future Shock and Blackhawk. Grant formed his partnership with Wagner after the pair lived and worked together, they would work on other popular strips for the comic, including Robo-Hunter and Strontium Dog using the pseudonym T. B. Grover. Grant worked on other people's stories and adding dialogue, most notably Harry Twenty on the High Rock, written by Gerry Finley-Day. Judge Dredd would be Grant's main concern for much of the 1980s. Grant and Wagner had developed the strip into the most popular in 2000 AD as well as creating lengthy epic storylines such as The Apocalypse War. Grant wrote for other IPC comics such as the revamped Eagle. By the late 1980s, Grant and Wagner were about to move into the American comic market, their first title was the 12-issue Outcasts limited series for DC Comics.
Although it was not a success, it paved the way for the pair to write Batman stories in Detective Comics from issue 583 with Norm Breyfogle on art duties across the various Batman titles. Grant and Wagner introduced the Ventriloquist in their first Batman story and the Ratcatcher in their third. After a dozen issues, Wagner left Grant as sole writer. Grant was one of the main Batman writers until the late 1990s, he has long stated that Wagner left after five issues because the title did not sell well enough to give them royalties, that Wagner's name was kept in the credits for the remaining seven issues because Grant was afraid DC would fire him. The pair created; this series, as well as the Chopper storyline in Judge Dredd, is blamed for the breakup of the Wagner/Grant partnership. The pair split strips, with Wagner keeping Judge Dredd and Grant keeping Strontium Dog and Judge Anderson. Grant and Wagner continue to work together on special projects such as the Batman/Judge Dredd crossover Judgement on Gotham.
During the late 1980s, Grant experienced a philosophical transformation and declared himself an anarchist. The creation of the supervillain Anarky was intended as a vehicle for exploring his political opinions through the comic medium. In the following years, he would continue to utilize the character in a similar fashion as his philosophy evolved. Grant's projects at the start of this decade included writing Detective Comics, Strontium Dog, The Bogie Man, a series co-written by Wagner, the pair's first venture into independent publishing, Lobo, a character created by Keith Giffen as a supporting character in Omega Men. Lobo gained his own four issue mini series in 1990, drawn by Simon Bisley; this proved hugely popular. After several other miniseries, Lobo received his own ongoing series. In addition, Grant was writing L. E. G. I. O. N. and The Demon for DC Comics. Grant wrote the first issues of the new Batman title, Batman: Shadow of the Bat, which saw him create three new characters, Jeremiah Arkham, Mr. Zsasz, Amygdala.
This story arc, "Batman: The Last Arkham", was accompanied by his role as one of the main writers during the Knightfall crossover. In 1994, Grant co-wrote the Batman-Spawn: War Devil intercompany crossover with Doug Moench and Chuck Dixon. Other Batman storylines which Grant contributed to include "Contagion", "Legacy", "Cataclysm". Grant was part of the creative team for the short-lived weekly title Toxic! and was a consultant on the Judge Dredd Megazine. Due to the sheer volume of work he was doing, Grant let a new generation of writers try their hand on strips like Judge Dredd and Robo-Hunter; this proved to be unsuccessful and Grant found himself again writing for 2000 AD. In the mid 1990s, Grant underwent a second philosophical transformation, declaring himself a follower of Neo-Tech, a philosophy created by Frank R. Wallace; when he was given the opportunity to create an Anarky mini-series, he redesigned the character accordingly. Following the success of the series, he was hired to create an ongoing monthly series for the character.
Hesitant, he was persuaded to do so by series illustrator, Anarky co-creator, personal friend, Norm Breyfogle. Named after the protagonist, Anarky was mired by what Grant felt was constant ed
Bane (DC Comics)
Bane is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by Dennis O'Neil, Chuck Dixon, Doug Moench, Graham Nolan, he made his debut in Batman: Vengeance of Bane #1; the character is depicted as an adversary of the superhero Batman and belongs to the collective of enemies that make up his central rogues gallery. Possessing a mix of brute strength and exceptional intelligence, Bane is credited as being the only villain to have "broken the bat" both physically and mentally. IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time ranked Bane as #34; the character has been adapted from the comics into multiple forms of media. Chuck Dixon, Doug Moench and Graham Nolan created the character for the Knightfall storyline. Both Dixon and Moench wrote the character's first appearance in Vengeance of Bane, with art by Graham Nolan, they developed the concept of Bane after an initial idea by Batman editor Dennis O'Neil. O'Neil had created Bane's birthplace of Santa Prisca in The Question and the drug Venom in the storyline of the same name.
In the pages of Azrael, O'Neil introduced Bane's perception of Venom as both an addiction and the weakness responsible for his earlier defeats. Bane's origin story is established in the story "Knightfall", his father, Edmund Dorrance, had been a revolutionary. The corrupt government decreed that his young son would serve out the man's life sentence, thus Bane spent his childhood and early adult life in prison. Although he was imprisoned, his natural abilities allowed him to develop extraordinary skills within the prison's walls, he read as many books as he could get his hands on, spent most of his spare time body building in the prison's gym, developed his own form of meditation, learned to fight in the merciless school of prison life. Because of the cultural and supposed geographical location of Santa Prisca, Bane knew how to speak English, Spanish and Latin. Despite his circumstances, he found teachers of various sorts during his incarceration, ranging from hardened convicts to an elderly Jesuit priest, under whose tutelage he received a classical education.
Bane murdered this priest upon his return to Santa Prisca years later. He committed his first murder at the age of eight, stabbing a criminal who wanted to use him to gain information about the prison. During his years in prison, Bane carried a teddy bear he called Osito, whom he considered his only friend, it is revealed. Bane is tortured by a monstrous, terrifying bat creature that appears in his dreams, thus giving him an intense fear of bats, he established himself as the "king" of Peña Duro prison and became known as Bane. The prison's controllers took note and forced him to become a test subject for a mysterious drug known as Venom, which had killed all other subjects; the Peña Duro prison Venom experiment nearly killed Bane at first, but he survived and found that the drug vastly increases his physical strength, although he needs to take it every 12 hours or he will suffer debilitating side-effects. Bane escapes Peña Duro, along with several accomplices based on the Fabulous Five, his ambition turns to destroying Batman.
Gotham fascinates Bane because, like Peña Duro, fear rules Gotham – but it is the fear of Batman. Bane is convinced that Batman is a personification of the demonic bat which had haunted his dreams since childhood. Therefore, Bane believes. During the "Knightfall" storyline, wanting Batman reduced to his weakest physical and psychological state, uses stolen munitions to destroy the walls of Arkham Asylum—allowing its deranged inmates to escape into Gotham City. During this time, Bane murdered Film Freak who acted as the Mad Hatter's mind-controlled assassin and unsuccessfully interrogated Robin, spying on him, had a bloody rematch with Killer Croc which ended in a stalemate as they were washed out of the Sewer. Batman is forced to recapture the escapees, a mission that takes him three months and drives him to the brink of mental and physical collapse. Exhausted, Batman returns to his home in Wayne Manor, only to find Bane waiting for him. Bane attacks Batman and beats him nearly to death, delivers a brutal final blow in which he raises Batman up and breaks him over one knee, leaving him a paraplegic.
Bane thus becomes the only man to have "Broken the Bat". This iconic moment is incorporated in The Dark Knight Rises, Robot Chicken's DC Comics Special and alluded to numerous times in the DCAU. While Bane establishes himself as the new ruler of Gotham's criminal underworld, Bruce Wayne passed the mantle of Batman to Jean-Paul Valley known as Azrael. Ignoring Bruce's warnings to stay away from Bane, Azrael attempts to confront the villain in his penthouse suite. Azrael has by now added a set of high-tech, heavy metal gauntlets to the Batsuit, uses the
A cameo role or cameo appearance is a brief appearance or voice part of a known person in a work of the performing arts. These roles are small, many of them non-speaking ones, are either appearances in a work in which they hold some special significance or renowned people making uncredited appearances. Short appearances by celebrities, film directors, athletes or musicians are common. A crew member of the movie or show playing a minor role can be referred to as a cameo as well, such as Alfred Hitchcock's performed cameos. "cameo role" meant "a small character part that stands out from the other minor parts". The Oxford English Dictionary connects this with the meaning "a short literary sketch or portrait", based on the literal meaning of "cameo", a miniature carving on a gemstone. More "cameo" has come to refer to any short appearances, as a character, such as the examples below. Cameos are not credited because of their brevity, or a perceived mismatch between the celebrity's stature and the film or television series in which they are appearing.
Many are publicity stunts. Others are acknowledgments of an actor's contribution to an earlier work, as in the case of many film adaptations of television series, or of remakes of earlier films. Others honour celebrities known for work in a particular field; the best-known series of cameos was by Alfred Hitchcock, who made brief appearances in most of his films. Cameos occur in novels and other literary works. "Literary cameos" involve an established character from another work who makes a brief appearance to establish a shared universe setting, to make a point, or to offer homage. Balzac employed this practice, as in his Comédie humaine. Sometimes a cameo features a historical person who "drops in" on fictional characters in a historical novel, as when Benjamin Franklin shares a beer with Phillipe Charboneau in The Bastard by John Jakes. A cameo appearance can be made by the author of a work to put a sort of personal "signature" on a story. Vladimir Nabokov put himself in his novels, for instance as the minor character Vivian Darkbloom in Lolita.
Quentin Tarantino provides small roles in at least 10 of his movies. Peter Jackson has made brief cameos in all of his movies, except for his first feature-length film Bad Taste in which he plays a main character, as well as The Battle of the Five Armies, though a portrait of him appears in the film. For example, he plays a peasant eating a carrot in The Fellowship of the Ring and The Desolation of Smaug. All four were non-speaking "blink and you miss him" appearances, although in the Extended Release of The Return of the King, his character was given more screen time and his reprise of the carrot eating peasant in The Desolation of Smaug was featured in the foreground in reference to The Fellowship of the Ring - last seen twelve years earlier. Director Martin Scorsese appears in the background of his films as a bystander or an unseen character. In Who's That Knocking at My Door, he appears as one of the gangsters, he opens up his film The Color of Money with a monologue on the art of playing pool.
In addition, he appears with his wife and daughter as wealthy New Yorkers in Gangs of New York, he appears as a theatre-goer and is heard as a movie projectionist in The Aviator. In a same way, Roman Polanski appears as a hired hoodlum in his film Chinatown, slitting Jack Nicholson's nose with the blade of his clasp knife. Directors sometimes cast well-known lead actors with whom they have worked in the past in other films. Mike Todd's film Around the World in 80 Days was filled with cameo roles: John Gielgud as an English butler, Frank Sinatra playing piano in a saloon, others; the stars in cameo roles were pictured in oval insets in posters for the film, gave the term wide circulation outside the theatrical profession. It's a Mad, Mad, Mad World, an "epic comedy" features cameos from nearly every popular American comedian alive at the time, including The Three Stooges, Jerry Lewis, a silent appearance by Buster Keaton and a voice-only cameo by Selma Diamond. Aaron Sorkin had cameos in some works he wrote: as a bar customer speaking about law in his debut film screenplay A Few Good Men, as an advertising executive in The Social Network and as a guest at the inauguration of President Matt Santos in the final episode of The West Wing.
Franco Nero, the actor who portrayed the Django character in the original 1966 film appears in a bar scene of the Tarantino film Django Unchained. Many cameos featured in Maverick, directed by Richard Donner. Among them, Danny Glover – Mel Gibson's co-star in the Lethal Weapon franchise directed by Donner – appears as the lead bank robber, he and Maverick share a scene where they look as if they knew each other, but shake it off. As Glover makes his escape with the money, he mutters "I'm too old for this shit", his character's catchphrase in the Lethal Weapon films. In addition, a strain of the main theme from Lethal Weapon plays in the score when Glover is revealed. Actress Margot Kidder made a cameo appearance in the same film as a robbed villager: she had starred as Lois Lane in Donner's Superman. Ben Stiller, Vince Vaughn, Owen Wilson, Luke Wilson and
Robin is the name of several fictional superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by Bob Kane, Bill Finger, Jerry Robinson, to serve as a junior counterpart to the superhero Batman; the character's first incarnation, Dick Grayson, debuted in Detective Comics #38. Conceived as a way to attract young readership, Robin garnered overwhelmingly positive critical reception, doubling the sales of the Batman titles; the early adventures of Robin included Star Spangled Comics #65–130, the character's first solo feature. Robin made regular appearances in Batman related comic books and other DC Comics publications from 1940 through the early 1980s until the character set aside the Robin identity and became the independent superhero Nightwing; the team of Batman and Robin has been referred to as the Caped Crusaders or Dynamic Duo. The character's second incarnation Jason Todd first appeared in Batman #357; this Robin made regular appearances in Batman related comic books until 1988, when the character was murdered by the Joker in the storyline "A Death in the Family".
Jason would find himself alive after a reality changing incident becoming the Red Hood. The premiere Robin limited series was published in 1991 which featured the character's third incarnation Tim Drake training to earn the role of Batman's vigilante partner. Following two successful sequels, the monthly Robin ongoing series began in 1993 and ended in early 2009, which helped his transition from sidekick to a superhero in his own right. In 2004 storylines, established DC Comics character Stephanie Brown became the fourth Robin for a short duration before the role reverted to Tim Drake. Damian Wayne succeeds Drake as Robin in the 2009 story arc "Battle for the Cowl". Following the 2011 continuity reboot "the New 52", Tim Drake was revised as having assumed the title Red Robin, Jason Todd, operating as the Red Hood, was repairing his relationship with Batman. Dick Grayson resumed his role as Nightwing and Stephanie Brown was introduced anew under her previous moniker Spoiler in the pages of Batman Eternal.
The 2016 DC Rebirth continuity relaunch starts off with Damian Wayne as Robin, Tim Drake as Red Robin, Jason Todd as Red Hood, Dick Grayson as Nightwing. Robins have been featured throughout stories set in parallel worlds, owing to DC Comics' longstanding "Multiverse" concept. For example, in the original Earth-Two, Dick Grayson never adopted the name Nightwing, continues operating as Robin into adulthood. In the New 52's "Earth-2" continuity, Robin is Helena Wayne, daughter of Batman and Catwoman, stranded on the Earth of the main continuity and takes the name Huntress. About a year after Batman's debut, Batman creators Bob Kane and Bill Finger introduced Robin the Boy Wonder in Detective Comics #38; the name "Robin the Boy Wonder" and the medieval look of the original costume were inspired by The Adventures of Robin Hood. Robinson noted he "came up with Robin Hood because The Adventures of Robin Hood were boyhood favorites of mine. I had been given a Robin Hood book illustrated by N. C. Wyeth... and that's what I sketched out when I suggested the name Robin Hood, which they seemed to like, showed them the costume.
And if you look at it, it's Wyeth's costume, from my memory, because I didn't have the book to look at." Although Robin is best known as Batman's sidekick, the Robins have been members of the superhero group the Teen Titans—with the original Robin, Dick Grayson, as a founding member and the group's leader and with Tim Drake as the team leader as of 2012. In Batman stories, the character of Robin was intended to be Batman's Watson: Bill Finger, writer for many early Batman adventures, wrote: "Robin was an outgrowth of a conversation I had with Bob; as I said, Batman was a combination of Sherlock Holmes. Holmes had his Watson; the thing that bothered me was that Batman didn't have anyone to talk to, it got a little tiresome always having him thinking. I found. That's. Bob said he was going to put a boy in the strip to identify with Batman. I thought it was a great idea." The following fictional characters have assumed the Robin role at various times in the main DC Comics Universe continuity: In the comics, Dick Grayson was an 8-year-old acrobat and the youngest of a family act called the "Flying Graysons".
A gangster named Boss Zucco, loosely based on actor Edward G. Robinson's Little Caesar character, had been extorting money from the circus and killed Grayson's parents and Mary, by sabotaging their trapeze equipment as a warning against defiance. Batman investigated the crime and, as his alter ego billionaire Bruce Wayne, had Dick put under his custody as a legal ward. Together they collected the evidence needed to bring him to justice. From his debut appearance in 1940 through 1969, Robin was known as the Boy Wonder. Batman creates a costume for Dick, consisting of a red tunic, yellow cape, green gloves, green boots, green spandex briefs, a utility belt; as he grew older, graduated from high school, enrolled in Hudson University, Robin continued his career as the Teen Wonder, from 1970 into the early 1980s. The character was rediscovered by a new generation of fans during the 1980s because of the success of The New Teen Titans, in which he left Batman's shadow to assume t