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Amylase

Amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars. Amylase is present in the saliva of humans and some other mammals, where it begins the chemical process of digestion. Foods that contain large amounts of starch but little sugar, such as rice and potatoes, may acquire a sweet taste as they are chewed because amylase degrades some of their starch into sugar; the pancreas and salivary gland make amylase to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy. Plants and some bacteria produce amylase; as diastase, amylase was the first enzyme to be isolated. Specific amylase proteins are designated by different Greek letters. All amylases are glycoside hydrolases and act on α-1,4-glycosidic bonds; the α-amylases are calcium metalloenzymes. By acting at random locations along the starch chain, α-amylase breaks down long-chain saccharides yielding either maltotriose and maltose from amylose, or maltose, glucose and "limit dextrin" from amylopectin.

They belong to glycoside hydrolase family 13. Because it can act anywhere on the substrate, α-amylase tends to be faster-acting than β-amylase. In animals, it is a major digestive enzyme, its optimum pH is 6.7–7.0. In human physiology, both the salivary and pancreatic amylases are α-amylases; the α-amylase form is found in plants and bacteria. Another form of amylase, β-amylase is synthesized by bacteria and plants. Working from the non-reducing end, β-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the second α-1,4 glycosidic bond, cleaving off two glucose units at a time. During the ripening of fruit, β-amylase breaks starch into maltose, resulting in the sweet flavor of ripe fruit, they belong to glycoside hydrolase family 14. Both α-amylase and β-amylase are present in seeds. Many microbes produce amylase to degrade extracellular starches. Animal tissues do not contain β-amylase, although it may be present in microorganisms contained within the digestive tract; the optimum pH for β-amylase is 4.0–5.0 γ-Amylase will cleave α glycosidic linkages, as well as the last α-1,4 glycosidic bond at the nonreducing end of amylose and amylopectin, yielding glucose.

The γ-amylase has most acidic optimum pH of all amylases because it is most active around pH 3. They belong to a variety of different GH families, such as glycoside hydrolase family 15 in fungi, glycoside hydrolase family 31 of human MGAM, glycoside hydrolase family 97 of bacterial forms. Α - and β-amylases are important in brewing liquor made from sugars derived from starch. In fermentation, yeast ingests excretes ethanol. In beer and some liquors, the sugars present at the beginning of fermentation have been produced by "mashing" grains or other starch sources. In traditional beer brewing, malted barley is mixed with hot water to create a "mash", held at a given temperature to allow the amylases in the malted grain to convert the barley's starch into sugars. Different temperatures optimize the activity of alpha or beta amylase, resulting in different mixtures of fermentable and unfermentable sugars. In selecting mash temperature and grain-to-water ratio, a brewer can change the alcohol content, mouthfeel and flavor of the finished beer.

In some historic methods of producing alcoholic beverages, the conversion of starch to sugar starts with the brewer chewing grain to mix it with saliva. This practice is no longer in use. Amylases are used in breadmaking and to break down complex sugars, such as starch, into simple sugars. Yeast feeds on these simple sugars and converts it into the waste products of ethanol and carbon dioxide; this causes the bread to rise. While amylases are found in yeast cells, it takes time for the yeast to produce enough of these enzymes to break down significant quantities of starch in the bread; this is the reason for long fermented doughs such as sourdough. Modern breadmaking techniques have included amylases into bread improver, thereby making the process faster and more practical for commercial use.α-Amylase is listed as an ingredient on commercially package-milled flour. Bakers with long exposure to amylase-enriched flour are at risk of asthma. In molecular biology, the presence of amylase can serve as an additional method of selecting for successful integration of a reporter construct in addition to antibiotic resistance.

As reporter genes are flanked by homologous regions of the structural gene for amylase, successful integration will disrupt the amylase gene and prevent starch degradation, detectable through iodine staining. Amylase has medical applications in the use of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, it is one of the components in Sollpura to help in the breakdown of saccharides into simple sugars. An inhibitor of alpha-amylase, called phaseolamin, has been tested as a potential diet aid; when used as a food additive, amylase has E number E1100, may be derived from pig pancreas or mold fungi. Bacilliary amylase is used in clothing and dis

Tiger Love (1977 film)

Tiger Love is a 1977 Hong Kong martial arts film produced by Kan Yeung Film Company. In its theatrical and DVD releases, the film has gone under several different titles: Le Jeune tigre du kung fu, Kung Fu Zombie vs. Tigerkralle, Legend of the Tiger, The Tiger Love, Tiger's Kong Fu, Tiger's Love, Todesschrei der Tigerkralle, Ren Hu Lian, Tiger Love; the film has passed into public domain and can be found on several martial arts film compilations produced by Mill Creek Entertainment. After eloping a young couple is confronted at the edge of a cliff by the bride's father who wishes her to marry her cousin; when she refuses the father's henchmen attack and overpower the husband Lin Xiaohou. Believing her husband to be dead the young woman, pregnant with her husband's child, throws herself off of the cliff. Landing in a tree branch, the woman, named Shi Shinlian survives the fall and awakes to find a tiger beneath the tree; the fright causes Shinlian to wet herself which she discovers brings the tiger under her spell.

For twenty years Shinlian raises her son Xiaochang. Xiaochang learns a tiger-like style of martial arts. Watching him practice his mother realizes he is becoming a man and tells him the story of his father. Curious he returns to the village where he is confronted and attacked by the townspeople because of his strange leopard-skin clothing. After a short fight with several villagers he is confronted by a man that he discovers is his father; when his father discovers his wife is still alive he goes with his new wife to the valley to invite her to return to the village. She states that she has become accustomed to life in the forest and cannot leave uncle tiger, but urges them to take Xiaochang so he can live among other people. One day Xiaochang stumbles upon a tiger hunt by the Shi family, his mother's family and the sworn enemy of his father's family. Xiaochang jokingly ` captures' and becomes enchanted by Xiaoling, she informs him to leave. At a local restaurant Xiaochang overhears that the Shi family is having a party to celebrate the hunt and decides to go to see Xiaoling.

Pulling her away from the crowd he reveals his feelings for her and she returns them but says their love is impossible because of the feud between their two families. Xiaoling's suitor in the Shi family discovers the couple and starts a brawl with Xiaochang in which one Xiaoling's brother is killed. Both Xiaochang and Xiaoling's families forbid them to see one another again. Upon learning of the death in their family, the Shi's attack the Ling family in force killing several people including Xiaochang's father; this leads to a counterattack by Ling family. When Shinlian goes to her family to try and stop the violence she is wounded by Xiaoling's suitor. Before she dies she tells her son he a member of the Shi family and he must end the war. Seeing Shinlian die, he reveals that for the past twenty years he had not killed, but that this is the one-hundredth person. He states that with this killing that when the moon is out he can transform into a demon in the shape of an old woman and hunt down the Shi family, which he proceeds to do.

In the end only Xiaochang and Xiaoling are left alive. They kill uncle tiger by pouring boiling oil over his demon form. Hu Chin Lo Lieh Wang Ya Hsia Chih-mo Stephen Tung Wei; when looking at the 1980 DVD release, So Good Hong Kong DVD Reviews wrote that the opening scenes of Tiger Love were bordering on "perverse and disturbing" in its suggestion that Hu Chin was impregnated by a tiger, but that the film was seen to be "nothing more than another martial arts entry", dull for its lack of decent choreography. The review finished by noting the director made the final 20 minutes more entertaining when a switch was made to a horror format as the "titular" tiger sought revenge. Tiger Love at the Hong Kong Movie Database Tiger Love at the Online-Filmdatenbank Tiger Love at Hong Kong Cinemagic Screen shots from the movie Tiger Love

Woodstock: Three Days of Peace and Music

Woodstock: Three Days of Peace and Music is a 4-CD live box-set album of the 1969 Woodstock Festival in Bethel, New York. Its release marked the 25th Anniversary of the festival; the box set contains tracks from Woodstock: Music from the Original Soundtrack and More, Woodstock 2, numerous additional unreleased performances from the festival as well as the stage announcements and crowd noises. Just prior to the box set's release, Atlantic Records released a much shorter 1-CD version entitled The Best of Woodstock. In 2019, Rhino Records issued a 38-CD box set, which includes every musical performance as well as stage announcements and other ancillary material. "Handsome Johnny"* "Freedom" Tracks 1–2 performed by Richie Havens "The Fish Cheer/I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-To-Die Rag" Track 3 performed by Country Joe McDonald. "Rainbows All Over Your Blues" "I Had A Dream" Tracks 4–5 performed by John B. Sebastian. "If I Were A Carpenter"* Track 6 performed by Tim Hardin. "Beautiful People" Track 7 performed by Melanie "Coming Into Los Angeles" "Walking Down The Line"* Tracks 8–9 performed by Arlo Guthrie.

"Joe Hill" "Sweet Sir Galahad" "Drug Store Truck Drivin' Man" - featuring Jeffrey Shurtleff Tracks 10–12 performed by Joan Baez. "Soul Sacrifice" Track 13 performed by Santana. "Blood Of The Sun" "Theme For An Imaginary Western" Tracks 14–15 performed by Mountain. "Leaving This Town"* "Going Up The Country" Tracks 1–2 performed by Canned Heat. "Commotion"* "Green River"* "Ninety Nine And A Half"* "I Put A Spell On You"* Tracks 3–6 performed by Creedence Clearwater Revival. "Try"* "Work Me, Lord"* "Ball And Chain"* Tracks 7–9 performed by Janis Joplin. "Medley: Dance To The Music/Music Lover/I Want To Take You Higher" Track 10 performed by Sly & The Family Stone. "We're Not Gon na Take It" Track 11 performed by The. "Volunteers" "Somebody To Love"* "Saturday Afternoon/Won't You Try" "Uncle Sam Blues"* "White Rabbit"* Tracks 1–5 performed by Jefferson Airplane. "Let's Go Get Stoned"* "With A Little Help From My Friends" Tracks 6–7 performed by Joe Cocker. "Rock & Soul Music" Track 8 performed by The Fish.

"I'm Going Home" Track 9 performed by Ten Years After. "Long Black Veil"* "Loving You Is Sweeter Than Ever"* "The Weight"* Tracks 10–12 performed by The Band. "Mean Town Blues"* Track 13 performed by Johnny Winter. "Suite: Judy Blue Eyes" Track 1 performed by Stills & Nash. "Guinnevere" "Marrakesh Express" "4 + 20" "Sea Of Madness" Tracks 4–5 performed by Crosby, Nash & Young. "Find The Cost Of Freedom"* Track 6 performed by Crosby, Stills & Nash. "Love March" Track 7 performed by The Paul Butterfield Blues Band. "At The Hop" Track 8 performed by Sha Na Na "Voodoo Child /Stepping Stone"* "The Star Spangled Banner" "Purple Haze" Tracks 9–11 performed by Jimi Hendrix. Unissued