Samuel Barclay Beckett was an Irish novelist, short story writer, theatre director and literary translator who lived in Paris for most of his adult life. He wrote in both French. Beckett's work offers a bleak, tragicomic outlook on human existence coupled with black comedy and gallows humor, became minimalist in his career, he is considered one of the last modernist writers, one of the key figures in what Martin Esslin called the "Theatre of the Absurd". Beckett was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize in Literature "for his writing, which—in new forms for the novel and drama—in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation", he was elected Saoi of Aosdána in 1984. Samuel Beckett was born in Dublin on Good Friday, 13 April 1906, to William Frank Beckett, a quantity surveyor and descendant of the Huguenots, Maria Jones Roe, a nurse, when both were 35, they had married in 1901. Beckett had Frank Edward Beckett. At the age of five, Beckett attended a local playschool in Dublin, where he started to learn music, moved to Earlsfort House School in Dublin city centre near Harcourt Street.
The Becketts were members of the Anglican Church of Ireland. The family home, Cooldrinagh in the Dublin suburb of Foxrock, was a large house and garden complete with tennis court built in 1903 by Samuel's father, William; the house and garden, together with the surrounding countryside where he went walking with his father, the nearby Leopardstown Racecourse, the Foxrock railway station and Harcourt Street station at the city terminus of the line, all feature in his prose and plays. In 1919/1920, Beckett went to Portora Royal School in County Fermanagh, he left 3 years in 1923. A natural athlete, Beckett excelled at cricket as a left-handed batsman and a left-arm medium-pace bowler, he was to play for Dublin University and played two first-class games against Northamptonshire. As a result, he became the only Nobel literature laureate to have played first-class cricket. Beckett studied French and English at Trinity College, Dublin from 1923 to 1927, he was elected a Scholar in Modern Languages in 1926.
Beckett graduated with a BA and, after teaching at Campbell College in Belfast, took up the post of lecteur d'anglais at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris from November 1928 to 1930. While there, he was introduced to renowned Irish author James Joyce by Thomas MacGreevy, a poet and close confidant of Beckett who worked there; this meeting had a profound effect on the young man. Beckett assisted Joyce in various ways, one of, research towards the book that became Finnegans Wake. In 1929, Beckett published his first work, a critical essay entitled "Dante... Bruno. Vico.. Joyce"; the essay defends Joyce's work and method, chiefly from allegations of wanton obscurity and dimness, was Beckett's contribution to Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of Work in Progress. Beckett's close relationship with Joyce and his family cooled, when he rejected the advances of Joyce's daughter Lucia owing to her progressing schizophrenia. Beckett's first short story, "Assumption", was published in Jolas's periodical transition.
The next year he won a small literary prize for his hastily composed poem "Whoroscope", which draws on a biography of René Descartes that Beckett happened to be reading when he was encouraged to submit. In 1930, Beckett returned to Trinity College as a lecturer. In November 1930, he presented a paper in French to the Modern Languages Society of Trinity on the Toulouse poet Jean du Chas, founder of a movement called le Concentrisme, it was a literary parody, for Beckett had in fact invented the poet and his movement that claimed to be "at odds with all, clear and distinct in Descartes". Beckett insisted that he had not intended to fool his audience; when Beckett resigned from Trinity at the end of 1931, his brief academic career was at an end. He commemorated it with the poem "Gnome", inspired by his reading of Johann Wolfgang Goethe's Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship and published in The Dublin Magazine in 1934: Spend the years of learning squanderingCourage for the years of wanderingThrough a world politely turningFrom the loutishness of learning Beckett travelled in Europe.
He spent some time in London, where in 1931 he published Proust, his critical study of French author Marcel Proust. Two years following his father's death, he began two years' treatment with Tavistock Clinic psychoanalyst Dr. Wilfred Bion. Aspects of it became evident in Beckett's works, such as Watt and Waiting for Godot. In 1932, he wrote his first novel, Dream of Fair to Middling Women, but after many rejections from publishers decided to abandon it. Despite his inability to get it published, the novel served as a source for many of Beckett's early poems, as well as for his first full-length book, the 1933 short-story collection More Pricks Than Kicks. Beckett published essays and reviews, including "Recent Irish Poetry" and "Humanistic Quietism", a review of his friend Thomas MacGreevy's Poems, they focused on the work of MacGreevy, Brian Coffey, Denis Devlin and Blanaid Salkeld, despite their slender achievements at the time, comparing them favourably with their Celtic Revival contemporaries and invoking Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, the French symbolists as
Simone de Beauvoir
Simone Lucie Ernestine Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir was a French writer, existentialist philosopher, political activist and social theorist. Though she did not consider herself a philosopher, she had a significant influence on both feminist existentialism and feminist theory. De Beauvoir wrote novels, biographies and monographs on philosophy and social issues, she was known for her 1949 treatise The Second Sex, a detailed analysis of women's oppression and a foundational tract of contemporary feminism. She was known for her lifelong relationship with French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. Simone de Beauvoir was born on 9 January 1908 into a bourgeois Parisian family in the 6th arrondissement, her parents were Georges Bertrand de Beauvoir, a legal secretary who once aspired to be an actor, Françoise de Beauvoir, a wealthy banker's daughter and devout Catholic. Simone's sister, Hélène, was born two years later; the family struggled to maintain their bourgeois status after losing much of their fortune shortly after World War I, Françoise insisted that the two daughters be sent to a prestigious convent school.
De Beauvoir herself was religious as a child, at one point intending to become a nun. She remained an atheist for the rest of her life. De Beauvoir was intellectually precocious; because of her family's straitened circumstances, de Beauvoir could no longer rely on her dowry, like other middle-class girls of her age, her marriage opportunities were put at risk. De Beauvoir took this opportunity to do what she always wanted to do while taking steps to earn a living for herself. After passing baccalaureate exams in mathematics and philosophy in 1925, she studied mathematics at the Institut Catholique de Paris and literature/languages at the Institut Sainte-Marie, she studied philosophy at the Sorbonne and after completing her degree in 1928, she wrote her diplôme d'études supérieures on Leibniz for Léon Brunschvicg. De Beauvoir was only the ninth woman to have received a degree from the Sorbonne at the time, due to the fact that French women had only been allowed to join higher education. De Beauvoir first worked with Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Claude Lévi-Strauss, when all three completed their practice teaching requirements at the same secondary school.
Although not enrolled, she sat in on courses at the École Normale Supérieure in preparation for the agrégation in philosophy, a competitive postgraduate examination which serves as a national ranking of students. It was while studying for the agrégation that she met École Normale students Jean-Paul Sartre, Paul Nizan, René Maheu; the jury for the agrégation narrowly awarded Sartre first place instead of de Beauvoir, who placed second and, at age 21, was the youngest person to pass the exam. Writing of her youth in Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter she said: "...my father's individualism and pagan ethical standards were in complete contrast to the rigidly moral conventionalism of my mother's teaching. This disequilibrium, which made my life a kind of endless disputation, is the main reason why I became an intellectual." From 1929 to 1943, de Beauvoir taught at the lycée level until she could support herself on the earnings of her writings. She taught at the Lycée Montgrand, the Lycée Jeanne-d'Arc, the Lycée Molière.
During October 1929, Jean-Paul Sartre and de Beauvoir became a couple and, after they were confronted by her father, Sartre asked her to marry him on a provisional basis: one day while they were sitting on a bench outside the Louvre, he said, "Let's sign a two-year lease". Though de Beauvoir is quoted as saying, "Marriage was impossible. I had no dowry", scholars point out that her ideal relationships described in The Second Sex and elsewhere bore little resemblances to the marriage standards of the day. Instead, they entered into a lifelong "soul partnership", sexual but not exclusive, nor did it involve living together. See "Personal life" below. Sartre and de Beauvoir always read each other's work. Debate continues about the extent to which they influenced each other in their existentialist works, such as Sartre's Being and Nothingness and de Beauvoir's She Came to Stay and "Phenomenology and Intent". However, recent studies of de Beauvoir's work focus on influences other than Sartre, including Hegel and Leibniz.
The Neo-Hegelian revival led by Alexandre Kojève and Jean Hyppolite in the 1930s inspired a whole generation of French thinkers, including de Beauvoir and Sartre, to discover Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. De Beauvoir's prominent open relationships at times overshadowed her substantial academic reputation. A scholar lecturing with de Beauvoir chastised their "distinguished audience every question asked about Sartre concerned his work, while all those asked about Beauvoir concerned her personal life." Beginning in 1929, de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre were partners and remained so for fifty-one years, until his death in 1980. De Beauvoir chose never to marry or set up a joint household and she never had children; this gave her the time to advance her education and engage in political causes, to write and teach, to have lovers. Her most famous lover was American author Nelson Algren whom she met in Chicago in 1947, to whom she wrote across the Atlantic as "my beloved hus
Angela Anaïs Juana Antolina Rosa Edelmira Nin y Culmell, known professionally as Anaïs Nin was a French-Cuban American diarist, essayist and writer of short stories and erotica. Born to Cuban parents in France, Nin was the daughter of composer Joaquín Nin and Rosa Culmell, a classically trained singer. Nin spent her early years in Spain and Cuba, about sixteen years in Paris, the remaining half of her life in the United States, where she became an established author. Beginning at age eleven, Nin wrote journals prolifically for six decades and up until her death, her journals, many of which were published during her lifetime, detail her private thoughts and personal relationships. Her journals describe her marriage to Hugh Parker Guiler and marriage to Rupert Pole, in addition to her numerous affairs, including those with psychoanalyst Otto Rank and writer Henry Miller, both of whom profoundly influenced Nin and her writing. In addition to her journals, Nin wrote several novels, critical studies, short stories, volumes of erotica.
Much of her work, including the collections of erotica Delta of Venus and Little Birds, was published posthumously amid renewed critical interest in her life and work. Nin spent her life in Los Angeles, where she died of cervical cancer in 1977. Anaïs Nin was born in Neuilly, France, to Joaquín Nin, a Cuban pianist and composer of Catalan Spanish descent, Rosa Culmell, a classically trained Cuban singer of French and Danish descent, her father's grandfather had fled France during the Revolution, going first to Saint-Domingue New Orleans, to Cuba where he helped build that country's first railway. Nin was left the church when she was 16 years old, she spent her childhood and early life in Europe. Her parents separated. Nin would drop out of high school in 1919 at age sixteen, according to her diaries, Volume One, 1931–1934 began working as an artist's model. After being in the United States for several years, Nin had forgotten how to speak Spanish, but retained her French and became fluent in English.
On March 3, 1923, in Havana, Nin married her first husband, Hugh Parker Guiler, a banker and artist known as "Ian Hugo" when he became a maker of experimental films in the late 1940s. The couple moved to Paris the following year, where Guiler pursued his banking career and Nin began to pursue her interest in writing, her first published work was a critical evaluation of D. H. Lawrence called D. H. Lawrence: An Unprofessional Study, which she wrote in sixteen days. Nin became profoundly interested in psychoanalysis and would study it extensively, first with René Allendy in 1932 and with Otto Rank. Both men became her lovers, as she recounts in her Journal. On her second visit to Rank, Nin reflects on her desire to be "re-born" as a artist. Rank, she observes, helped her move back and forth between what she could verbalize in her journals and what remained unarticulated, she discovered the quality and depth of her feelings in the wordless transitions between what she could say and what she could not say.
"As he talked, I thought of my difficulties with writing, my struggles to articulate feelings not expressed. Of my struggles to find a language for intuition, instincts which are, in themselves, elusive and wordless."In the late summer of 1939, when residents from overseas were urged to leave France due to the approaching war, Nin left Paris and returned to New York City with her husband. During the war, Nin sent her books to Frances Steloff of the Gotham Book Mart in New York for safekeeping. In New York, Anaïs rejoined Otto Rank, who had moved there, moved into his apartment, she began to act as a psychoanalyst herself, seeing patients in the room next to Rank's, having sex with her patients on the psychoanalytic couch. She quit after several months, stating: "I found that I wasn't good because I wasn't objective. I was haunted by my patients. I wanted to intercede." It was in New York that she met the Japanese-American modernist photographer Soichi Sunami, who went on to photograph her for many of her books.
Anaïs Nin's most studied works are her diaries or journals, which she began writing in her adolescence. The published journals, which span several decades from 1933 onward, provide a explorative insight into her personal life and relationships. Nin was acquainted quite intimately, with a number of prominent authors, artists and other figures, wrote of them especially Otto Rank. Moreover, as a female author describing a masculine constellation of celebrities, Nin's journals have acquired importance as a counterbalancing perspective. In the third volume of her unexpurgated journal, she wrote about her father candidly and graphically, detailing his sexual abuse of her at age nine. Unpublished works are coming to light in A Café in Space, the Anaïs Nin Literary Journal, which includes "Anaïs Nin and Joaquín Nin y Castellanos: Prelude to a Symphony—Letters between a father and daughter." So far sixteen volumes of her journals have been published. All but the last five of her adult journals are in expurgated form.
Nin is hailed by
Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. Jung's work was influential in the fields of psychiatry, archaeology, literature and religious studies. Jung worked as a research scientist under Eugen Bleuler. During this time, he came to the attention of the founder of psychoanalysis; the two men conducted a lengthy correspondence and collaborated, for a while, on a joint vision of human psychology. Freud saw the younger Jung as the heir he had been seeking to take forward his "new science" of psychoanalysis and to this end secured his appointment as President of his newly founded International Psychoanalytical Association. Jung's research and personal vision, made it impossible for him to bend to his older colleague's doctrine, a schism became inevitable; this division was painful for Jung, it was to have historic repercussions lasting well into the modern day. Among the central concepts of analytical psychology is individuation—the lifelong psychological process of differentiation of the self out of each individual's conscious and unconscious elements.
Jung considered it to be the main task of human development. He created some of the best known psychological concepts, including synchronicity, archetypal phenomena, the collective unconscious, the psychological complex, extraversion and introversion. Jung was an artist and builder as well as a prolific writer. Many of his works were not published until after his death and some are still awaiting publication. Carl Gustav Jung was born in Kesswil, in the Swiss canton of Thurgau, on 26 July 1875 as the second and first surviving son of Paul Achilles Jung and Emilie Preiswerk, their first child, born in 1873, was a boy named Paul. Being the youngest son of a noted Basel physician of German descent called Karl Gustav Jung, whose hopes of achieving a fortune never materialised, Paul Jung did not progress beyond the status of an impoverished rural pastor in the Swiss Reformed Church. Emilie was the youngest child of a distinguished Basel churchman and academic, Samuel Preiswerk, his second wife. Preiswerk was antistes, the title given to the head of the Reformed clergy in the city, as well as a Hebraist and editor, who taught Paul Jung as his professor of Hebrew at Basel University.
When Jung was six months old, his father was appointed to a more prosperous parish in Laufen, but the tension between his parents was growing. Emilie Jung was an depressed woman. Although she was normal during the day, Jung recalled that at night his mother became strange and mysterious, he reported that one night he saw a faintly luminous and indefinite figure coming from her room with a head detached from the neck and floating in the air in front of the body. Jung had a better relationship with his father. Jung's mother left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel for an unknown physical ailment, his father took the boy to be cared for by Emilie Jung's unmarried sister in Basel, but he was brought back to his father's residence. Emilie Jung's continuing bouts of absence and depression troubled her son and caused him to associate women with "innate unreliability", whereas "father" meant for him reliability but powerlessness. In his memoir, Jung would remark; these early impressions were revised: I have trusted men friends and been disappointed by them, I have mistrusted women and was not disappointed."
After three years of living in Laufen, Paul Jung requested a transfer. In 1879 he was called to Kleinhüningen, next to Basel, where his family lived in a parsonage of the church; the relocation lifted her melancholy. When he was nine years old, Jung's sister Johanna Gertrud was born. Known in the family as "Trudi", she became a secretary to her brother. Jung was a introverted child. From childhood, he believed that, like his mother, he had two personalities—a modern Swiss citizen and a personality more suited to the 18th century. "Personality Number 1", as he termed it, was a typical schoolboy living in the era of the time. "Personality Number 2" was a dignified and influential man from the past. Although Jung was close to both parents, he was disappointed by his father's academic approach to faith. A number of childhood memories made lifelong impressions on him; as a boy, he carved a tiny mannequin into the end of the wooden ruler from his pencil case and placed it inside the case. He added a stone, which he had painted into upper and lower halves, hid the case in the attic.
Periodically, he would return to the mannequin bringing tiny sheets of paper with messages inscribed on them in his own secret language. He reflected that this ceremonial act brought him a feeling of inner peace and security. Years he discovered similarities between his personal experience and the practices associated with totems in indigenous cultures, such as the collection of soul-stones near Arlesheim or the tjurungas of Australia, he concluded that his intuitive ceremonial act was an unconscious ritual, which he had practiced in a way, strikingly similar to those in distant locations which he, as a young boy, knew nothing about. His observations about symbols and the collective unconscious were inspired, in part, by these early experi