Prof. Tadeusz Wojciech Wolsza from Oława, is a Polish historian and social scientist, Professor at the Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Wolsza graduated from the University of Wrocław. In 2007 he became vice-president of the Scientific Advisory Committee at the PAN Institute of History, he is the editor-in-chief of Dzieje Najnowsze refereed journal published by IH PAN. From 1999 Wolsza served as lecturer at the Instytute of Political Sciences of the Bydgoszcz Academy, followed by professorship at the Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz. In 2007 he was awarded the title of full Professor. Wolsza is the author of over 200 publications including 11 books, he was selected by Sejm to the Board of the Institute of National Remembrance in 2011. Arcymistrzowie, amatorzy... Słownik biograficzny szachistów polskich, DiG, Warszawa 1995–2007 Dziennikarze władzy, władza dziennikarzom: aparat represji wobec środowiska dziennikarskiego 1945–1990, IPN, Warszawa 2010 Najdorf: z Warszawy do Buenos Aires, Warszawa 2010 Rząd RP na obczyźnie wobec wydarzeń w kraju 1945–1950, DiG, Warszawa 1998, ISBN 83-7181-044-X W cieniu Wronek, Jaworzna i Piechcina...
1945–1956: życie codzienne w polskich więzieniach, obozach i ośrodkach pracy więźniów, Instytut Historii PAN, Warszawa 2003, ISBN 83-88909-06-1 Za żelazną kurtyną, Warszawa 2005, ISBN 83-88909-29-0 Tadeusz Wolsza. "Wykaz publikacji w katalogu Biblioteki Narodowej". Retrieved 2013-04-16
Krzysztof Szwagrzyk is a Polish historian and writer, since 1979 living and working in Wrocław, Poland. Szwagrzyk received his Doctoral degree in 20th Century History from the University of Wrocław in 1996, he serves as President of the Public Information Bureau of the Institute of National Remembrance regional Chapter in Wrocław, is the author of numerous scientific papers and several monographs about contemporary Polish history, with special focus on the system of political repressions during the period of Stalinism in Poland, the anti-communist structures in Lower Silesia in the years of 1945–1956. He's the author of screenplay Golgota Wrocławska. In his monograph Zbrodnie w majestacie prawa 1944-1955 Szwagrzyk focuses on the lesser known aspects of the entry into Poland by the advancing Soviet forces in 1944, resulting in the violent takeover of power by the communists; the presence of the vast number of officers and soldiers of the Red Army across Poland allowed for the creation of state apparatus the likes of which have never been seen before.
A number of laws and regulations were introduced between 1944 and 1946 mirroring the Soviet model, which allowed for the arrest and persecution of military and civilian representatives of the Polish Underground State with indiscriminate use of death penalty. In the following decade over 5 thousand civilian Poles received death sentence from the army in the majesty of the law. In total, some 50,000 people perished in Poland during the communist takeover. Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, Zbrodnie w majestacie prawa 1944-1955, Wydawn. ABC, Warszawa, 2000. Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, Jaworzno: historia więzienia dla młodocianych więźniów politycznych 1951-1955, Wydawn. "Klio", 1999. ISBN 83-86833-20-3. Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, Winni? – niewinni? Dolnośląskie podziemie niepodległościowe w świetle dokumentów sądowych, Fundacja PL "Niezawislosc", 1999. ISBN 83-902803-3-7. Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, Prawnicy czasu bezprawia: sędziowie i prokuratorzy wojskowi w Polsce, 1944-1956, "Societas Vistulana", 2005 - Instytut Pamięci Narodowej Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu - 2005 - 551 pages.
ISBN 83-88385-65-8. Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, Golgota Wrocławska: 1945-1956, - 1996 - Klio Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, Straceni na Dolnym Śląsku 1945-1956, Instytut Europejskich Studiów Społecznych, 2002. ISBN 83-88120-91-3. Krzysztof Szwagrzyk with R. Czaplińska Z archiwum pamięci...: 3653 więzienne dni, - 2003 Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, Historia przygotowań do amerykańskiego desantu pod Wrocławiem, - Pamięć i Sprawiedliwość, 2003 Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, Listy do Bieruta: prośby o ułaskawienie z lat 1946-1956, - 1995 - Wydawn. "Klio" Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, Aparat bezpieczeństwa w Polsce: 1944-1956, Volume 1, Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, 2005. ISBN 83-89078-94-5. Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, Skazani na karę śmierci przez Wojskowy Sąd Rejonowy we Wrocławiu, 1946-1955, - 2002 - Instytut Pamięci Narodowej Krzysztof Szwagrzyk, Sędzia-śmierć. Działalność sędziego Włodzimierza Ostapowicza na Białostocczyźnie, - Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej, 2005
The Holocaust known as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by local collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews—around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe—between 1941 and 1945. Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event during the Holocaust era, in which Germany and its collaborators persecuted and murdered other groups, including Slavs, the Roma, the "incurably sick", political and religious dissenters such as communists and Jehovah's Witnesses, gay men. Taking into account all the victims of Nazi persecution, the death toll rises to over 17 million. Germany implemented the persecution of the Jews in stages. Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as German Chancellor in January 1933, the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March 1933. After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March, which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society, which included a boycott of Jewish businesses in April 1933 and enacting the Nuremberg Laws in September 1935.
On 9–10 November 1938, during Kristallnacht, Jewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked, smashed or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria, which Germany had annexed in March that year. After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, the regime set up ghettos to segregate Jews. Thousands of camps and other detention sites were established across German-occupied Europe; the deportation of Jews to the ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the "Final Solution to the Jewish Question", discussed by senior Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942. As German forces captured territories in the East, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized. Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party, killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, across all territories controlled by the Axis powers. Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen, in cooperation with Wehrmacht police battalions and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings between 1941 and 1945.
By mid-1942, victims were being deported from the ghettos in sealed freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, they were killed in gas chambers. The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945; the term holocaust, first used in 1895 to describe the massacre of Armenians, comes from the Greek: ὁλόκαυστος, translit. Holókaustos; the Century Dictionary defined it in 1904 as "a sacrifice or offering consumed by fire, in use among the Jews and some pagan nations". The biblical term shoah, meaning "destruction", became the standard Hebrew term for the murder of the European Jews, first used in a pamphlet in 1940, Sho'at Yehudei Polin, published by the United Aid Committee for the Jews in Poland. On 3 October 1941 the cover of the magazine The American Hebrew used the phrase "before the Holocaust" to refer to the situation in France, in May 1943 The New York Times, discussing the Bermuda Conference, referred to the "hundreds of thousands of European Jews still surviving the Nazi Holocaust".
In 1968 the Library of Congress created a new category, "Holocaust, Jewish". The term was popularized in the United States by the NBC mini-series Holocaust, about a fictional family of German Jews, in November 1978 the President's Commission on the Holocaust was established; as non-Jewish groups began to include themselves as Holocaust victims too, many Jews chose to use the terms Shoah or Churban instead. The Nazis used the phrase "Final Solution to the Jewish Question". Most Holocaust historians define the Holocaust as the enactment, between 1941 and 1945, of the German state policy to exterminate the European Jews. In Teaching the Holocaust, Michael Gray, a specialist in Holocaust education, offers three definitions: "the persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators between 1933 and 1945", which views the events of Kristallnacht in Germany in 1938 as an early phase of the Holocaust; the third definition fails, Gray writes, to acknowledge that only the Jewish people were singled out for annihilation.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum defines the Holocaust as the "systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators", distinguishing between the Holocaust and the targeting of other groups during "the era of the Holocaust". According to Yad Vashem, Israel's Holocaust memorial, most historians regard the start of the "Holocaust era" as January 1933, when Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany. Other victims of the Holocaust era include. Hitler came to see the Jews as "uniquely dangerous to Germany", according to Peter Hayes, "and therefore uniquely destined t
Dictionary of Literary Biography
The Dictionary of Literary Biography is a specialist biographical dictionary dedicated to literature. Published by Gale, the 375-volume set covers a wide variety of literary topics and genres, with a focus on American and British literature; the series editors write that "Our purpose is to make literature and its creators better understood and more accessible to students and the reading public, while satisfying the needs of teachers and researchers." They define literature as "the intellectual commerce of a nation. The series thus includes biographies of historians, publishers, book collectors, sc Each volume is overseen by an expert in the field and is 3,000 to 5,000 words long; the biographies contain basic information, such as birth and death dates, a bibliography of the author's works, a "further reading" list of sources on the author and his or her works. Each volume is illustrated by relevant drawings, paintings, or photographs of the authors as well as title pages of their works; as of 2006, the series had 375 volumes, which included 45 documentary volumes.
Altogether, the series included 13,500 author biographies. The DLB exists in electronic versions; as of 2006 85 percent of the series was online. The project was proposed by Frederick G. Ruffner, president of Gale, to the company Bruccoli Clark, in November 1975. After a few sample entries were written, an advisory board was appointed to design the format of the entire series; the first volume was published in 1978. DLB Yearbooks were published between 2002 to keep the series up-to-date; these have now been discontinued. The series is published and distributed by Thomson Gale, but produced in Columbia, South Carolina by Bruccoli Clark Layman, a company composed of the well-known scholars Matthew J. Bruccoli and Richard Layman and the now deceased businessman, C. E. Frazer Clark, Jr. Michael Rogers wrote that "it is hands-down the best overall literary reference work published" but that many reference librarians had never heard of it. Choice has named the DLB an Outstanding Academic Book four times and American Library Association's Reference and User Services Association has twice named it as an Outstanding Reference Source.
The American Library Association Guide to Reference called it "An indispensable reference tool for literary research in far-reaching genres and crossing political borders, the articles in this series are the first critical and biographical treatment of a literary figure". DLB Advisory Board. “Plan of the Series”. Mark Twain’s Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: A Documentary Volume. Ed. Tom Quirk. DLB 343. Detroit: Gale, 2009. ISBN 0-7876-8161-X. Rogers, Michael. "Democratizing Literature". Library Journal: 106–07. Dictionary of Literary Biography at Gale
Daniel Jonah Goldhagen is an American author, former associate professor of government and social studies at Harvard University. Goldhagen reached international attention and broad criticism as the author of two controversial books about the Holocaust: Hitler's Willing Executioners, A Moral Reckoning, he is the author of Worse Than War, which examines the phenomenon of genocide, The Devil That Never Dies, in which he traces a worldwide rise in virulent anti-Semitism. Daniel Goldhagen was born in Massachusetts, to Erich and Norma Goldhagen, he grew up in nearby Newton. His wife Sarah is an architectural historian, critic for The New Republic magazine. Daniel Goldhagen's father is a retired Harvard professor. Erich is a Holocaust survivor. Daniel credits his father as a "model of intellectual sobriety and probity". Goldhagen has written that his "understanding of Nazism and of the Holocaust is indebted" to his father's influence. In 1977, Goldhagen entered Harvard, remained there for some twenty years - first as an undergraduate and graduate student as an assistant professor in the Government and Social Studies Department.
During early graduate studies, he attended a lecture by Saul Friedländer, in which he had what he describes as a "lightbulb moment": The functionalism versus intentionalism debate did not address the question, "When Hitler ordered the annihilation of the Jews, why did people execute the order?". Goldhagen wanted to investigate who the German men and women who killed the Jews were, their reasons for killing. Goldhagen has a son named Gideon, a daughter named Veronica, he has been a vegetarian since the age of 10. As a graduate student, Goldhagen undertook research in the German archives; the thesis of Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust proposes that, during the Holocaust, many killers were ordinary Germans, who killed for having been raised in a profoundly anti-Semitic culture, thus were acculturated — "ready and willing" — to execute the Nazi government's genocidal plans. Goldhagen's first notable work was a book review titled "False Witness" published by The New Republic magazine on April 17, 1989.
It was one in a series of hostile reviews of the 1988 book Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? by an American-Jewish professor of Princeton University born in Luxembourg, Arno J. Mayer. Goldhagen wrote that "Mayer's enormous intellectual error" was in ascribing the cause of the Holocaust to anti-Communism, rather than to anti-Semitism, criticized Prof. Mayer's saying that most massacres of Jews in the USSR, during the first weeks of Operation Barbarossa in the summer of 1941 were committed by local peoples, with little Wehrmacht participation. Goldhagen accused him of misrepresenting the facts about the Wannsee Conference, meant for plotting the genocide of European Jews, not the resettlement of the Jews. Goldhagen further accused Mayer of obscurantism, of suppressing historical fact, of being an apologist for Nazi Germany, like Ernst Nolte, for attempting to "de-demonize" National Socialism. In 1989, historian Lucy Dawidowicz reviewed Why Did the Heavens Not Darken? in Commentary magazine, praised Goldhagen's "False Witness" review, identifying him as a rising Holocaust historian who formally rebutted "Mayer's falsification" of history.
In 2003, Goldhagen resigned from Harvard to focus on writing. His work synthesizes four historical elements, kept distinct for analysis. According to Goldhagen, his Holocaust studies address questions about the political and cultural particulars behind other genocides: "Who did the killing?" "What, despite temporal and cultural differences, do mass killings have in common?", which yielded Worse Than War: Genocide and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity, about the global nature of genocide, averting such crimes against humanity. Hitler's Willing Executioners posits that the vast majority of ordinary Germans were "willing executioners" in the Holocaust because of a unique and virulent "eliminationist anti-Semitism" in German identity which developed in the preceding centuries. Goldhagen argued that this "eliminationist anti-Semitism" was widespread in Germany, that this type of anti-Semitism was unique to Germany and because of it, ordinary Germans willingly killed Jews. Goldhagen asserted that this mentality grew out of medieval attitudes with a religious basis, but was secularized.
Goldhagen's book was meant to be a "thick description" in the manner of Clifford Geertz. As such, to prove his thesis Goldhagen focused on the behavior of ordinary Germans who killed Jews the behavior of the men of Order Police Reserve Battalion 101 in occupied Poland in 1942 to argue ordinary Germans possessed by "eliminationist anti-Semitism" chose to willingly murder Jews in cruel and sadistic ways. In this, Goldhagen was rehashing much of what had been published before, adding his touch of intentionalist prose to covered ground. Scholars such as Yehuda Bauer, Otto Kulka, Israel Gutman, among others, asserted long before Goldhagen, the primacy of ideology, radical anti-Semitism, the corollary of an inimitability exclusive to Germany; the book, which began as a doctoral dissertation, was written as an ans
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity and religion are interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel; the Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE. The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah; some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as'Hebrews'. Though few sources mention the exilic periods in detail, the experience of diaspora life, from the Ancient Egyptian rule over the Levant, to Assyrian captivity and exile, to Babylonian captivity and exile, to Seleucid Imperial rule, to the Roman occupation and exile, the historical relations between Jews and their homeland thereafter, became a major feature of Jewish history and memory.
Prior to World War II, the worldwide Jewish population reached a peak of 16.7 million, representing around 0.7% of the world population at that time. 6 million Jews were systematically murdered during the Holocaust. Since the population has risen again, as of 2016 was estimated at 14.4 million by the Berman Jewish DataBank, less than 0.2% of the total world population. The modern State of Israel is the only country, it defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state in the Basic Laws, Human Dignity and Liberty in particular, based on the Declaration of Independence. Israel's Law of Return grants the right of citizenship to Jews who have expressed their desire to settle in Israel. Despite their small percentage of the world's population, Jews have influenced and contributed to human progress in many fields, both and in modern times, including philosophy, literature, business, fine arts and architecture, music and cinema, science and technology, as well as religion. Jews have played a significant role in the development of Western Civilization.
The English word "Jew" continues Iewe. These terms derive from Old French giu, earlier juieu, which through elision had dropped the letter "d" from the Medieval Latin Iudaeus, like the New Testament Greek term Ioudaios, meant both "Jew" and "Judean" / "of Judea"; the Greek term was a loan from Aramaic Y'hūdāi, corresponding to Hebrew יְהוּדִי Yehudi the term for a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah. According to the Hebrew Bible, the name of both the tribe and kingdom derive from Judah, the fourth son of Jacob. Genesis 29:35 and 49:8 connect the name "Judah" with the verb yada, meaning "praise", but scholars agree that the name of both the patriarch and the kingdom instead have a geographic origin—possibly referring to the gorges and ravines of the region; the Hebrew word for "Jew" is יְהוּדִי Yehudi, with the plural יְהוּדִים Yehudim. Endonyms in other Jewish languages include the Yiddish ייִד Yid; the etymological equivalent is in use in other languages, e.g. يَهُودِيّ yahūdī, al-yahūd, in Arabic, "Jude" in German, "judeu" in Portuguese, "Juif" /"Juive" in French, "jøde" in Danish and Norwegian, "judío/a" in Spanish, "jood" in Dutch, "żyd" in Polish etc. but derivations of the word "Hebrew" are in use to describe a Jew, e.g. in Italian, in Persian and Russian.
The German word "Jude" is pronounced, the corresponding adjective "jüdisch" is the origin of the word "Yiddish". According to The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth edition, It is recognized that the attributive use of the noun Jew, in phrases such as Jew lawyer or Jew ethics, is both vulgar and offensive. In such contexts Jewish is the only acceptable possibility; some people, have become so wary of this construction that they have extended the stigma to any use of Jew as a noun, a practice that carries risks of its own. In a sentence such as There are now several Jews on the council, unobjectionable, the substitution of a circumlocution like Jewish people or persons of Jewish background may in itself cause offense for seeming to imply that Jew has a negative connotation when used as a noun. Judaism shares some of the characteristics of a nation, an ethnicity, a religion, a culture, making the definition of, a Jew vary depending on whether a religious or national approach to identity is used.
In modern secular usage Jews include three groups: people who were born to a Jewish family regardless of whether or not they follow the religion, those who have some Jewish ancestral background or lineage, people without any Jewish ancestral background or lineage who have formally converted to Judaism and therefore are followers of the religion. Historical definitions of Jewish identity have traditionally been based on halakhic definitions of matrilineal descent, halakhic conversions; these definitions of, a Jew date back to the codification of the Oral
Ministry of Public Security (Poland)
The Ministry of Public Security of Poland was a postwar communist, secret police and counter-espionage service operating from 1945 to 1954 under minister for Public Security general Stanisław Radkiewicz, supervised by Jakub Berman of the Politburo. Its main goal was the eradication of the anti-communist structures and socio-political base of the underground Polish Secret State, as well as the persecution of former underground soldiers of the Polish Home Army and anti-communist organizations like Freedom and Independence. In that capacity, MPB remained known through its own regional offices called Urząd Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego or UBP. In July 1944, behind the Soviet front line, a brand new Polish provisional government was formed, called the Polish Committee of National Liberation, it was established in Chełm on the initiative of Polish communists, in order to assume control over Polish territories re-taken from Nazi Germany by the advancing Red Army. PKWN was proclaimed "the only legitimate Polish government" by Stalin, with full political control and Soviet sponsorship.
Within the PKWN's internal structure, there were thirteen departments called Resorty. One of these was the Department of Public RBP, headed by Stanisław Radkiewicz, it was a precursor of the Polish communist secret police. On December 31, 1944, the PKWN was joined by several members of the London-based Polish government in exile, among them Stanisław Mikołajczyk. PKWN was transformed into Provisional Government of Republic of Poland. All departments were renamed: the Department of Public Security became the Ministry of Public Security or MBP. From the end of the 1940s to 1954, the Ministry of Public Security – operating alongside the Ministry of Defence – was one of the largest and most powerful institutions in post-war People's Republic of Poland, it was responsible for internal and foreign intelligence, counter-intelligence, monitoring anti-state activity in Poland and abroad, monitoring government and civilian communications, supervision of the local governments, maintaining a militsiya, maintaining prisons, fire services, rescue services, border patrol.
In July 1947, the MBP absorbed Section II of General Staff of the Polish People's Army. Military and civilian intelligence merged to become Department VII of Ministry of Public Security. In 1950s Ministry of Public Security employed around 32,000 people. MBP had control over 41,000 soldiers, including 29,053 privates and 2,356 officers of the Internal Security Corps, 57,000 officers in the Civil Militia, 32,000 officers and soldiers in the Border guard, 10,000 prison officers, 125,000 members of Volunteer Reserves of the Citizens Militia, a paramilitary police used for special operations; the political and administrative matters of the Ministry came under the authority of Jakub Berman, a hardline Stalinist from the Polish United Workers' Party. The Ministry of Public Security structure was being changed from January 1945 on, as the Ministry expanded, it was divided into departments and each department was subdivided into sections entrusted with different tasks. In January 1945, the largest and the most important department in MBP was Department One, responsible for counter-espionage and anti-state activities.
It was headed by General Roman Romkowski born Natan Grinszpan-Kikiel in Moscow. Department I was divided into Sections, each responsible for a different but specific function self-described in the following way: Fighting German espionage and Nazi underground remaining in Poland. Fighting reactionary underground. Fighting political banditry. Protection of the national economy. Protection of legal political parties from outside penetration. Prisons. Observation. Investigations. Two new departments were formed in addition to departments and sections created for the Resort Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego forming the core of MBP in January 1945. On September 6, 1945, from the existing structure of Department II emerged three additional departments: Department IV commanded by Aleksander Wolski-Dyszko, Department V commanded by Julia Brystygier, Department VI headed by Teodor Duda. In July 1946, further changes were enacted. MBP was divided into eight departments, five of which dealt with operational cases, including Counter-espionage, Technical operations and technology, Fighting underground resistance, Protection of economy, Counteraction of hostile penetration and church influences.
In June 1948 the Secret Office was established for Internal counter-intelligence. The Special Office conducted surveillance on members of the MPB itself. On March 2, 1949, the Special Bureau was established, renamed in 1951 as Department Ten. Department 10 conducted surveillance of high-ranking members of the Polish United Workers' Party and people associated with them. Minister of Public Security – Gen. Stanisław Radkiewicz Deputy – Gen. Mieczysław Mietkowski b. Moshe Bobrowicki Deputy – Col. Konrad Świetlik Deputy – Wacław Lewikowski Deputy – Gen. Roman Romkows