The Upanishads, a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism. Among the most important literature in the history of Indian religions and culture, the Upanishads played an important role in the development of spiritual ideas in ancient India, marking a transition from Vedic ritualism to new ideas and institutions. Of all Vedic literature, the Upanishads alone are known, their central ideas are at the spiritual core of Hindus; the Upanishads are referred to as Vedānta. Vedanta has been interpreted as the "last chapters, parts of the Veda" and alternatively as "object, the highest purpose of the Veda"; the concepts of Brahman and Ātman are central ideas in all of the Upanishads, "know that you are the Ātman" is their thematic focus. Along with the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahmasutra, the mukhya Upanishads provide a foundation for the several schools of Vedanta, among them, two influential monistic schools of Hinduism.
More than 200 Upanishads are known, of which the first dozen or so are the oldest and most important and are referred to as the principal or main Upanishads. The mukhya Upanishads are found in the concluding part of the Brahmanas and Aranyakas and were, for centuries, memorized by each generation and passed down orally; the early Upanishads all predate the Common Era, five of them in all likelihood pre-Buddhist, down to the Maurya period. Of the remainder, 95 Upanishads are part of the Muktika canon, composed from about the last centuries of 1st-millennium BCE through about 15th-century CE. New Upanishads, beyond the 108 in the Muktika canon, continued to be composed through the early modern and modern era, though dealing with subjects which are unconnected to the Vedas. With the translation of the Upanishads in the early 19th century they started to attract attention from a western audience. Arthur Schopenhauer was impressed by the Upanishads and called it "the production of the highest human wisdom".
Modern era Indologists have discussed the similarities between the fundamental concepts in the Upanishads and major western philosophers. The Sanskrit term Upaniṣad translates to "sitting down near", referring to the student sitting down near the teacher while receiving spiritual knowledge. Other dictionary meanings include "esoteric doctrine" and "secret doctrine". Monier-Williams' Sanskrit Dictionary notes – "According to native authorities, Upanishad means setting to rest ignorance by revealing the knowledge of the supreme spirit."Adi Shankaracharya explains in his commentary on the Kaṭha and Brihadaranyaka Upanishad that the word means Ātmavidyā, that is, "knowledge of the self", or Brahmavidyā "knowledge of Brahma". The word appears in the verses of many Upanishads, such as the fourth verse of the 13th volume in first chapter of the Chandogya Upanishad. Max Müller as well as Paul Deussen translate the word Upanishad in these verses as "secret doctrine", Robert Hume translates it as "mystic meaning", while Patrick Olivelle translates it as "hidden connections".
The authorship of most Upanishads is unknown. Radhakrishnan states, "almost all the early literature of India was anonymous, we do not know the names of the authors of the Upanishads"; the ancient Upanishads are embedded in the Vedas, the oldest of Hinduism's religious scriptures, which some traditionally consider to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman" and "impersonal, authorless". The Vedic texts assert that they were skillfully created by Rishis, after inspired creativity, just as a carpenter builds a chariot; the various philosophical theories in the early Upanishads have been attributed to famous sages such as Yajnavalkya, Uddalaka Aruni, Shandilya, Balaki and Sanatkumara. Women, such as Maitreyi and Gargi participate in the dialogues and are credited in the early Upanishads. There are some exceptions to the anonymous tradition of the Upanishads; the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, for example, includes closing credits to sage Shvetashvatara, he is considered the author of the Upanishad.
Many scholars believe that early Upanishads were expanded over time. There are differences within manuscripts of the same Upanishad discovered in different parts of South Asia, differences in non-Sanskrit version of the texts that have survived, differences within each text in terms of meter, style and structure; the existing texts are believed to be the work of many authors. Scholars are uncertain about; the chronology of the early Upanishads is difficult to resolve, states philosopher and Sanskritist Stephen Phillips, because all opinions rest on scanty evidence and analysis of archaism and repetitions across texts, are driven by assumptions about evolution of ideas, presumptions about which philosophy might have influenced which other Indian philosophies. Indologist Patrick Olivelle says that "in spite of claims made by some, in reality, any dating of these documents that attempts a precision closer than a few centuries is as stable as a house of cards"; some scholars have tried to analyse similarities between Hindu Upanishads and Buddhist literature to establish chronology for the Upanishads.
Patrick Olivelle gives the following chronology for the early Upanishads called the Principal Upanishads: The Brhadaranyaka and the Chandogya are the two earliest Upanishads. They are edited texts; the two texts are pre-B
Basheerinte Premalekhanam is a 2017 Indian Malayalam film directed by Aneesh Anwar. The film stars Farhaan Sana Althaf in lead roles, it is a romantic comedy set in the 1980s. Cinematographer was Sanjay Harris. Farhaan Faasil Sheela Aju Varghese Madhu Manikandan R. Achari Sana Althaf Ponnamma Babu Renjini Jose Sooraj Harris All music composed by Vishnu Mohan Sithara. Http://songs.so/basheerinte-premalekhanam-movie-songs-mp3-download/ http://www.saavn.com/s/album/malayalam/Basheerinte-Premalekhanam-2017/hRIZGRPndDc_ http://www.nowrunning.com/movie/19307/malayalam/basheerinte-premalekhanam/cast-and-crew/ http://songspked.com/ http://english.manoramaonline.com/entertainment/entertainment-news/farhaan-fazil-sana-firstlook-basheerinte-premalekhanam.html http://onlookersmedia.in/latestnews/farhan-fazil-is-back-with-basheerinte-premalekhanam/ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/entertainment/malayalam/movies/news/Farhaan-Faasil-goes-retro-in-Basheerinte-Premalekhanam/articleshow/53239956.cms http://songspkfast.com/ http://songspknet.com/ http://www.filmymalayalam.com/news-basheerinte-premalekhanam-is-an-80s-love-story-354811.htm http://movielaza.com/lyrics/pranayamaanithu-song-lyrics-basheerinte-premalekhanam/ http://www.malayalamlyricsonline.com/2017/01/penne-penne-kanmizhiyale-lyrics.html Basheerinte Premalekhanam on IMDb
Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award for Novel
Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award is given each year by the Kerala Sahitya Akademi, to Malayalam writers for their outstanding books of literary merit. The awards are given in various categories including Poetry, Story, Literary criticism, Biography - autobiography, Humour, Children's literature etc; the list of writers who have won the award for Novel is given below
Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award for Children's Literature
Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award is given each year by the Kerala Sahitya Akademi, to Malayalam writers for their outstanding books of literary merit. The awards are given in various categories including Poetry, Story, Literary criticism, Biography - autobiography, Humour, Children's literature etc; the list of writers who have won the award for Children's Literature is given below
Balyakalasakhi, is a Malayalam romantic tragedy novel written by Vaikom Muhammad Basheer. Published in 1944, it is considered by many as Basheer's best work; the story revolves around Suhra, who are in love with each other from childhood. By Basheer's own admission, the story is autobiographical; the childhood romance between neighbours blossoms into passionate love during adolescence. Majeed's father was rich once, so could send him to a school in the distant town, although he was not good at studies. Suhra's father on the other hand had trouble making both ends meet, he wanted to send his daughter, good at studies to the school. But after her father's death, all her hopes of further studies was ruined. Majeed begs his father to sponsor Suhra's education. Majeed leaves home after a skirmish with his father, wanders over distant lands for a long time before returning home. On his return, he finds that his family's former affluence is all gone, that his beloved Suhra has married someone else, he is grief struck at the loss of love, this is when Suhra turns up at his home.
She is a shadow of her former self. The beautiful, vibrant Suhra of old is now a woman worn out by life, battered hard by a loveless marriage to an abusive husband. Majeed commands her, "Suhra, don't go back!" and she stays. Majeed leaves this time with plans on his mind, he needs to find a job, to ward off poverty, thus he reaches a North Indian city. He finds work as a salesman but one day he meets with a bicycle accident in which he loses a leg; the day after he is discharged from hospital, he is informed. He again sets off on a job quest knocking at every door, he finds work as a dish-washer in a hotel. As he scrubs dirty dishes each day, he dreams of Suhra back home waiting, he must make enough money to return home and repay debts, before he can get married to the woman of his life. His mother subsequently of Suhra's death; the first half of the story, dealing with adolescence is pleasant, delightfully told. The latter half is grim and filled with sorrow. Yet, it tells about the hope, they accumulate their dreams and keep their most secret sweet desires to themselves and go on with the hard grind of daily life, struggling to eke out a living.
The lightness of narrative style disguises an undercurrent of poignance. In the moments of utter grief, the author cannot let go of humour. Intense tragedy is dished out; the novel talks about love in its sincerest form. The lovers have to face harsh reality of life, they have to go through hell, worse, but all their sacrifice fetches no rewards; as M. P. Paul suggests in his foreword to the book, Jeevithathil Ninnum Oru Aedu, it is a page torn from life, bleeding at its edges. One of the phrases, always associated to Basheer's name. While at school, Majeed discovers a new mathematical result, that one plus one must be "a bigger one". Majeed is puzzled when the teacher punishes him for this discovery, for he had seen two rivers merge into a bigger one; this could be considered as a manifestation of Basheer's talent to think creatively and subjectively. When he knocks doors for a job, such skills in mathematics cannot help him find a decent paying situation. Basheer said, he started work on the book after seeing a terrifying nightmare which reminded him of his childhood companion Suhara's death.
At the time, he was living in Calcutta. He used to sleep on the rooftop of a building after a heavy day's work. One night, he saw a monster in his sleep. Waking up, he found, he began writing the book in English. Dissatisfied with what he had written, he destroyed it, he rewrote the story from scratch and perfected it through countless revisions. Balyakalasakhi: A 1967 film starring Prem Nazir as Majeed and Sheela as Suhara, directed by Sasikumar. Basheer himself wrote the screenplay and dialogues for the film. Balyakalasakhi: A 2014 film starring Mammootty as Majeed and Isha Talwar as Suhara, scripted and directed by Pramod Payyannur
Premalekhanam is Vaikom Muhammad Basheer's first work to be published as a book. The novel is a humorous story of love. Through the hilarious dialogs, Basheer attacks the dowry system. A young bank employee, Keshavan Nair, Hindu by religion, Nair by caste lodges on the upper floor of the house belonging to Saramma's father. Saraamma is a Christian by religion, young, unemployed, happy-go-lucky with a sting on the tip of her tongue. Keshavan Nair is an honest simpleton haplessly in love with her; the book gets its title from the letter that Keshavan Nair composes to reveal to Saramma his love for her. The setting is 1940's Kerala; the story is a sarcastic commentary on the dowry system and is in favour of inter-religious marriage. But this is disguised in a funny love story. Basheer was not a Nair or a Christian, he was a lover of humanity. Saramma is an educated woman, she is trying to get a job, she has applied for jobs in many countries. At last she gets a job; the job provider was Keshavan Nair, the only job assigned to Saramma was to love him!
He pays for that too in a monthly basis. Now the serious questions arise, they belong to different religions which religion will their children follow? They decides to teach their children every religion and it is up to the children to choose their religion, they plan to grow their children "Religion less". Comes the other serious issue, How will they name the child? They cannot choose a Hindu name or Christian name, Keshavan Nair asks "Shall we go for Russian names?"Saramma asks "How will it be?" "Anything ending with'Visky'is a Russian name" Saramma was not happy with it. Keshavan Nair asks "Shall, they decides to go with names over objects like sky, Air, balloon. They decide to take a lot of these objects, The result of the lot will be two chits which say "Sky" and "Toffee", they name their child as "Skytoffee". Keshavan Nair shouts saying "Mr. Skytoffee","Skytoffee","Comrade:Skytoffee". Saramma interrupts "Do you want our child to become a communist" Keshavan Nair says "Let him decide on that"; the story ends happily.
My dearest Saraamma, When life is at its most intense state of youth, one's heart has reached its most beautiful state of love, how does my dearest friend spend her time during this rare and short-lived beautiful period of life? As for me, I am living each moment of my life with my mind stirring hopelessly in love with my Saaraama. What about Saaraamaa? I request you to think and kindly bless me with a sweetly generous reply, Saaraama's own, Keshavan Nair.... Premalekhanam was written in 1943 when Basheer was under imprisonment at Thiruvananthapuram Central Jail, Poojappura as a political prisoner on charges of raajadroham, for writing articles against Dewan C. P. Ramaswami Iyer. Basheer mentions the writing of Premalekhanam in his work Mathilukal; the love-story that forms the plot of Mathilukal happened during the same prison term. At jail, he wrote many stories to entertain fellow prisoners people sentenced for life, but at the time of leaving prison, the only work that he could get hold of was Premalekhanam..
After his release, he got Premalekhanam published in 1943. By 1944, the book was banned in Thiruvithankoor; the main reason for banning this book in Travancore is that, Travancore was a Hindu countrywhere interreligious and intercaste marriages were opposed, the book indirectly favoured interreligious marriages. P. A. Backer adapted the novel for his film of the same name in 1985; the cast includes Soman, Meena, Captain Raju and Mala Aravindan
Mathilukal is a Malayalam novel written by Vaikom Muhammad Basheer in 1965. It is one of the most well-known love stories in Malayalam, its hero, Basheer himself, heroine, never meet, yet they love each other passionately. Despite being imprisoned and separated by a huge wall that divides their prisons, the two romance each other; the theme of the novel, focusses on the love between Basheer, a prisoner, a female inmate of the prison, who remains unseen throughout the novel. In Mathilukal, though the broad frame is autobiographical and the narration is first person, the details seem to contain sprinkles of fantasy; as Basheer, jailed for writing against the ruling British, Gopakumar delivers a memorable performance. Basheer befriends a considerate young jailor. One day, Basheer hears a woman's voice from the other side of the wall – the women's prison; the two jailbirds become lovebirds. They exchange gifts, their hearts, without meeting each other. Narayani comes up with a plan for a meeting: they decide to meet at the hospital a few days later.
But before that, Basheer is released, unexpectedly. For once, he does not want the freedom; the novel ends with Basheer standing outside the prison with a rose in his hand. In 1989, a film adaptation of the novel was released, starring Mammootty as Vaikom Muhammad Basheer, directed by Adoor Gopalakrishnan; the film was a major critical success, gained many awards at national and international levels. Mammootty won the National Film Award for Best Actor. Book review by Susan Mathen of Ingoodbooks.com