Victorian Heritage Register
The Victorian Heritage Register lists places deemed to be of cultural heritage significance to the State of Victoria, Australia. It has statutory weight under the Heritage Act 1995 which established Heritage Victoria as the State Government listing and permit authority. Listing on the Victorian Heritage Register is separate from listing by a local Council or Shire, known as a Heritage Overlay. Heritage Victoria is part of the Department of Environment, Land and Planning of the Government of Victoria, Australia. Heritage Victoria reports to the Heritage Council who approve recommendations to the Register and hear appeals when a registration is disputed; the Council hears appeals by an owner to a permit issued by Heritage Victoria. The Minister for Planning is the responsible Minister for Heritage Victoria and the Heritage Act 1995; as of 2013, there were over 2,200 places and objects listed on the VHR. The Act allows the registration of a wide range of cultural heritage places and objects, including: historic archaeological sites and artefacts historic buildings and precincts gardens and cemeteries cultural landscapes shipwrecks and relics significant objects and collectionsPlaces listed on the Victorian Heritage Register can be found on the Victorian Heritage Database, which lists many places with a local level of protection.
The database can be accessed here. A place listed on the Victorian Heritage Register does not mean a place cannot be demolished or altered. Information on permits can be found here.'Delisting' a place occurs only if the place has been destroyed, or a permit has been granted for total demolition or alterations so extensive the place no longer has State level significance. The Planning Minister may intervene in the process of listing or the granting of a permit, by not accepting the advice of Heritage Victoria or the Heritage Council, preventing a place from being listed, or allowing greater alteration or total demolition. All places and objects listed on the register are entitled to a Blue plaque. Heritage listed buildings in Melbourne Category:Victorian Heritage Register List of heritage registers Media related to Victorian Heritage Register at Wikimedia Commons Victorian Heritage Database Heritage Victoria website Heritage Act 1995
Clifton Springs, Victoria
Clifton Springs is a coastal town located on the Bellarine Peninsula, near Geelong, Australia. In December 1870 a report was published regarding the discovery of mineral springs on "Clifton", the property of Thomas Bates; the medicinal value of the waters was submitted to rigid chemical examination, summarised as containing magnesia, sulphur and iron. In about 1871, Bates leased the land adjacent to the Springs to Mr. Levien, a large landholder at nearby Murradoc, who created a pleasure ground, Clifton Springs boomed. A pier was built, along with salt sulphur baths. Steamers ran excursions from Geelong and other places, regular coach services were provided by Cobb & Co. from nearby Portarlington and Drysdale. Other buildings, including a boiler house, mineral water bottling plant and manager's cottage were built in the vicinity of what became known as "Fairy Dell". A well-appointed hotel was constructed above the Springs, it was destroyed by fire in 1921, a second one was built in 1926, remodelled as the Clifton Springs Country Club in about 1957, as part of a real estate development, became the Clifton Springs Community Centre in 1977 when the building was purchased by the Shire of Bellarine.
A Clifton Springs Post Office was open from 1902 until 1921, from 1927 until 1932. Fairy Dell Post Office opened on 1 July 1916 and closed in 1971; the springs area, located around Fairy Dell, was closed due to possible landslides, but was re-opened in 2007 after extensive work to repair the area. The former Mineral Springs site on Spring Street is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register. Clifton Springs grouped with its neighbouring town, overlooks Corio Bay, the You Yangs and Geelong; this combined urban area had an estimated population of 13,494 at June 2016. The area has undergone significant changes over the past decade, with new housing developments on the north side of the town. In the early 1960s, as part of a large real estate development in Clifton Springs, which they dubbed "Clifton Springs and Country Club Estate", real estate agents Willmore and Randell erected a striking entrance structure in Bayshore Avenue; the structure included a fountain, which passed to the control of the Greater Geelong Council.
The fountain has degraded over time, in late 2006 it was emptied until further notice, due to water restrictions. In 2013 a Clifton Springs fountain working group reported that locals wanted something done about the fountain's gradual deterioration, they felt it were concerned that it was becoming an eyesore. A public meeting on 12 March expressed general support for renovating the structure, using an enclosed, non-evaporative system which would use much less water; the renovation should include symbols of the area’s past and possible futures, linking the fountain with some of the public art at The Dell, evoking the time when mineral water was exported from Clifton Springs. Local councillor Lindsay Ellis told the working group that a report on the fountain's condition, with an estimate of the cost of refurbishing it, was due from council officers on 23 April, that Geelong Council would consider the fountain's future as part of the process of formulating the council's 2013/14 budget; the Clifton Springs Golf Club, featuring stunning views over Corio Bay, is entered from Clearwater Drive.
Clifton Springs Primary School is situated in Jetty Road. It has an enrolment of 400 students. 1911 – 50 1966 – 146 1976 – 1,049 1986 – 3,657 1991 – 5,847 2006 – 7,063 2011 – 7,153 2016 – 7,519In the 2016 Census, there were 7,519 people in Clifton Springs. 79.4% of people were born in Australia. The next most common country of birth was England at 5.8%. 91.1% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 35.4%, Catholic 22.8% and Anglican 13.5%. The population is expected to grow to more than 9,000 residents by the year 2020. Clifton Springs - City of Greater Geelong Australian Places - Clifton Springs
Methodism known as the Methodist movement, is a group of related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were significant early leaders in the movement, it originated as a revival movement within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate denomination after Wesley's death. The movement spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, beyond because of vigorous missionary work, today claiming 80 million adherents worldwide. Wesley's theology focused on the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include the new birth, an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety, the primacy of Scripture. Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all; this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.
However and several other early leaders of the movement were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the Calvinist position. Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor, the afflicted through the works of mercy; these ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens, schools to follow Christ's command to spread the gospel and serve all people. The movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are less ritualistic, while American Methodism is more so, the United Methodist Church in particular. Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition, Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy, but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside organised religion at that time.
In Britain, the Methodist Church had a major effect in the early decades of the developing working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition; the Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century. The Wesley brothers founded the "Holy Club" at the University of Oxford, where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College; the club met weekly and they systematically set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners; the fellowship were branded as "Methodist" by their fellow students because of the way they used "rule" and "method" to go about their religious affairs. John, leader of the club, took the attempted mockery and turned it into a title of honour.
In 1735, at the invitation of the founder of the Georgia Colony, General James Oglethorpe, both John and Charles Wesley set out for America to be ministers to the colonists and missionaries to the Native Americans. Unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith, they looked for help to other members of the Moravian Church. At a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May 1738, John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed", he records in his journal: "I felt I did trust in Christ alone, for salvation. Charles had reported a similar experience a few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. Burnett writes: "The significance of Wesley's Aldersgate Experience is monumental … Without it the names of Wesley and Methodism would be nothing more than obscure footnotes in the pages of church history."The Wesley brothers began to preach salvation by faith to individuals and groups, in houses, in religious societies, in the few churches which had not closed their doors to evangelical preachers.
John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally. Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon were notable for being Calvinistic Methodists. George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia, joined the Wesley brothers in what was to become a national crusade. Whitefield, a fellow student of the Wesleys at Oxford, became well known for his unorthodox, itinerant ministry, in which he was dedicated to open-air preaching—reaching crowds of thousands. A key step in the development of John Wesley's ministry was, like Whitefield, to preach in fields and churchyards to those who did not attend parish church services. Accordingly, many Methodist converts were those disconnected from the Church of England. Faced with growing evangelistic and pastoral responsibilities and Whitefield appointed lay preachers and leaders.
Bushfires in Australia
Bushfires frequenT t events during the warmer months of the year, due to Australia's hot, dry climate. Each year, such fires impact extensive areas. On one hand, they can cause property loss of human life. Certain native flora in Australia have evolved to rely on bushfires as a means of reproduction, fire events are an interwoven and an essential part of the ecology of the continent. For thousands of years, Indigenous Australians have used fire to foster grasslands for hunting and to clear tracks through dense vegetation. Major firestorms that result in severe loss of life are named based on the day on which they occur, such as Ash Wednesday and Black Saturday; some of the most intense and deadly bushfires occur during droughts and heat waves, such as the 2009 Southern Australia heat wave, which precipitated the conditions during the 2009 Black Saturday bushfires in which 173 people lost their lives. Other major conflagrations include the 1983 Ash Wednesday bushfires, the 2003 Eastern Victorian alpine bushfires and the 2006 December Bushfires.
In 2013 the non-profit Climate Council reported that Global warming is increasing the frequency and severity of bushfires. The word "bushfire" builds on the concept of "the bush". Bushfires in Australia are defined as uncontrolled, non-structural fires burning in a grass, bush, or forested area. Australia, being a geographically and meteorogically diverse continent, experiences many types of bushfires. There are two main categories, depending on local topography. Hilly/mountainous fires – burn in hilly, mountainous or alpine areas which are densely forested; the land is less accessible and not conducive to agriculture, thus many of these densely forested areas have been saved from deforestation and are protected by national and other parks. The steep terrain increases the intensity of a firestorm. Where settlements are located in hilly or mountainous areas, bushfires can pose a threat to both life and property. Flat/grassland fires – burn along flat plains or areas of small undulation, predominantly covered in grasses or scrubland.
These fires can move fanned by high winds in flat topography, they consume the small amounts of fuel/vegetation available. These fires pose less of a threat to settlements as they reach the same intensity seen in major firestorms as the land is flat, the fires are easier to map and predict, the terrain is more accessible for firefighting personnel. Many regions of predominantly flat terrain in Australia have been completely deforested for agriculture, reducing the fuel loads which would otherwise facilitate fires in these areas. Common causes of bushfires include lightning, arcing from overhead power lines, accidental ignition in the course of agricultural clearing and welding activities, campfires and dropped matches, sparks from machinery, controlled burn escapes; the natural fire regime in Australia was altered by the arrival of humans. Fires became more frequent, fire-loving species—notably eucalypts—greatly expanded their range, it is assumed that a good deal of this change came about as the result of deliberate action by early humans, setting fires to clear undergrowth or drive game.
Plants have evolved a variety of strategies to survive bushfires, or encourage fire as a way to eliminate competition from less fire-tolerant species. Some native animals are adept at surviving bushfires. In 2009, a standardised Fire Danger Rating was adopted by all Australian states. During the fire season the Bureau of Meteorology provides fire weather forecasts and by considering the predicted weather including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and dryness of vegetation, fire agencies determine the appropriate Fire Danger Rating. In 2010, following a national review of the bush fire danger ratings, new trigger points for each rating were introduced for grassland areas in most jurisdictions. See for example the following glossaryFire Danger Ratings are a feature of weather forecasts and alert the community to the actions they should take in preparation of the day. Ratings are broadcast via newspapers, radio, TV, the internet; the Australasian Fire Authorities Council is the peak body responsible for representing fire, emergency services and land management agencies in the Australasian region.
The Rural Fire Service is a volunteer-based firefighting agency and operates as part of the Queensland Fire and Emergency Services. The New South Wales Rural Fire Service is a volunteer-based firefighting,agency and statutory body of the Government of New South Wales; the Country Fire Service is a volunteer based fire service in the state of South Australia. The CFS operates as a part of Emergency Services Commission. Bushfires tend to occur near Adelaide. In Victoria, the Country Fire Authority provides firefighting and other emergency services to country areas and regional townships within the state, as well as large portions of the outer suburban areas and growth corridors of Melbourne not covered by the Metropolitan Fire Brigade. Responsibility for fire suppression and management, including planned burning on public land such as State Forests and National Parks, which makes up about 7.1 million hectares or about one third of the State, sits with the Department of Environment, Water an
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
Brisbane Ranges National Park
The Brisbane Ranges National Park is a national park in the Barwon South West region of Victoria, The 7,718-hectare national park is situated 80 kilometres west of Melbourne near the town of Meredith and is managed by Parks Victoria. The park covers part of an area of hills of moderate elevation; the park features a number of walking tracks, of which the walk through Anakie Gorge is the most popular. Other attractions include the Ted Errey Nature Wadawurrung walk. Flat and suitable for those of moderate fitness, the walk features views of the Gorge itself and the presence of koalas and wallabies in their wild state; some of the resident wallabies are unafraid of tourists and may study the passing visitors. In January 2006, lightning sparked a bushfire in the Steiglitz historical area which soon spread throughout the Brisbane Ranges. Despite lengthy efforts to control the fire from Department of Sustainability and Environment, Parks Victoria and the Country Fire Authority fire fighters, the blaze incinerated 6,700 hectares of parkland and destroyed two houses without loss of human life.
A subsequent bushfire one year also threatened much of the national park. Protected areas of Victoria Parks Victoria official Brisbane Ranges site Friends of Brisbane Ranges
Belmont is a southern suburb of Geelong, Australia. The name means "beautiful hill". Belmont is geographically separated from the Geelong central business district by the Barwon River; the suburb is residential, with some light industry along Barwon Heads Road. The suburb is part of the City of Greater Geelong local government area. At the 2011 census, Belmont had a population of 13,616; the area has been inhabited by the Wathaurong people for at least 25,000 years. The first European to settle in the area was Dr. Alexander Thomson mayor of Geelong, who took up a pastoral run in 1836, subsequent purchases of crown land were managed from his homestead'Kardinia'. Early white settlement was hampered by the lack of a secure bridge over the Barwon River; the first wooden bridge opened early in 1848, was tolled by the South Barwon Road Board. Four years on 23 May 1852, the bridge was swept away in a flood. From December that year a government punt operated at the site, by late 1853 two government punts were used to form a pontoon bridge.
In 1859 a secure iron bridge was opened as a replacement. By the mid-to-late 1850s a township had developed, with a number of pubs; the Post Office opened on 21 January 1860. Some of the streets in the area are named after early properties. A few significant older buildings remain, such as'Royd Grange', built by Godfrey Hirst in 1897. Kardinia House, located in Riverview Terrace, is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register. In 1850 Alexander Thomson offered 93 allotments for sale, as the township of Belmont, between Mount Pleasant and Roslyn Roads. Further land sales occurred in 1886, when 25 acres of Crown land was offered for sale in 25 allotments; the economic depression of the 1890s temporarily curbed land sales. In 1909 a substantial proportion of the area bounded by Thomson and Scott Streets, Roslyn Road, was acquired by Geelong Grammar School as the site for the relocation of the school from central Geelong. On 21 October 1910, the chairman of the school council, W. T. Manifold, turned the first sod.
However those plans had faded by August 1911, after adjoining land was subdivided and offered for sale as the'Belmont Hill Estate'. The Grammar School council indicated that an adjacent suburban subdivision was not conducive to their plans for a boarding school which did not cater for day boys; the school decided to buy land on the opposite side of Geelong at Corio, the land at Belmont was sold for further residential subdivision. On 6 December 1913, 86 residential sites were auctioned, forming the'Belmont Heights Estate'; the streets of this new estate were named after well-known Polar explorers: Scott, Shackleton and Amundsen. The years after the First World War witnessed the transformation of the rural farmland in Belmont into a residential area. Further subdivision occurred in the 1920s, stimulated by the construction of a new bridge over the Barwon River in 1926, the consequent extension of the Geelong tram system to Roslyn Road in 1927. Houses erected during the interwar years were affordable homes for textile workers, labourers, secretaries and builders.
Major housing development in Belmont stepped up in the years following World War II, with housing developments spreading westwards, from the original township on the hill towards Highton. Development in the 1970s saw subdivision to the south towards Grovedale; the CSIRO established a laboratory facility in Belmont in 1948 to perform research to support the wool industry. It became one of the leading textile research centres in the world, but in a reorganisation of the CSIRO in the early 2010s, the site was closed and staff moved to the Australian Future Fibres Research and Innovation Centre at Deakin University Waurn Ponds; the Belmont Common was a site of early aviation in the Geelong area. The first person to fly from the Common was Hans Andersen, a garage owner who flew his home made biplane until he crashed the plane at Lovely Banks, he was followed by Percy Pratt. Pilots involved in World War I, they erected a large hangar and workshops, from which they taught gliding and flying, overhauled airplanes and motors, practised aerial photography.
In 1928, 10,000 Geelong residents turned up at the aerodrome to welcome aviator Bert Hinkler who had just completed a 16-day England-Australia flight. Percy Pratt started the Geelong Gliding Club in 1929. On 4 August 1937 Percy Pratt took off from the Common and completed the longest towed glider flight in Australia up to that time. Avro Anson bombers used by Bass Island Airways on the run to King Island were housed and serviced at the Belmont Common, one being destroyed by floods in 1952. By the early 1950s the aerodrome on the Common had closed; the land returned to grazing use however the aero tie down stations remained, the old aero work shop became a metal working shop and the common was still being used by crop dusters and other bi-planes up till early 60's who would make sweeps low down to herd cattle away from the landing approach. It was rumored that Percy mentioned above completed the "first" under bridge pass of the steel Moorabool street bridge. Gliding was still conducted up till early 1960's as well at the Common with a winch truck used to winch the gliders to sufficient thermaling height.
Returning to land was sometimes left a little late with low height remaining after a flight with one tree alongside the Moorabool street bridge reduced in height somewhat by a low passing glider. The glider shed was located under the present main inters