Argaeus I of Macedon
Argaeus or Araeus, was according to 5th-century BC Greek writer Herodotus one of six predecessors of his contemporary, king Alexander I of Macedon. Alexander I's predecessors, starting from the nearest, were according to Herodotus: Amyntas, Alcetas, Aëropus, Philip I, Perdiccas I. A rival tradition is held by Livy, Pausanias and Junianus Justinus, with Caranus as the first Macedon king. Argaeus was according to 2nd-century AD Macedonian writer Polyaenus the first king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon, who tricked and won over his superior enemies with women dressed as men with wreaths and thyrsi related to the cult of Dionysus. After the victory, Argaeus founded a temple dedicated to Pseudanor. Only Alexander I's father, Amyntas, is established in historical record; the eponym Argaeus for the dynasty was used to maintain the myth of origin from Argos. Regnal years have been applied to these legendary predecessors in modern literature.
Perdiccas II of Macedon
Perdiccas II was a king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia from about 448 BC to about 413 BC. Perdiccas II was the son of Alexander I, by whom he had four brothers, Alcetas II, Philip and Amyntas, a sister, Stratonice. Alcetas II preceded him on the throne until his murder at the hands of Perdiccas' son Archelaus I resulted in Perdiccas' elevation. Philip was the father of king Amyntas II, while Amyntas' grandson was king Amyntas III. Around 429 - 428 BC, Perdiccas arranged the marriage of his sister Stratonice to Seuthes II of Thrace. Perdiccas II married first a woman called Simiche. While some consider her a woman of unknown lineage but part of the Macedonian elite, other sources call her a slave. By her, he had two sons, Archelaus I and Aeropus II, he married a woman named Cleopatra, by whom he had another son. Cleopatra's son, according to Plato, was drowned in a well by her step-son Archelaus I because Cleopatra's son was the legitimate heir. After the death of Alexander I in 454, Macedonia began to fall apart.
Macedonian tribes became completely autonomous, were only loosely allied to the king. By 434, Perdiccas' younger brother Philip was challenging Perdiccas for the throne, having enlisted the support of Athens and King Derdas of Elimea. Perdiccas responded by stirring up rebellion in a number of Athenian tribute cities, including Potidaea. Athens responded with force, sent 1000 hoplites and 30 ships to Macedonia where they captured Therma, they went on to besiege Pydna, where they were met by reinforcements of a further 2000 hoplites and 40 ships. However, as the Athenians were besieging Pydna, they received news that Corinth had sent a force of 1600 hoplites and 400 light troops to support Potidaea. In order to combat this new threat, Athens made an alliance with Perdiccas, proceeded to Potidaea. Perdiccas broke the treaty and marched to Potidaea. While the Athenians were victorious, the battle directly led to the Peloponnesian War. In 431, Athens entered into an alliance with King Sitalkes of Thrace, after Nymphodorus, an Athenian, married Sitalkes’ sister.
Nymphodorus negotiated an agreement between Athens and Perdiccas, where Perdiccas regained Therma. As a result of this, Athens withdrew her support for Philip, the Thracians promised to assist Perdiccas in capturing him. In return, Perdiccas marched on the Chalcidians, the people he had persuaded to revolt. However, Perdiccas once again betrayed the Athenians and sent 1000 troops to support a Spartan assault on Acarnania in 429 but they arrived too late to help. In response to this, Sitalkes invaded Macedonia with the promise of support from Athens; this support never materialized, Perdiccas once again used diplomacy to ensure the survival of Macedonia. He promised the hand of his sister in marriage to the nephew of Sitalkes, who persuaded Sitalkes to leave. After this, Perdiccas was allied to the Spartans and, in 424, helped the Spartan Brasidas to take Amphipolis from the Athenians, one of her most important colonies for its ready access to timber for her fleets; this was a severe blow to Athens, would tie them to Macedonian timber for years to come, which strengthened Macedonia’s bargaining power considerably.
In return for this, the Spartans helped Perdiccas secure his borders, by leading an assault on King Arrhabaeus of Lyncestis, with the promise of support from the Illyrians. However, the Illyrians attacked Perdiccas and his Spartan allies; the poorly trained Macedonian troops fled, so the Spartans retreated and attacked the Macedonian baggage train in anger. This soured relations between Macedonia and the Peloponnese for years to come, pushed Perdiccas closer to Athens, allying himself with them in 423. By 417, Perdiccas joined the Spartan-Argive alliance. Just four years bowing to Athenian pressure, Perdiccas broke with the Peloponnese, aided Athens in their attack on Amphipolis. In 413 BC he died, leaving his son Archelaus as heir
Alexander I of Macedon
Alexander I of Macedon, known with the title Philhellene was the ruler of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from c. 498 BC until his death in 454 BC. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Alcetas II. Alexander was the son of Queen Eurydice, he had a sister named Gygaea. He gave his sister for marriage to the Persian general Bubares, in the late 6th century BC, in Macedon at the time, in order to stop him from searching for Persian soldiers, killed by Alexander's men following his commands. Alexander I came to the throne during the era of the kingdom's vassalage at the hand of Achaemenid Persia, dating back to the time of his father, Amyntas I, although Macedon retained a broad scope of autonomy. In 492 BC it was made to a subordinate part of the Persian Kingdom by Mardonius' campaign. At that time, Alexander was on the nominal Macedonian throne. Alexander further acted as a representative of the Persian governor Mardonius during peace negotiations after the Persian defeat at the Battle of Salamis in 480 BC.
In events, Herodotus several times mentions Alexander as a man, on Xerxes' side and follows the assigned tasks. From the time of Mardonius' conquest of Macedon, Alexander I is referred to as hyparchos by Herodotus, meaning subordinate governor. Despite his cooperation with Persia, Alexander I gave supplies and advice to the Greek city states, warned them of Mardonius' plans before the Battle of Plataea in 479 BC. For example, Alexander I warned the Greeks in Tempe to leave before the arrival of Xerxes' troops, as well as notified them of an alternate route into Thessaly through upper Macedonia. After their defeat in Plataea, the Persian army under the command of Artabazus tried to retreat all the way back to Asia Minor. Most of the 43,000 survivors were attacked and killed by the forces of Alexander at the estuary of the Strymon river. Alexander regained Macedonian independence after the end of the Persian Wars. Alexander claimed descent from Argive Heracles. After a court of Elean hellanodikai determined his claim to be true, he was permitted to participate in the Olympic Games in 504 BC, an honour reserved only for Greeks.
He modelled his court after Athens and was a patron of the poets Pindar and Bacchylides, both of whom dedicated poems to Alexander. The earliest reference to an Athenian proxenos, who lived during the time of the Persian wars, is that of Alexander I. Alexander I was given the title "philhellene", a title used for Greek patriots. Alexander had a daughter: Alcetas II, future king of Macedon. Perdiccas II, future king of Macedon. Philip Menelaus, father of Amyntas II Amyntas, whose son Arrhidaeus was the father of Amyntas III, he was thought to be the father of Balacrus, father of Meleager and grandfather of Arsinoe of Macedon Stratonice, married by her brother Perdiccas II to Seuthes II of Thrace. Ancient Macedonians List of ancient Macedonians Smith, William. "Alexander I". In William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston: Little and Company. P. 118
Archelaus I of Macedon
Archelaus I was a king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 413 to 399 BC. He was a capable and beneficent ruler, known for the sweeping changes he made in state administration, the military, commerce. By the time that he died, Archelaus had succeeded in converting Macedon into a stronger power. Thucydides credited Archelaus with doing more for his kingdom's military infrastructure than all of his predecessors together. Archelaus was a son of Perdiccas II by a slave woman, he obtained the throne by murdering his own uncle Alcetas II and cousin Alexander, such that his father became king, his half-brother, a child of seven years, the legitimate heir. After he took power, Archelaus was faced with a situation which allowed him to reverse Macedon's relationship with Athens, a major threat for the past half century; the Athenians experienced a crushing defeat at Syracuse in late 413 during which most of their ships were destroyed. This left the Athenians in desperate need of a huge amount of timber to build new ships and Archelaus in a position to set the price.
Archelaus generously supplied the Athenians with the timber. In recognition of this, the Athenians honored Archelaus and his children with the titles of proxenos and euergetes. Archelaus went on to institute many internal reforms, he issued an abundance of good quality coinage. He built strongholds, cut straight roads, improved the organization of the military the cavalry and hoplite infantry. Archelaus was known as a man of culture and extended cultural and artistic contacts with southern Greece. In his new palace at Pella, he hosted great poets, including Agathon and Euripides and painters, including Zeuxis. Archelaus reorganized the Olympia, a religious festival with musical and athletic competitions honoring Olympian Zeus and the Muses at Dion, the Olympia of Macedon; the greatest athletes and artists of Greece came to Macedon to participate in this event. In addition, Archelaus won in Tethrippon in both Olympic and Pythian Games. According to Aelian, Archelaus was killed in 399 BC during a hunt, by one of the royal pages, Crateuas.
According to Constantine Paparrigopoulos, there were three accomplices: two Thessalians and one Macedonian, Decamnichos. The latter used to be Archelaus' protégé; however Decamnichos once insulted, in front of Archelaus, the tragic poet Euripides for the smell of the poet's alleged bad breath. This outraged Archelaus. Decamnichos was permitted to remain in the court of Archelaus. Other versions of the king's death are reported by differing sources. Archelaus had several sons, including Orestes of Macedon and Archelaus II of Macedon; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Archelaus, King of Macedonia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. P. 362. Coinage of Archelaus Ancestry of Archelaus
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. Edited by William Smith, the dictionary spans 3,700 pages, it is a classic work of 19th-century lexicography. The work is a companion to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography; the work lists thirty-five authors in addition to the editor, an author for some definitions and articles. The authors were classical scholars from Oxford, Rugby School, the University of Bonn, but some were from other institutions. Many of the mythological entries were the work of the German expatriate Leonhard Schmitz, who helped to popularise German classical scholarship in Britain. With respect to biographies, Smith intended to be comprehensive. In the preface, he writes:The biographical articles in this work include the names of all persons of any importance which occur in the Greek and Roman writers, from the earliest times down to the extinction of the Western Empire in the year 476 of our era, to the extinction of the Eastern Empire by the capture of Constantinople by the turks in the year 1453.
Samuel Sharpe thought Edward Bunbury had plagiarised his work, as he wrote of in his diary entry on 3 September 1850: I felt mortified on reading the articles on the Ptolemies in Dr. Smith's "Dictionary of Classical Biography." They were all written by E. H. Bunbury with the help of my "History of Egypt," and with-out any acknowledgment, though he borrowed the volume from my brother Dan for the purpose. Many of the Dictionary's definitions and articles have been referred to in more recent works, Robert Graves has been accused of "lifting his impressive-looking source references straight, unchecked" from it when writing The Greek Myths; the work is now in the public domain, is available in several places on the Internet. While still accurate, much is missing more recent discoveries and epigraphic material. More the context in which ancient evidence is viewed has changed in the intervening century and a half. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Vol. I online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. II online at University of Michigan Library. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. III online at University of Michigan Library; the Internet Archive has a derivative work: Smith, William. A new classical dictionary of biography and geography based on the "Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology.". London: Murray. Anthon, Charles. A new classical dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and geography: based upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography and mythology by William Smith. New York: Harper and Brothers
Macedonia (ancient kingdom)
Macedonia called Macedon, was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and ruled by the royal Argead dynasty, followed by the Antipatrid and Antigonid dynasties. Home to the ancient Macedonians, the earliest kingdom was centered on the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, bordered by Epirus to the west, Paeonia to the north, Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south. Before the 4th century BC, Macedonia was a small kingdom outside of the area dominated by the great city-states of Athens and Thebes, subordinate to Achaemenid Persia. During the reign of the Argead king Philip II, Macedonia subdued mainland Greece and Thrace through conquest and diplomacy. With a reformed army containing phalanxes wielding the sarissa pike, Philip II defeated the old powers of Athens and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. Philip II's son Alexander the Great, leading a federation of Greek states, accomplished his father's objective of commanding the whole of Greece when he destroyed Thebes after the city revolted.
During Alexander's subsequent campaign of conquest, he overthrew the Achaemenid Empire and conquered territory that stretched as far as the Indus River. For a brief period, his empire was the most powerful in the world – the definitive Hellenistic state, inaugurating the transition to a new period of Ancient Greek civilization. Greek arts and literature flourished in the new conquered lands and advances in philosophy and science spread throughout much of the ancient world. Of particular importance were the contributions of Aristotle, tutor to Alexander, whose writings became a keystone of Western philosophy. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, the ensuing wars of the Diadochi, the partitioning of Alexander's short-lived empire, Macedonia remained a Greek cultural and political center in the Mediterranean region along with Ptolemaic Egypt, the Seleucid Empire, the Kingdom of Pergamon. Important cities such as Pella and Amphipolis were involved in power struggles for control of the territory. New cities were founded, such as Thessalonica by the usurper Cassander.
Macedonia's decline began with the Macedonian Wars and the rise of Rome as the leading Mediterranean power. At the end of the Third Macedonian War in 168 BC, the Macedonian monarchy was abolished and replaced by Roman client states. A short-lived revival of the monarchy during the Fourth Macedonian War in 150–148 BC ended with the establishment of the Roman province of Macedonia; the Macedonian kings, who wielded absolute power and commanded state resources such as gold and silver, facilitated mining operations to mint currency, finance their armies and, by the reign of Philip II, a Macedonian navy. Unlike the other diadochi successor states, the imperial cult fostered by Alexander was never adopted in Macedonia, yet Macedonian rulers assumed roles as high priests of the kingdom and leading patrons of domestic and international cults of the Hellenistic religion; the authority of Macedonian kings was theoretically limited by the institution of the army, while a few municipalities within the Macedonian commonwealth enjoyed a high degree of autonomy and had democratic governments with popular assemblies.
The name Macedonia comes from the ethnonym Μακεδόνες, which itself is derived from the ancient Greek adjective μακεδνός, meaning "tall" descriptive of the people. It has the same root as the adjective μακρός, meaning "long" or "tall" in Ancient Greek; the name is believed to have meant either "highlanders", "the tall ones", or "high grown men". Linguist Robert S. P. Beekes claims that both terms are of Pre-Greek substrate origin and cannot be explained in terms of Indo-European morphology; the Classical Greek historians Herodotus and Thucydides reported the legend that the Macedonian kings of the Argead dynasty were descendants of Temenus, king of Argos, could therefore claim the mythical Heracles as one of their ancestors as well as a direct lineage from Zeus, chief god of the Greek pantheon. Contradictory legends state that either Perdiccas I of Macedon or Caranus of Macedon were the founders of the Argead dynasty, with either five or eight kings before Amyntas I; the assertion that the Argeads descended from Temenus was accepted by the Hellanodikai authorities of the Ancient Olympic Games, permitting Alexander I of Macedon to enter the competitions owing to his perceived Greek heritage.
Little is known about the kingdom before the reign of Alexander I's father Amyntas I of Macedon during the Archaic period. The kingdom of Macedonia was situated along the Haliacmon and Axius rivers in Lower Macedonia, north of Mount Olympus. Historian Robert Malcolm Errington suggests that one of the earliest Argead kings established Aigai as their capital in the mid-7th century BC. Before the 4th century BC, the kingdom covered a region corresponding to the western and central parts of the region of Macedonia in modern Greece, it expanded into the region of Upper Macedonia, inhabited by the Greek Lyncestae and Elimiotae tribes, into regions of Emathia, Bottiaea, Mygdonia and Almopia, which were inhabited by various peoples such as Thracians and Phrygians. Macedonia's non-Greek neighbors included Thracians, inhabiting territories to the northeast, Illyrians to the northwest, Paeonians to the north, while the lands of Thessaly to the south and Epirus to the west were inhabited by Greeks with similar cultures to that of the Macedonians.
A year after Darius I of
Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles with an estimated population of 685,094 in 2017, making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth-largest in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from England, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.
Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it an international center of higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a world leader in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 2,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States; the city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings.
Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists. The renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water, their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus. The peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 5000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America. Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century.
Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists. In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston.
The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops. The event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army. William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of the British forces in North America, led the British army in the siege.
On June 17, the British captured the Charlestown peninsula in Boston, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. The British army outnumbered the militia stationed there, but it was a Py