The brant, or brent goose, is a species of goose of the genus Branta. The black brant is a pacific North American subspecies; the Brent System, a major oilfield, was named after the species. The brant is a small goose with a stubby bill, it weighs 0.88 -- 2.2 kg. The under-tail is pure white, the tail black and short; the species is divided into three subspecies: Dark-bellied brant B. b. bernicla Pale-bellied brant B. b. hrota Black brant B. b. nigricans Some DNA evidence suggests that these forms are genetically distinct. The body of the dark-bellied form is uniformly dark grey-brown all over, the flanks and belly not paler than the back; the head and neck are black, with a small white patch on either side of the neck. It breeds on the Arctic coasts of central and western Siberia and winters in western Europe, with over half the population in southern England, the rest between northern Germany and north-western France; the pale-bellied brant appears light grey in colour. The body is different shades of grey-brown all over, the flanks and belly are paler than the back and present a marked contrast.
The head and neck are black, with a small white patch on either side of the neck. It breeds in Franz Josef Land, Svalbard and northeastern Canada, wintering in Denmark, northeast England and the Atlantic coast of the U. S. from Maine to Georgia, as well as in a small but significant area, le Havre de Regnéville, centered on the Sienne Estuary in Manche. The black brant appears white in colour; this form is a contrastingly black and white bird, with a uniformly dark sooty-brown back, similarly-coloured underparts and a prominent white flank patch. It breeds in northwestern Canada and eastern Siberia, winters on the west coast of North America from southern Alaska to California, but some in east Asia Japan; the Asian populations of the black brant populations had been regarded as a separate subspecies orientalis based on purported paler upperparts coloration. A fourth form has been proposed, although no formal subspecies description has been made as yet, for a population of birds breeding in central Arctic Canada, wintering on Puget Sound on the American west coast around the U.
S./Canada border. These birds are intermediate in appearance between black brant and pale-bellied brant, having brown upperparts and grey underparts which give less of a contrast with the white flank patch. Given that this population exhibits mixed characters, it has been proposed that, rather than being a separate subspecies, it is a result of interbreeding between these two forms, it used to be a coastal bird in winter leaving tidal estuaries, where it feeds on eel-grass and the seaweed, sea lettuce. On the east coast of North America, the inclusion of sea lettuce is a recent change to their diet, brought about by a blight on eelgrass in 1931; this resulted in the near-extirpation of the brant. The few that survived changed their diet to include sea lettuce until the eelgrass began to return. Brants have maintained this diet since as a survival strategy. In recent decades, it has started using agricultural land a short distance inland, feeding extensively on grass and winter-sown cereals; this may be behavior learned by following other species of geese.
Food resource pressure may be important in forcing this change, as the world population increased over 10-fold to 400,000-500,000 by the mid-1980s reaching the carrying capacity of the estuaries. In the breeding season, it uses low-lying wet coastal tundra for both feeding; the nest is bowl-shaped, lined with grass and down, in an elevated location near a small pond. The brant goose is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds applies. Branta is a Latinised form of Old Norse brandgás, "burnt goose", bernicla is the medieval Latin name for the barnacle; the brant and the similar barnacle goose were considered one species believed to be the same creature as the crustacean. That myth can be dated back to at least the 12th century. Gerald of Wales claimed to have seen these birds hanging down from pieces of timber, William Turner accepted the theory, John Gerard claimed to have seen the birds emerging from their shells; the legend persisted until the end of the 18th century.
In County Kerry, until recently, Catholics could eat this bird on a Friday because it counted as fish. Shields, Gerald F.. "Analysis of mitochondrial DNA of Pacific Black Brant". The Auk. American Ornithologists' Union. 107: 620–623. Syroechkovski, E. E.. "Status of Brent Goose in northwestern Yakutia, East Siberia". British Birds. British Birds Rarities Committee. 91: 565–572. Ebels, E. B.. "Identification of brent geese: a new feature". Dutch Birding
The Russian–American Telegraph known as the Western Union Telegraph Expedition and the Collins Overland Telegraph, was a $3,000,000 undertaking by the Western Union Telegraph Company in 1865–1867, to lay an electric telegraph line from San Francisco, California to Moscow, Russia. The route was intended to travel from California via Oregon, Washington Territory, the Colony of British Columbia and Russian America, under the Bering Sea and across Siberia to Moscow, where lines would communicate with the rest of Europe, it was proposed as an alternate to deep underwater cables in the Atlantic. Abandoned in 1867, the Russian–American Telegraph was considered an economic failure, but history now deems it a "successful failure" because of the many benefits the exploration brought to the regions that were traversed. To date, no entities have attempted a communications cable across the Bering Sea, with all extant submarine communications cables that travel westbound from North America following more southerly routes across much longer stretches of the North Pacific Ocean, connecting to Asia in Japan and on to the Asian mainland.
By 1861 the Western Union Telegraph Company had linked the eastern United States by electric telegraph all the way to San Francisco. The challenge remained to connect North America with the rest of the world. Working to meet that challenge was Cyrus West Field's Atlantic Telegraph Company, who in 1858 had laid the first undersea cable across the Atlantic Ocean. However, the cable had broken three weeks afterwards and additional attempts had thus far been unsuccessful. Meanwhile, entrepreneur Perry Collins visited Russia and took note that it was making good progress extending its telegraph lines eastwards from Moscow over Siberia. Upon his return to the States, Collins approached Hiram Sibley, head of the Western Union Telegraph Company with the idea of an overland telegraph line that would run through the Northwestern states, the colony of British Columbia and Russian Alaska. Together, they worked on promoting the idea and obtained considerable support in the US, London and Russia. On July 1, 1864, the American president Abraham Lincoln granted the company a right of way from San Francisco to the British Columbia border and assigned them the steamship Saginaw from the US Navy.
The George S. Wright and the infamous Nightingale, a former slave ship, were put into service, as well as a fleet of riverboats and schooners. To supervise the construction, Collins chose Colonel Charles Bulkley, the Superintendent of Military Telegraphs. Being an ex-military man, Bulkley divided the work crews into "working divisions" and an "Engineer Corps."Edward Conway was made the head of the project's American route and British Columbia sections. Franklin Pope was assigned to Conway and given the responsibility for the exploring of British Columbia; the task of exploring Russian America went to the Smithsonian naturalist Robert Kennicott. In Siberia, the construction and exploration was under the charge of Russian nobleman Serge Abasa. Assigned to him were Collins Macrae, George Kennan and J. A. Mahood. Exploration and construction teams were divided into groups: one was in British Columbia, another worked around the Yukon River and Norton Sound with headquarters at St. Michael, Alaska, a third explored the area along the Amur River in Siberia and a fourth group of about forty men was sent to Port Clarence to build the line, to cross the Bering Strait to Siberia.
The Colony of British Columbia gave the project its full and enthusiastic support, allowing the materials for the line to be brought in free of duties and tolls. Chosen as the British Columbia terminus, New Westminster gloated over its triumph over its rival, it was predicted in the British Columbian newspaper that "New Westminster and dreaded by its jealous neighbor, will now be at the centre of all these great systems." The right of way for the telegraph line followed the shoreline west from the US border traversed the high ground of what is now White Rock and South Surrey to the Nicomekl River. From Mud Bay the telegraph line followed the Kennedy Trail northwest across Surrey and North Delta to the Fraser River. At Brownsville, a cable was laid across the river to New Westminster; the surveying in British Columbia had started before the line reached New Westminster on March 21, 1865. Edward Conway was dismayed by the difficulty of the terrain. In response to Conway's concerns, the Colony of British Columbia agreed to build a road from New Westminster to Yale where it would meet the newly completed Cariboo Road.
The telegraph company's only responsibility would be to string wires along it. In Russian America, work began in 1865 but little progress was made. Contributing to this lack of success was the climate, the terrain, supply shortages and the late arrival of the construction teams; the entire route through Russian America was surveyed by the fall of 1866. Rather than waiting until spring, as was the usual practice, construction began and continued through that winter. Many of the Western Union workers were unaccustomed to severe northern winters and working in frigid conditions made erecting the line a difficult experience. Fires had to be lit to thaw out the frozen ground before holes could be dug to place the telegraph poles. For transportation and to haul the supplies, the only option the work crews had was to use teams of sled dogs; when the Atlantic cable was completed and the first transatlantic message to England was sent in July 1866, the men in the Russian American division were not aware of it until a full year later.
By telegraph stations had been built, thousands of poles were cut and distributed along the route and over 45 mi (7
The pintail or northern pintail is a duck with wide geographic distribution that breeds in the northern areas of Europe and North America. It is migratory and winters south of its breeding range to the equator. Unusually for a bird with such a large range, it has no geographical subspecies if the conspecific duck Eaton's pintail is considered to be a separate species; this is a large duck, the male's long central tail feathers give rise to the species' English and scientific names. Both sexes have grey legs and feet; the drake is more striking, having a thin white stripe running from the back of its chocolate-coloured head down its neck to its white undercarriage. The drake has attractive grey and black patterning on its back and sides; the hen's plumage is more subtle and subdued, with drab brown feathers similar to those of other female dabbling ducks. Hens make the drakes a flute-like whistle; the northern pintail is a bird of open wetlands which nests on the ground some distance from water.
It feeds by dabbling for plant food and adds small invertebrates to its diet during the nesting season. It is gregarious when not breeding, forming large mixed flocks with other species of duck; this duck's population is affected by predators and avian diseases. Human activities, such as agriculture and fishing, have had a significant impact on numbers. Owing to the huge range and large population of this species, it is not threatened globally; this species was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758 as Anas acuta. The scientific name comes from two Latin words: anas, meaning "duck", acuta, which comes from the verb acuere, "to sharpen". Within the large dabbling duck genus Anas, the northern pintail's closest relatives are other pintails, such as the yellow-billed pintail and Eaton's pintail; the pintails are sometimes separated in the genus Dafila, an arrangement supported by morphological and behavioural data. The famous British ornithologist Sir Peter Scott gave this name to his daughter, the artist Dafila Scott.
Eaton's pintail has two subspecies, A. e. eatoni of Kerguelen Islands, A. e. drygalskyi of Crozet Islands, was considered conspecific with the northern hemisphere's northern pintail. Sexual dimorphism is much less marked in the southern pintails, with the male's breeding appearance being similar to the female plumage. Unusually for a species with such a large range, northern pintail has no geographical subspecies if Eaton's pintail is treated as a separate species. A claimed extinct subspecies from Manra Island, Tristram's pintail, A. a. modesta, appears to be indistinguishable from the nominate form. The northern pintail is a large duck with a wing chord of 23.6–28.2 cm and wingspan of 80–95 cm. The male is 59–76 cm in length and weighs 450–1,360 g, therefore is larger than the female, 51–64 cm long and weighs 454–1,135 g; the northern pintail broadly overlaps in size with the similarly-widespread mallard, but is more slender and gracile, with a longer neck and a longer tail. The unmistakable breeding plumaged male has a chocolate-brown head and white breast with a white stripe extending up the side of the neck.
Its upperparts and sides are grey, but elongated grey feathers with black central stripes are draped across the back from the shoulder area. The vent area is yellow, contrasting with the black underside of the tail, which has the central feathers elongated to as much as 10 cm; the bill is bluish and the legs are blue-grey. The adult female is scalloped and mottled in light brown with a more uniformly grey-brown head, its pointed tail is shorter than the male's. In non-breeding plumage, the drake pintail looks similar to the female, but retains the male upperwing pattern and long grey shoulder feathers. Juvenile birds resemble the female, but are less neatly scalloped and have a duller brown speculum with a narrower trailing edge; the pintail walks well on land, swims well. It has a fast flight, with its wings swept-back, rather than straight out from the body like other ducks. In flight, the male shows a black speculum bordered white at the rear and pale rufous at the front, whereas the female's speculum is dark brown bordered with white, narrowly at the front edge but prominently at the rear, being visible at a distance of 1,600 m.
The male's call is a soft proop-proop whistle, similar to that of the common teal, whereas the female has a mallard-like descending quack, a low croak when flushed. This dabbling duck breeds across northern areas of Eurasia south to about Poland and Mongolia, in Canada and the Midwestern United States. In winters south of its breeding range, reaches to the equator in Panama, northern sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South Asia. Small numbers migrate to Pacific islands Hawaii, where a few hundred birds winter on the main islands in shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural habitats. Transoceanic journeys occur: a bird, caught and ringed in Labrador, was shot by a hunter in England nine days and Japanese-ringed birds have been recovered from six US states east to Utah and Mississippi. In parts of the range, such as Great Britain and the northwestern United States, the pintail may be present all year; the northern pin
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, again since 2002 by Russia. The GSE claimed to be "the first Marxist-Leninist general-purpose encyclopedia"; the idea of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia emerged in 1923 on the initiative of Otto Schmidt, a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In early 1924 Schmidt worked with a group which included Mikhail Pokrovsky, Nikolai Meshcheryakov, Valery Bryusov, Veniamin Kagan and Konstantin Kuzminsky to draw up a proposal, agreed by the in April 1924. Involved was Anatoly Lunacharsky, Commissar of Enlightenment, involved with a proposal by Alexander Bogdanov and Maxim Gorky to produce a Workers' Encyclopedia. There were three editions; the first edition of 65 volumes was published during the chief editor being Otto Schmidt. The second edition of 50 volumes was published in 1950–1958; the third edition of 1969–1978 contains 30 volumes. Volume 24 is in two books, one being a full-sized book about the USSR, all with about 21 million words, the chief editor being Alexander Prokhorov.
In the third edition, much attention was paid to the philosophical problems of natural sciences and chemical sciences, mathematical methods in various branches of knowledge. From 1957 to 1990, the Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia was released annually with up-to-date articles about the Soviet Union and all countries of the world; the first online edition, an exact replica of text and graphics of the third edition, was published by Rubricon.com in 2000. Editors and contributors to the GSE included a number of leading Soviet scientists and politicians: The foreword to the first volume of the GSE proclaims "The Soviet Union has become the center of the civilized world." The GSE, along with all other books and other media and communications with the public, was directed toward the "furtherance of the aims of the party and the state." The 1949 decree issued for the production of the second edition of the GSE directed: The second edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia should elucidate the world-historical victories of socialism in our country, which have been attained in the U.
S. S. R. in the provinces of economics, science and art.... With exhaustive completeness it must show the superiority of socialist culture over the culture of the capitalist world. Operating on Marxist-Leninist theory, the encyclopedia should give a party criticism of contemporary bourgeois tendencies in various provinces of science and technics; the foreword to the GSE expanded on that mission, paying particular attention to developments in science and technology: nuclear engineering, space technology, atomic physics, polymer chemistry, radio electronics. In support of that mission, the GSE described as the role of education: To develop in children's minds the Communist morality and Soviet patriotism; the third edition of the GSE subsequently expanded on the role of education: Education is essential to preparing for life and work. It is the basic means by which people come to know and acquire culture, it is the foundation of culture's development... The Soviet education rests on the principles of the unity of communist upbringing.
The underlying principles of the Soviet system of public education include a scientific approach to and continual improvement of education on the basis of the latest achievements in science and culture. Based on his extensive talks with the editors of the GSE, to whom he was granted unprecedented access, William Benton, publisher of the Encyclopædia Britannica, wrote the following in observation of the GSE's chief editor B. A. Vvedensky stating their compliance with the 1949 decree of the Council of Ministers: It is just this simple for the Soviet board of editors, they are working under a government directive that orders them to orient their encyclopedia as as a political tract. The encyclopedia was thus planned to provide the intellectual underpinning for the Soviet world offensive in the duel for men's minds; the Soviet government ordered it as a fighting propaganda weapon. And the government attaches such importance to its political r
Siberia is an extensive geographical region spanning much of Eurasia and North Asia. Siberia has been a part of modern Russia since the 17th century; the territory of Siberia extends eastwards from the Ural Mountains to the watershed between the Pacific and Arctic drainage basins. The Yenisei River conditionally divides Siberia into two parts and Eastern. Siberia stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the national borders of Mongolia and China. With an area of 13.1 million square kilometres, Siberia accounts for 77% of Russia's land area, but it is home to 36 million people—27% of the country's population. This is equivalent to an average population density of about 3 inhabitants per square kilometre, making Siberia one of the most sparsely populated regions on Earth. If it were a country by itself, it would still be the largest country in area, but in population it would be the world's 35th-largest and Asia's 14th-largest. Worldwide, Siberia is well known for its long, harsh winters, with a January average of −25 °C, as well as its extensive history of use by Russian and Soviet administrations as a place for prisons, labor camps, exile.
The origin of the name is unknown. Some sources say that "Siberia" originates from the Siberian Tatar word for "sleeping land". Another account sees the name as the ancient tribal ethnonym of the Sirtya, an ethnic group which spoke a Paleosiberian language; the Sirtya people were assimilated into the Siberian Tatars. The modern usage of the name was recorded in the Russian language after the Empire's conquest of the Siberian Khanate. A further variant claims; the Polish historian Chyliczkowski has proposed that the name derives from the proto-Slavic word for "north", but Anatole Baikaloff has dismissed this explanation. He said that the neighbouring Chinese and Mongolians, who have similar names for the region, would not have known Russian, he suggests that the name might be a combination of two words with Turkic origin, "su" and "bir". The region has paleontological significance, as it contains bodies of prehistoric animals from the Pleistocene Epoch, preserved in ice or in permafrost. Specimens of Goldfuss cave lion cubs and another woolly mammoth from Oymyakon, a woolly rhinoceros from the Kolyma River, bison and horses from Yukagir have been found.
The Siberian Traps were formed by one of the largest-known volcanic events of the last 500 million years of Earth's geological history. Their activity continued for a million years and some scientists consider it a possible cause of the "Great Dying" about 250 million years ago, – estimated to have killed 90% of species existing at the time. At least three species of human lived in Southern Siberia around 40,000 years ago: H. sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, the Denisovans. In 2010 DNA evidence identified the last as a separate species. Siberia was inhabited by different groups of nomads such as the Enets, the Nenets, the Huns, the Scythians and the Uyghurs; the Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern Tobolsk was known as a prominent figure who endorsed Kubrat as Khagan of Old Great Bulgaria in 630. The Mongols conquered a large part of this area early in the 13th century. With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir was established in the late 15th century. Turkic-speaking Yakut migrated north from the Lake Baikal region under pressure from the Mongol tribes during the 13th to 15th century.
Siberia remained a sparsely populated area. Historian John F. Richards wrote: "... it is doubtful that the total early modern Siberian population exceeded 300,000 persons."The growing power of Russia in the West began to undermine the Siberian Khanate in the 16th century. First, groups of traders and Cossacks began to enter the area; the Russian Army was directed to establish forts farther and farther east to protect new settlers from European Russia. Towns such as Mangazeya, Tara and Tobolsk were developed, the last being declared the capital of Siberia. At this time, Sibir was the name of a fortress at Qashlik, near Tobolsk. Gerardus Mercator, in a map published in 1595, marks Sibier both as the name of a settlement and of the surrounding territory along a left tributary of the Ob. Other sources contend that the Xibe, an indigenous Tungusic people, offered fierce resistance to Russian expansion beyond the Urals; some suggest. By the mid-17th century, Russia had established areas of control; some 230,000 Russians had settled in Siberia by 1709.
Siberia was a destination for sending exiles. The first great modern change in Siberia was the Trans-Siberian Railway, constructed during 1891–1916, it linked Siberia more to the industrialising Russia of Nicholas II. Around seven million people moved to Siberia from European Russia between 1801 and 1914. From 1859 to 1917, more than half a million people migrated to the Russian Far East. Siberia has extensive natural resources. During the 20th century, large-scale exploitation of these was developed, industrial towns cropped up throughout the region. At 7:15 a.m. on 30 June 1908, millions of trees were felled near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in central Siberia in the Tunguska Event. Most scientists believe this resulted from the air burst of a comet. Though no crater has been found, the landscape in the area still bears the scars of this event. In the early decades of the Soviet Union (
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug or Chukotka is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country, is administratively part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Chukotka is the least densely populated. Anadyr is the largest town and the capital of Chukotka, the easternmost settlement to have town status in Russia. Chukotka is home to Elgygytgyn Lake, an impact crater lake, the village of Uelen, the easternmost settlement in Russia and the closest substantial settlement to the United States; the autonomous okrug's surface area is 737,700 square kilometers, about 6% larger than the U. S. state of Texas, is the 7th-largest Russian federal subject. The region is the most northeasterly region of Russia, since the Alaska Purchase has been the only part of Russia lying in the Western Hemisphere. Chukotka shares a border with the Sakha Republic to the west, Magadan Oblast to the south-west, Kamchatka Krai to the south. Chukotka is populated by ethnic Russians and other indigenous peoples.
It is the only autonomous okrug in Russia, not included in, or subordinate to, another federal subject, having separated from Magadan Oblast in 1993. Chukotka is bordered in the north by the Chukchi Sea and the East Siberian Sea, which are part of the Arctic Ocean; the Chukchi Peninsula projects eastward forming the Bering Strait between Russia and the United States, encloses the north side of the Gulf of Anadyr. The peninsula's easternmost point, Cape Dezhnev, is the easternmost point of mainland Russia. Ecologically, Chukotka can be divided into three distinct areas: the northern Arctic desert, the central tundra, the taiga in the south. About half of its area is above the Arctic Circle; this area is mountainous, containing the Chukotsky Mountains and the Anadyr Range. Chukotka's rivers spring from its central mountains; the major rivers are: Anadyr River, with tributaries Belaya and Velikaya Rivers, as well as the Avtatkuul River, which flow east to the Gulf of Anadyr. Omolon and the Great and Little Anyuy Rivers that flow west into the Kolyma River in Yakutia.
Rauchua, Palyavaam, Pegtymel and Amguyema Rivers that flow north into the arctic seas. The largest lakes are Lake Krasnoye, west of Anadyr, Lake Elgygytgyn in central Chukotka; the okrug's extensive coastline has several peninsulas, the main ones being the Kyttyk Peninsula, Cape Shelagsky, the Aachim Peninsula, the Chukchi Peninsula and Russkaya Koshka. There are several islands belonging to Chukotka, from west to east the main ones being Ayon Island, Ryyanranot Island, Chengkuul Island, Mosey Island, the Routan Islands, Shalaurov Island, Wrangel Island, Herald Island, Kosa Dvukh Pilotov Island, Karkarpko Island, Kolyuchin Island, Serykh Gusey Islands, Idlidlya Island, Big Diomede Island, Ilir Island, Arakamchechen Island, Yttygran Island, Merokinkan Island, Achinkinkan Island and Kosa Meechkyn Island. Large parts of Chukotka are covered with moss and arctic plants, similar to western Alaska. Surrounding the Gulf of Anadyr and in the river valleys grow small larch, birch and willow trees. More than 900 species of plants grow including 400 species of moss and lichen.
It is home to 30 fresh water fish species. Chukotka's climate is influenced by its location on the three neighboring seas: the Bering Sea, the East Siberian Sea, the Chukchi Sea; the weather is characterized by cold northerly winds that can change to wet southern winds. Cape Navarin has the highest number of storms in Russia; the coastal areas are windy with little precipitation, between 400 mm per year. Temperature varies from − 15 °C to − 35 °C from +5 °C to +14 °C in July. Growing season is short, only 80 to 100 days per year; the first inhabitants were Paleo-Siberian hunters who came to Chukotka from East Asia. The area was part of the Beringia land bridge, believed to have enabled human migration to the Americas. Traditionally Chukotka was the home of the native Chukchi people, Siberian Yupiks, Chuvans, Evens/Lamuts and Russian Old Settlers. After the Russians conquered the Kazan and Astrakhan Khanates in the 16th century, the trade routes to the Urals and Central Asia opened for travel and traders and Cossacks moved eastwards.
The Cossacks subjected the indigenous people to the Tsar. During the first half of the 17th century, Russians reached the far north-east. In 1641, the first reference to Chukchi people was made by the Cossacks. In 1649, Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnyov explored the far north-eastern coast and established winter quarters on the upstream portion of the Anadyr River that became the fortified settlement of Anadyrsk. Dezhnyov tried to subjugate the Chukchi and exact tribute during the next ten years, but was unsuccessful; the fort was abandoned because of the harsh northern conditions and lack of game animals for food. At the end of the 17th century, the fort regained some importance when the sea route from Anadyrsk to Kamchatka was discovered, it was used as the staging base for expeditions to Kamchatka and all other