Orange County Transportation Authority
The Orange County Transportation Authority is the public sector transportation planning body and mass transit service provider for Orange County, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The agency is the second-largest public transportation provider in the metropolitan area after Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority Its ancestor agencies include not only the prior Orange County Transit District but such diverse entities as the Pacific Electric Railway and the South Coast Transit Corporation. In 2005, OCTA was judged America's Best Public Transportation System by the American Public Transportation Association, for its record gains in bus and Metrolink commuter trains ridership that it operates or funds. OCTA operates the 91 Express Lanes; the Authority's administrative offices are located in the city of Orange and it maintains bus operations bases in the cities of Garden Grove, Santa Ana. First Transit operates about 40 % of OCTA's Fixed Routes out of the Irvine bases.
While MV Transportation operates OCTA's paratransit base for the authority’s ACCESS service in Irvine. OCTA's predecessor agency, the Orange County Transit District, was created in August 1972 by a referendum of county voters, it started as Santa Ana Transit, a small transit agency with five bus routes operating in Orange County. Santa Ana Transit merged with other, smaller agencies throughout the county leading to the formation of OCTD; the routing system was formed over the course of about 15 years and was held in place until the merge to OCTA. In 1991, OCTA was created under state law, combining the seven separate Orange County agencies that managed transportation planning: Orange County Transportation Commission Orange County Transit District Consolidated Transportation Services Agency Orange County Local Transportation Authority Orange County Service Authority for Freeway Emergencies Orange County Congestion Management Agency Orange County Service Authority for Abandoned VehiclesPark-and-ride facilities, public transportation and other transportation related administrative offices merged into one organization.
OCTA administers funds from the half-cent transportation sales tax. Measure M was passed in 1990 and renewed in 2006, it has paid for the expansion on most freeways within Orange County, street improvements and repairs, traffic signal synchronization, increased Metrolink service. In 1995, OCTA suffered tremendously during the Orange County bankruptcy and never recovered; the agency lost $202 million in revenue over 17 years due to the bankruptcy. As a result, bus service was reduced. In October 2015, OCTA rebranded its bus services as "OC Bus" and launched the OC Bus 360° plan, which aims to consolidate routes into more frequent service and increase ridership. OCTA plans to replace 40% of its bus fleet with compressed natural gas-powered vehicles; the change was approved by the OCTA board on February 22, 2016. OCTA has been involved in various labor disputes between itself and its drivers, members of the Teamsters Union Local 952 and United Transportation Union Local 19, including strikes in 1981, 1986 and 2007.
In April 2007, drivers threatened to strike again over the current contract. OCTA offered a 13% raise over three years, but union sources said that it only came out to 8% after factoring in inflation; the drivers voted to strike. California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger intervened, he first issued a one-week cool-off, extended it to 60 days, while talks continued. Negotiations over wage and pension issues failed, the union started to strike on July 7, 2007, at the end of the cooling-off period; this conflict was resolved on July 2007 when the union ratified a new contract. Within a few days, the bus system was running at full capability. OCTA operates 65 bus lines; some of the lines serve the Los Angeles County border communities of Lakewood, La Mirada, Hawaiian Gardens and Long Beach along with express service to Los Angeles, the Riverside County city of Riverside via the La Sierra Metrolink Station. 1-99 are the fixed routes that cover every city in Orange County. Buses operate on most major arterial streets.
Route 1 is a "special case" in that it is the only single-digit route, acquiring the number from the Pacific Coast Highway and internally to the transit authority the route number is 95. Routes 53, 57, 64 feature Xpress bus service with limited stop service between 6am and 6pm on weekdays; these buses are differentiated by adding an X to the end of each respective route. 100-199 routes descended from the old RunAbout service that served residential neighborhoods, or provide service to portions of 1-99 routes which have reduced demand. Three routes are routes that were truncated from routes 29, 43, 47, 53 and 59 as a result of the March 2010 service changes. 200-299 routes are intra-county express routes branded "OC Express" which travel within Orange County and utilize the county's freeways. These routes run from park-and-rides and transit terminals to back; these routes operate only during weekday rush hours. 400-499 routes are StationLink routes, Metrolink shuttles which travel from the Metrolink stations to business districts and vice versa.
These routes do not operate reverse peak services. 500-599 Bravo! Express; these are routes that operate on used routes. They make limited stops and only stop at transfer points to other routes. Routes 543 and 560 are in use, 543 operates on Harbor Blvd. from the Fullerton Transportation Center to MacArthu
Anaheim Convention Center
The Anaheim Convention Center is a major convention center in Anaheim, California. It is located across from the Disneyland Resort on Katella Avenue; the original components, designed by Adrian Wilson & Associates, opened in July 1967—including a basketball arena followed shortly by the convention hall. It holds many events, like VidCon, BlizzCon, Anime Expo, D23 expo, WonderCon, NAMM Show, etc. In addition to hosting various types of conventions, the Anaheim Convention Center was used to host the wrestling during the 1984 Summer Olympics; the center has subsequently undergone six major expansions. It is the largest exhibit facility on the West Coast; the arena was home to the Anaheim Amigos of the American Basketball Association during the first ABA season, 1967–68. The franchise relocated to the Los Angeles Sports Arena and became the Los Angeles Stars thereafter; the Stars' subsequent fan support in Utah set the foundation for the NBA's Utah Jazz. The San Diego Friars of WTT played some of their home matches in the arena between 1975 and 1977.
In 1978, the Anaheim Oranges of WTT used the arena as their primary home venue. The arena was home to the California Surf of the NASL for one indoor season. According to frequent news reports, the largest exposition held at the Convention Center in recent years has been the Winter NAMM Show; this music-equipment convention had 1,560 exhibitors and a record-breaking 88,100 attendees during the 2008 show. The NAMM Show has been running at the Anaheim Center since 1977, except for a 3-year break in 1998–2000 while the Convention Center underwent major renovations. In 2008, news reports indicated that NAMM's long-term lease with the Anaheim Convention Center authority would end in 2010, NAMM was applying pressure to the City of Anaheim to further expand and improve the convention center; the Anime Expo was hosted at the Anaheim Convention Center in 1996 and again from 2003 through 2006 and was one of the convention center's biggest public events. Blizzard Entertainment holds BlizzCon at the venue.
In 2005, BlizzCon used the northern two conference halls. In 2007 and 2008, it used three conference halls. In 2009, it used four conference halls. While tickets to the 2007 event sold out in 3 days, tickets to the October 2008 event sold out "within minutes," and tickets to the August 2009 event sold out in "56 seconds". Tickets to the 2010 Blizzcon sold out within 30 seconds. Another large convention held at the Center is the Medical Design and Manufacturing Show, held shortly after Winter NAMM; the venue served as the site for wrestling at the 1984 Summer Olympics. The venue hosted the Big West Conference's men's and women's college basketball tournaments from 2001 to 2010 and hosts the 76 Classic basketball tournament, it was home to the Anaheim Arsenal of the basketball league now known as the NBA G League, who relocated to Springfield, Massachusetts for the 2009–10 season and since 2014 have played in Grand Rapids, Michigan as the Grand Rapids Drive. During the 1992 Los Angeles riots, the Los Angeles Clippers were forced to move Game 4 of their NBA playoff series versus the Utah Jazz to the Convention Center.
VidCon has been held at the Anaheim Convention Center since its third annual event in 2012. The new venue offered a much larger capacity than the used Hyatt Regency Century Plaza hotel in Los Angeles. WonderCon is hosted annually at the convention center since 2012, with the exception of 2016 when it was held at the Los Angeles Convention Center; the 2012 VEX Robotics World Championship was held in the convention center. 600 teams were present at the competition which utilized two of the convention center's exhibit halls, as well as the convention centers Arena. In 2013 the VEX Robotics World Championship returned to the Anaheim Convention Center, occupying 3 exhibit halls as well as the arena. There were over 700 teams present; each competed to be crowned the World Championship within their respective divisions. Disney's inaugural D23 Expo, a biennial convention for Disney fans, was held at the Anaheim Convention Center in 2009; the convention center has hosted all subsequent D23 Expos. Lucasfilm's Star Wars Celebration fan gathering was held at the convention center in 2015.
MineCon was held at the venue in September 2016. It hosts the 2017 World Weightlifting Championships; the Collegiate Challenge gymnastics meet was held in the arena in 2019. The arena will host indoor volleyball during the 2028 Summer Olympics; the convention center hosted the 2017 FBLA-PBL National Leadership Conference. The convention center and arena will host the California State Future Farmers of America leadership conference in 2018, 2019, 2020. 9,000 students from across the state of California are expected to attend the 4 day event. Convention centers in California List of convention centers in the United States Sports venues in Anaheim, California Tourist attractions in Orange County, California Official website Anaheim.net: City of Anaheim history, including the Convention Center 1966 photo of the Convention Center under construction
California County Routes in zone S
There are 34 routes assigned to the "S" zone of the California Route Marker Program, which designates county routes in California. The "S" zone includes county highways in Imperial, Riverside, San Diego, Santa Barbara counties. County Route S1 known as Sunrise Highway for a portion of its length, is a 34.08 mi long county route located in San Diego County, California. It begins at SR 94 near Barrett and moves northward across Interstate 8, just west of the Laguna Summit; this segment is known as Buckman Springs Road. North of I-8, it is a National Forest Scenic Byway; the route begins at SR 94 near Barrett not far from the Mexican border. From there, it heads northward along Buckman Springs Road. Soon afterwards, it enters the Cleveland National Forest; when the road reaches Interstate 8, while Buckman Springs Road continues northeastward across the freeway, CR S1 continues in a northwest direction along Old Highway 80, the original alignment of U. S. Route 80 in California, it closely parallels I-8 for several miles.
Upon crossing the freeway at Laguna Junction, CR S1 separates from Old Highway 80 and becomes Sunrise Scenic Byway. From Interstate 8, it begins its ascent into the Laguna Mountains; the route here was built along a cliff overlooking Pine Valley to its west. Around here, the vegetation still consists of sagebrush; as the route gains elevation through Cleveland National Forest, the route becomes more forested. Around here, numerous campgrounds dot the side of the road. There is a picnic area overlooking Anza-Borrego Desert State Park near the Burnt Rancheria Campground, said to contrast the forest scenery along the route. Upon passing the settlement of Laguna Mountain, the vegetation along the route consists of dead trees devastated by the 2003 Cedar Fire; as the route approaches its north end at SR 79, Lake Cuyamaca is visible. The north terminus is located just north of Cuyamaca Rancho State Park where it meets State Route 79; the route was established by the county in the year 1959, where the entire route was designated as it is now.
No major numbering or routing changes occurred throughout its history. The northern segment of the route was established as a Scenic Byway in 1959. County Route S2 is a county highway in the US state of California, it runs for 65 miles, north -- south, in San Diego County. S2 is the third longest county route in California and is exclusively a two-lane rural road, it follows the route of the former Southern Emigrant Trail and Butterfield Overland Mail. The highway begins at a junction with State Route 98 in Ocotillo and runs north through an interchange with Interstate 8; this part is called Imperial Highway. The highway crosses into its name changes to Sweeney Pass Road. Farther north, the name of the highway changes to the Great Southern Overland Stage Route of 1849 at a remote junction; the highway crosses State Route 78 at Scissors Crossing in a desert community now called Shelter Valley, its name changes to San Felipe Road. The highway ends at a junction with State Route 79 near the community of Warner Springs.
Images from County Route S2 The route was defined in 1970. County Route S3 begins at a junction with State Route 78 and runs north over Yaqui Pass to Borrego Springs, bearing the name Yaqui Pass Road, it left again onto Borrego Springs Road. It ends at a junction with County Route S22 called Christmas Circle, its total length is 12.1 miles. There is one call box on this highway, it is at Yaqui Pass summit. The highway is part of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail Auto Tour Route. County Route S4 is a road in the northern city limits of San Diego; the route traverses across Interstate 15 as Poway Road east to State Route 67. The route's western terminus is at I-15, where the road continues west as Rancho Penasquitos Boulevard, traverses across SR 56, ends as Carmel Mountain Road. Eastward, the road traverses through the city of Poway with the name Poway Road and has its east end at SR 67. Within Poway, it is one of the busiest streets in the city; the route was established in 1959. County Route S5 is a road in both Poway and San Diego, California.
Its south end is County Route S4, or Poway Road, its north end is Interstate 15. The road's south end is at County Route S4 in Poway, it winds north through Poway as Espola Road and turns west, ending at Interstate 15 as Rancho Bernardo Road. The route was established in 1959. County Route S6 is a county route in California, it connects Del Mar with Palomar Mountain across San Diego County. It is one of few San Diego County Routes with a discontinuity in its routing. S6 starts at San Diego County Route S21 in Del Mar as Via de la Valle, it crosses Interstate 5 and meets with S8 in Rancho Santa Fe at the intersection of Via de la Valle and Paseo Delicias. At El Camino Del Norte the name changes to Del Dios Highway, past the community of Del Dios and into Escondido, California. In Escondido, S6 runs along West and East Valley Parkways, to Valley Center Road through Valley Center, California. S6 ends at State Route 76. About four miles east on SR 76, S6 begins again as South Grade Road, which winds northward on Palomar Mountain.
It intersects with S7 continues north until it ends at the Palomar Observatory. The route was defined in 1959. County Route S7 is a county route in San Diego County, California that provides access to Palomar Mountain. S7's western terminus is at State Route 76 east of California, it begins as a dirt road known as the Nate H
The Outlets at Orange
The Outlets at Orange is one of Orange County, California's outlet shopping centers. It is an open-air shopping mall developed by The Mills Corporation and now owned jointly Simon Property Group, who owns 50% of it, KanAm, in Orange, California, a few miles southeast of Disneyland near the heart of the Orange Crush interchange, it was built on the former site of the City Mall. From 1970 to 1996, the site was home to an enclosed mall called The City Shopping Center, featuring anchor stores May Company California and JCPenney anchoring The City edge city complex; the access roads around the mall have "City" in their names because they were built as part of that complex. By the start of the 1990s, business at "The City Shopping Center" started declining rapidly. May Company closed in July 1991 and JCPenney closed in February 1995 making it the last anchor store to close and the mall was closed and demolished in late 1996. Mills purchased the site considering converting the City mall to one of their Mills malls named "City Mills," but instead built an outdoor lifestyle center with outlets and entertainment facilities most because there was another Mills mall in Southern California under development.
The center's old slogan was The Block at Orange... It Ain't Square, it was The Mills Corporation's first outdoor mall not to have the "Mills" name. The Block opened in November 1998. Ron Jon Surf Shop was replaced by Neiman Marcus Last Call. Virgin Megastore, Hilo Hattie and Steve & Barry's closed in 2009; these anchors were replaced with H&M, Thrill It Fun Center and Guitar Center. Borders closed in 2011 due to the chain’s liquidation, was replaced by Sports Authority, but Sports Authority at the mall was liquidated along with the rest of the company's stores starting May 18, 2016 due to Chapter 11 Bankruptcy. Furniture & Beyond occupied the former Sports Authority space but closed less than a year later; the mall has one of the few remaining Vans Skate Parks in the country, as most of the other skateparks closed or were sold to another brand in the early 2000s. Like other Mills properties, The Block at Orange was acquired by the Simon Property Group in 2007. In 2011, The Block at Orange was renamed The Outlets at Orange.
The Outlets at Orange underwent two phases of expansion on the east side of the mall. The first phase included a new Nordstrom Rack store, completed in 2013; the second phase was completed in 2016 which included five new stores such as Gap Factory Store, Polo Ralph Lauren, Orange County's first Bloomingdale's Outlet. The second phase was supposed to bring 12 new stores but only 5 came because stores such as Bloomingdale's wanted larger spaces. Outlets at Orange was, for a long time, the only outlet mall in Orange County with the next nearest outlet malls being Citadel Outlets in Los Angeles, about 23 miles away, Ontario Mills in Ontario, about 39 miles away. However, it received its first competition when the Outlets at San Clemente opened in 2015. Despite the new outlet mall being further away than Citadel, it is more competition because it removed The Outlets at Orange's title of being the only outlet mall in Orange County; the former Virgin Megastore was featured in Borat. Official site Converting The City to The Block Rock Around the Block
MainPlace Mall is a shopping mall in Santa Ana, California and is anchored by JCPenney and Macy's. It is managed by Centennial Real Estate Company. MainPlace Santa Ana was built on the site of Santa Ana Fashion Square shopping center, at the site since 1958. Bullock's was one of Fashion Square's original anchors and the store predated the shopping center by four years. I. Magnin was another anchor at Fashion Square. After a period of decline, JMB Property demolished most of the shopping center, except for the anchors, had it replaced by MainPlace in 1987. Bullock's chose to stay on while I. Magnin decided not to remain and therefore closed on February 14, 1987. Along with Bullock's, Nordstrom and J. W. Robinson's were the new anchors. In November 1990, a new wing opened with May Company California opening in May 1991 as the mall's fourth anchor store. By January 1993, Robinson's merged with May Company to become Robinson's-May and as a result, the May Company store closed and reopened as the Robinson's-May Women's & Children's store while the Robinson's store closed and reopened as the Robinson's-May Men's & Home store and the Bullock's became Macy's in May 1996.
In 2000, JMB Urban, the successor to JMB, sold Mainplace and other mall properties to the American branch of Rodamco. Rodamco, in turn, sold it North American properties to Westfield in 2002 and Westfield renamed the property Westfield Shoppingtown MainPlace. Westfield renamed the Westfield MainPlace in 2005. By September 2006, the Robinson's-May Women and Children's store closed due to the chain being acquired by Macy's & Bloomingdale's in which the Robinson's-May Men's & Home store remained opened but became the Macy's Men's and Home store. In March 2007, JCPenney opened in the vacant Robinson's - Children's store. In 2006, Westfield Group sought to revamp the mall in the face of losing local retail market share to the South Coast Plaza. In 2014, Westfield announced a $50 million renovation to the mall. Macy's decided to close its men's and home store at the mall in 2012, consolidate it with the main store; the old Macy's store was split between 24 Hour Fitness, Ashley Furniture Home Store, an entertainment center.
In December 2015, Westfield sold the mall to a consortium, headed by Centennial Real Estate Company and included Montgomery Street Partners and USAA Real Estate Company. On January 12, 2017, it was announced that Nordstrom would be closing on March 17, 2017 making it the last original anchor store to close; the mall developers have announced a transformation that will be coming to the mall in years. Project "Transform MainPlace" will be put into effect. Westfield MainPlace Official Site
The Bowers Museum is an art museum located in Orange County, California. The museum's permanent collection includes more than 100,000 objects, features notable strengths in the areas of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, Native American art, the art of Asia and Oceania, California plein-air painting; the Bowers organizes and hosts special exhibitions from institutions throughout the world, travels exhibitions nationally and internationally. The museum has a second campus two blocks south of the main site, Kidseum, a children's museum with a focus on art and archaeology; the Bowers Museum and Kidseum are located in Santa Ana 6.4 km south of Disneyland. Ada Elvira Bowers and her husband, Charles W. Bowers, a late 19th-century Orange County citrus grower and land developer, donated the land on which the museum stands to the city of Santa Ana as well as $100,000 to build the museum; the building was completed in 1932 but was not operational for four years due to the economic downturn of the Great Depression.
The Charles W. Bowers Memorial Museum opened its doors in 1936 as a city-run museum in a Mission Revival-style building devoted to the history of Orange County; the museum went through its first renovation beginning in 1973 adding a 12,500 square feet wing that brought the museum to 24,000 square feet. The expansion was kicked off by earlier bequests from Evelyna Nunn Miller and Nan Preble, with additional funding coming from a countywide drive, the Museum Foundation, the city of Santa Ana. In 1985 the Santa Ana City Council formed the Charles W. Bowers Museum Corporation to form a new governing board to run the museum and to handle fundraising. In 1986 a city study panel recommended an expansion in order to make the Bowers one of the region's top cultural centers and the anchor of a planned future arts district for Santa Ana; the museum became institutionally severed from city governance in this year, becoming its own nonprofit corporation. Many of the museum's galleries went dark in preparation for the renovation closing in January 1989.
The expansion plan included renovation of the original 1932 structure. In February 1990, the Bowers’ board president announced a new direction for the museum's collection and programming as "the cultural arts of the Pacific Rim". In April 1991, Peter C. Keller, Ph. D. associate director of public programs for the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, was hired as director of the museum. The new museum building reopened on October 1992 as the Bowers Museum of Cultural Art. Since the museum's collections and exhibitions have continued to feature Orange County history, but now reflect the demographics of larger Southern California by celebrating its diverse cultural makeup, with major emphasis on the fine arts of the indigenous peoples of the Americas and the Pacific Rim; the Bowers Museum was recognized in the July 1993 issue of U. S. News & World Report as one of nine "must see" museums in the United States. In February 2007, the Bowers Museum expanded again, adding the $14.6-million Dorothy and Donald Kennedy Wing, with a permanent Chinese exhibition, a permanent Oceanic exhibition, additional galleries for special exhibitions, spacious event venues, a 300-seat auditorium.
The museum now presents special exhibitions from collections and institutions throughout the world, has six permanent collection galleries and, in 2016, watched its membership grow to nearly 8,000 members. The museum has increased in size from its original 10,080 square feet to more than 100,000-square-feet today, with 45,000 square feet of exhibition space; the Bowers serves more than 80,000 school children annually through docent guided tours, community outreach programs, participatory art classes. The museum has a free family festival on the first Sunday of each month and offers free general admission to Santa Ana residents, with proof of residency, each Sunday; the Bowers Museum is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums. "Spirits and Headhunters: Art of the Pacific Islands" highlights masterworks from the three cultural regions of Oceania: Micronesia and Polynesia. Particular focus is placed on New Guinea, the rich artistic traditions infused into daily and ritual life. Included are larger-than-life masks, finely crafted feast bowls, objects associated with the secretive Sepik River men's house and feather currency, magic figures and tools of the shaman, objects related to seagoing trade routes, personal adornments, weapons of warfare.
The Bowers’ collection includes art and artifacts from many of the Pacific Islands."Ancient Arts of China: A 5000 Year Legacy" features nearly 75 sets of objects from the Neolithic period to the Qing dynasty. It is drawn from the Bowers Museum's permanent holdings, plus a small number of loans from private collections, curated by the Shanghai Museum; the works portray the evolution of Chinese technology and culture, showcase examples of bronze vessels, polychrome potteries, porcelains, ivory carvings, robes. Art from China and Japan make up the majority of the Bowers’ collection of Asian art and artifacts."California Legacies: Missions and Ranchos, 1768-1848" features objects related to three historical eras: the settlement of Alta California through Spanish land grants, life at the California Missions, the wealth and lifestyles of the first families who flourished under Mexico`s rule of the Ranchos of California."Ceramics of Western Mexico" focuses on Pre-Columbian art from the western Mexican states of Colima and Jalisco, with a particular focus on West Mexican shaft tombs and the cultures wh
A livery is a uniform, insignia or symbol adorning, in a non-military context, a person, an object or a vehicle that denotes a relationship between the wearer of the livery and an individual or corporate body. Elements of the heraldry relating to the individual or corporate body feature in the livery. Alternatively, some kind of a personal emblem or badge, or a distinctive colour, is featured; the word meaning dispensed, handed over. Most it would indicate that the wearer of the livery was a servant, follower or friend of the owner of the livery, or, in the case of objects, that the object belonged to them. In the late medieval phenomenon of bastard feudalism, livery badges worn by the "retainers" of great lords, sometimes in effect private armies, became a great political concern in England. In the 14th century, "livery" referred to an allowance of any kind, but clothes provided to servants and members of the household; such things might be kept in a "livery cupboard". During the 12th century, specific colours denoting a great person began to be used for both his soldiers and his civilian followers, the modern sense of the term began to form.
Two different colours were used together, but the ways in which they were combined varied with rank. The colours used were different each year; as well as embroidered badges, metal ones were sewn on to clothing, or hung on neck-chains or livery collars. From the 16th century onwards, only the lower-status followers tended to receive clothes in livery colours and the term "servant" much wider began to be restricted to describing the same people. Municipalities and corporations copied the behaviour of the great households; the term is used to describe badges and grander pieces of jewellery containing the heraldic signs of an individual, which were given by that person to friends and distinguished visitors, as well as servants. The grandest of these is the livery collar. William, Lord Hastings the favourite of King Edward IV of England had a "Coller of gold of K. Edward's lyverys" valued at the enormous sum of £40 in an inventory of 1489; this would have been similar to the collars worn by Hastings' sister and her husband Sir John Donne in the Donne Triptych by Hans Memling.
Lords gave their servants pewter badges to sew onto their clothes. In the 15th century European royalty sometimes distributed uniform suits of clothes to courtiers, as the House of Fugger, the leading bankers, did to all employees; this practice contracted to the provision of standardized clothing to male servants in a colour-scheme distinctive to a particular family. The term most notably referred to the embroidered coats, knee breeches and stockings in 18th-century style, worn by footmen on formal occasions in grand houses. Plainer clothing in dark colours and without braiding was worn by footmen and other employees for ordinary duties. For reasons of economy the employment of such servants, their expensive dress, died out after World War I except in royal households. Most European royal courts still use their state liveries on formal occasions; these are in traditional national colours, are based on 18th century clothing with fine gold embroidery. Only male royal servants wear livery. Knee breeches are worn with white silk stockings.
At the British royal court red state livery is still worn by pages, footmen and other attendants on state and formal occasions. The state livery worn by footmen includes foils; the scarlet coats are handmade, embroidered in gold braid with the royal cypher of the monarch. Gold buttons and other trimmings are of patterns which date from the 18th century. Unlike the tailor-made uniform clothing issued to full-time royal staff, the seldom-worn full-state dress reserved for court pages is not bespoke; the usual practice is to select pages whose height fits the existing ceremonial coats held in storage. At the Belgian court liveries in traditional colours are still used at state occasions; the coats are red, have black cuffs with golden lace. Royal cyphers are embroidered on the shoulders; the breeches are of yellow fabric. The semi-state livery worn for less formal occasions has black breeches. At the Dutch court the full state livery is blue; the breeches are yellow, cuffs are red. The phrase "to sue one's livery" refers to the formal recognition of a noble's majority, in exchange of payment, for conferring the powers attached to his title, thereby freeing him from dependence as a ward.
From this core meaning, multiple extended or specialist meanings have derived. Examples include: A livery company is the name used for a guild in the City of London. Following on from the decoration of the nobility's horse-drawn carriages in their owner's livery colours, a livery is the common design and paint scheme a business will use on its vehicles using specific colors and logo placement. In this sense, the term is applied to railway locomotives and rolling stock, ships and road vehicles. For example, United Parcel Service has trucks with a well-known brown livery. Another example is the British Airways ethnic liveries; the term has become extended to the logos and other disti