Anandamide known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine, is a fatty acid neurotransmitter derived from the non-oxidative metabolism of eicosatetraenoic acid, an essential omega-6 fatty acid. The name is taken from the Sanskrit word ananda, which means "joy, delight", amide, it is synthesized from N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine by multiple pathways. It is degraded by the fatty acid amide hydrolase enzyme, which converts anandamide into ethanolamine and arachidonic acid; as such, inhibitors of FAAH lead to elevated anandamide levels and are being pursued for therapeutic use. Anandamide was first described in 1992 by Raphael Mechoulam and his lab members W. A. Devane and Lumír Hanuš. Anandamide's effects can occur in peripheral nervous system; these distinct effects are mediated by CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the central nervous system, CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the periphery. The latter are involved in functions of the immune system. Cannabinoid receptors were discovered as being sensitive to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the primary psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis.
The discovery of anandamide came from research into CB1 and CB2, as it was inevitable that a occurring chemical would be found to affect these receptors. Anandamide has been shown to impair working memory in rats. Studies are under way to explore what role anandamide plays in human behavior, such as eating and sleep patterns, pain relief. Anandamide is important for implantation of the early stage embryo in its blastocyst form into the uterus. Therefore, cannabinoids such as Δ9-THC might influence processes during the earliest stages of human pregnancy. Peak plasma anandamide occurs at ovulation and positively correlates with peak estradiol and gonadotrophin levels, suggesting that these may be involved in the regulation of anandamide levels. Subsequently, anandamide has been proposed as a biomarker of infertility, but so far lacks any predictive values in order to be used clinically. Anandamide plays a role in the regulation of feeding behavior, the neural generation of motivation and pleasure.
Anandamide injected directly into the forebrain reward-related brain structure nucleus accumbens enhances the pleasurable responses of rats to a rewarding sucrose taste, enhances food intake as well. Moreover, the acute beneficial effects of exercise seem to be mediated by anandamide in mice. Anandamide is the precursor of a class of the prostamides. Anandamide inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation. Anandamide is found in chocolate together with two substances that might mimic the effects of anandamide, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-linoleoylethanolamine. Additionally and other endocannabinoids are found in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, although no CB receptors have been found in any insects. In humans, anandamide is biosynthesized from N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine. In turn NAPE arises by transfer of arachidonic acid from lecithin to the free amine of cephalin through an N-acyltransferase enzyme. Anandamide synthesis from NAPE occurs via multiple pathways and includes enzymes such as phospholipase A2, phospholipase C and N-acetylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolysing phospholipase D.
The crystal structure of NAPE-PLD in complex with phosphatidylethanolamine and deoxycholate shows how the cannabinoid anandamide is generated from membrane N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines, reveals that bile acids – which are involved in the adsorption of lipids in the small intestine – modulate its biogenesis. Endogenous anandamide is present at low levels and has a short half-life due to the action of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase, which breaks it down into free arachidonic acid and ethanolamine. Studies of piglets show that dietary levels of arachidonic acid and other essential fatty acids affect the levels of anandamide and other endocannabinoids in the brain. High fat diet feeding in mice increases levels of anandamide in increases lipogenesis; this suggests. Paracetamol is metabolically combined with arachidonic acid by FAAH to form AM404; this metabolite of paracetamol is a potent agonist at the TRPV1 vanilloid receptor, a weak agonist at both CB1 and CB2 receptors, an inhibitor of anandamide reuptake.
As a result, anandamide levels in the body and brain are elevated. In this fashion, paracetamol acts as a pro-drug for a cannabimimetic metabolite; this action may be or responsible for the analgesic effects of paracetamol. Endocannabinoid transporters for anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol include the heat shock proteins and fatty acid binding proteins, it is found that anandamide prefer cholesterol and ceramide more than other membrane lipids, cholesterol can behave as a binding partner for it, following an initial interaction mediated by the establishment of a hydrogen bond, the endocannabinoid is attracted towards the membrane interior, where it forms a molecular complex with cholesterol after a functional conformation adaptation to the apolar membrane milieu, from there, the complex is further directed to the cannabinoid receptor and out. Black pepper contains the alkaloid guineesine, an anandamide reuptake inhibitor, it may therefore increase anandamide's physiological effects. Low dose intake of anandamide has an anxiolytic effect, but high dose intake in mice shows evident hippocampus death.
Crystal Brook is a town in the Mid North of South Australia. It was named after the spring-fed creek next to; the area was founded in 1839 by Edward John Eyre, passing through the region. He named it after the beautiful sparkling clear water and named it'Chrystal Brook'. Crystal Brook is 197 kilometres north of Adelaide and in the 2016 census had a population of 1,515; the town has had some growth over the past year or two with more proposed job opportunities in the region. Crystal Brook is situated on Goyder's Line near the border of two climate systems; the township of Crystal Brook is surrounded by an intense farming region. As the town has experienced some growth in the past few years it has pushed housing development to the western side of the original township and across the creek; the town benefits from a temperate mediterranean climate zone,making possible more intense farming in the region. To the south to south-east and west lies more intense farming and to the north-west lies some marginal, semi-arid farmland.
It is home to nearby Bowman Park, a nature preserve, situated in the Crystal Brook Valley and has an abundance of wildlife and shady camping spots right next to the Crystal Brook Creek. The park contains history; the original homestead that belonged to the Bowman Brothers, which the park was named after, is there overlooking the Crystal Brook. The administrative land division the Hundred of Crystal Brook was proclaimed in 1871 in the vicinity of the confluence of the Rocky River and Broughton River; the township, near the eponymous Broughton River tributary, Crystal Brook, was surveyed in August 1874 and proclaimed on 12 November that year. The District Council of Crystal Brook was established in 1882, it amalgamated with the District Council of Redhill in 1988 to form the District Council of Crystal Brook-Redhill which continued to be seated at Crystal Brook. From 1997 Crystal Brook has been locally governed by the Port Pirie Regional Council following a merger between Crystal Brook-Redhill and the Port Pirie City councils.
During World War 2, Crystal Brook was the location of RAAF No.31 Inland Aircraft Fuel Depot, built in 1942 and closed on 14 June 1944. Consisting of 4 tanks, 31 fuel depots were built across Australia for the storage and supply of aircraft fuel for the RAAF and the US Army Air Forces at a total cost of £900,000. Crystal Brook supplied water to the town until 1890 when the Beetaloo Reservoir was completed, which at the time was the largest concrete dam in the southern hemisphere. Broadband internet became available at Crystal Brook on 16 April 2005 after lobbying from residents. Both ADSL and ADSL2+ speeds are available to residential and business customers. National Broadband Network wired services for the township became available on 7 October 2016; the old ADSL and PSTN infrastructure is expected to be turned off about 13 April 2018. Free WI-FI is provided for the use of travelers and locals. NBN wireless broadband and satellite is available outside of the township area; the Sydney–Perth and the Adelaide–Darwin railways share the same 530 kilometres of track between Crystal Brook and Tarcoola.
There is a triangular junction at Crystal Brook which joins Tarcoola and Sydney. Another triangular junction at Tarcoola joins Crystal Brook and Perth; the Crystal Brook Show has been held annually since the early 1880s. The town lies on the Heysen Trail, a 1,200 kilometres -long walking trail from Cape Jervis to Parachilna Gorge. Close to the north-south midpoint of the trail, Crystal Brook marks a change in climate. Hot, dry summers and mild winters lie to the north, more temperate conditions to the south. Crystal Brook's sporting facilities cater for hockey, croquet, lawn bowls, basketball, gymnasium exercise, junior soccer, horse riding, motor-cross and cricket. In regional competitions the town colours are red and white, with most teams known as'The Roosters'; the Crystal Brook Football Club won the Northern Areas Football Association premiership for a record 19th time in 2012 and the town has twice staged a round of the Australian motor-cross championships. Arthur Percy Sullivan – recipient of the Victoria Cross Rob Kerin – Premier of South Australia between 22 October 2001 and 5 March 2002 Crystal Brook for sporting and community group contacts, gardening tips, walking trails and photo gallery Crystal Brook Show has a comprehensive list of the show's judging program
Countess Louise Augusta zu Stolberg-Stolberg is known for her lively correspondence with the poet and thinker Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. She was the younger sister of Goethe's friends Count Friedrich Leopold zu Stolberg-Stolberg and Count Christian zu Stolberg-Stolberg, she lived in a pension for young, unmarried girls from 1770 to 1783 along with the older Baroness Metta von Oberg. Her letters to the young Goethe date to 1775 and 1776, they never met in person. In all her correspondence she was a lively writer. "Augusta – vom Morgen bis in Abend laufen die Depeschen bey ihr ein, wie bey einem Staatsminister, und werden sorgfältiger abgefertigt, als in einer Canzelley" noted Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock. On 7 August 1783 Augusta Louise moved to Copenhagen, married the Danish Minister of State Andreas Peter Bernstorff. Plath-Langheinrich, Elsa: Als Goethe nach Uetersen schrieb: Das Leben der Conventualin Augusta Louise Gräfin zu Stolberg-Stolberg. ISBN 3-529-02695-6 Koopmann, Helmut: Goethe und Frau von Stein.
Barbara Anderson was an anti-tax activist. She was eulogized by Governor of Massachusetts Charlie Baker for her contribution to reducing property and excise taxes for state citizens, she was an executive director of Citizens for Limited Taxation for 35 years. In November 1980, she led the property tax relief campaign, instituting the ballot initiative empowering voters with a veto on property tax hikes, she was instrumental in the repeal of the state income tax surtax. She was a weekly contributor to both The Salem News and The Lawrence Eagle-Tribune Publishing Company. Anderson was known as “The Mother of Proposition 2½.” She co-hosted a popular WRKO radio program with newspaper columnist Howie Carr and radio personality Jerry Williams
A gas balloon is a balloon that rises and floats in the air because it is filled with a gas lighter than air. When not in flight, it is tethered to prevent it from flying away and is sealed at the bottom to prevent the escape of gas. A gas balloon may be called a Charlière for its inventor, the Frenchman Jacques Charles. Today, familiar gas balloons include small latex party balloons. For nearly 200 years, well into the 20th century, manned balloon flight utilized gas balloons before hot-air balloons became dominant. Without power, heat or fuel, untethered flights of gas balloons depended on the skill of the pilot. Gas balloons have greater lift for a given volume, so they do not need to be so large, they can stay up for much longer than hot air balloons; the first gas balloon made its flight in August 1783. Designed by professor Jacques Charles and Les Frères Robert, it carried cargo. On 1 December 1783, their second hydrogen-filled balloon made a manned flight piloted by Jacques Charles and Nicolas-Louis Robert.
This occurred ten days after the first manned flight in a Montgolfier hot air balloon. The next project of Jacques Charles and the Robert brothers was La Caroline, an elongated steerable craft that followed Jean Baptiste Meusnier's proposals for a dirigible balloon, incorporating internal ballonnets, a rudder and a method of propulsion. On September 19, 1784 the brothers and M. Collin-Hullin flew for 6 hours 40 minutes, covering 186 km from Paris to Beuvry near Béthune; this was the first flight over 100 km. Gas balloons remained popular throughout the age before powered flight. Filled with hydrogen or coal gas, they were able to fly higher and more economically than hot-air balloons; the altitude was controlled with ballast weights. Tethered manned gas balloons were used for observation purposes in the Napoleonic Wars, in the American Civil War and in World War I by aviators wearing parachutes. Throughout the 19th century, they were popular as objects of public fascination among hobbyists and show performers, such as the Blanchards.
Gas ballooning has been popular in Europe, most notably in Germany. Gas balloon clubs exist throughout the country. Rough estimates show 150 active gas pilots in Europe. In contrast, gas ballooning in the USA might have at most 30 active pilots who fly only once a year at the Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta in October. Aerophile is the world's largest lighter-than-air carrier, flying 300,000 passengers every year through its eight tethered gas balloon operations in Walt Disney World, San Diego Zoo Safari Park, Smoky Mountains & Irvine in the US and Paris, Disneyland Paris and Parc du Petit Prince in France. On October 24, 2014, Alan Eustace, a former Google executive, made a jump from the stratosphere, breaking Felix Baumgartner's 2012 world record; the launch-point for his jump was from an abandoned runway in Roswell, New Mexico, where he began his balloon-powered ascent early that morning. He reached a reported maximum altitude of 135,908 feet, but the final number submitted to the World Air Sports Federation was 135,889.108 feet.
Eustace in his pressure suit hung tethered under the balloon, without the kind of capsule used by Felix Baumgartner. Eustace started his fall by using an explosive device to separate from the helium balloon; the previous altitude record for a manned balloon flight was set at 39.045 kilometers on October 14, 2012 by Felix Baumgartner breaking a record of 34.7 kilometers on May 4, 1961 by Malcolm Ross and Victor Prather in a balloon launched from the deck of the USS Antietam in the Gulf of Mexico. The altitude record for an unmanned balloon is 53.0 kilometers. It was reached by a balloon manufactured by Fujikura Parachute with a volume of 60 thousand cubic metres, launched in May 2002 from Sanriku, Japan; this is the greatest height obtained by an atmospheric vehicle. Only rockets, rocket planes, ballistic projectiles have flown higher. In 2015, pilots Leonid Tiukhtyaev and Troy Bradley arrived safely in Baja California, after a journey of 10,711 km; the two men from Russia and the United States of America started in Japan and flew with a helium balloon over the Pacific.
In 160 hours and 34 minutes, the balloon, named "Two Eagles", arrived in Mexico, setting the longest distance and duration records for gas balloons. The Soviet Union space probes Vega 1 and Vega 2 each dropped a helium balloon with scientific experiments into the atmosphere of Venus in 1985; the balloons first entered the atmosphere and descended to about 50 km inflated for level flight. Otherwise the flight was uncontrolled; each balloon relayed wind and atmospheric conditions for 46 hours of a possible 60-hour electric battery power budget. Toy balloon Gordon Bennett Cup – famous long-distance gas balloon race Tethered helium balloon Double Eagle II – first manned balloon to cross the Atlantic Ocean Lawnchair Larry flight – used a lawn chair and 45 helium-filled weather balloons to rise to 16,000 feet Sky anchor Five Weeks in a Balloon by Jules Verne Gasballoon Launch field Gladbeck World modern Gasballoon Launch field in Germany Albuquerque Gas Ballooning Association Hosts of the America's Challenge Gas Balloon Race Gas Ballooning.net - current information on the state of sport gas ballooning by gas balloon pilot Brian Critelli from Texas, USA.
Gas Ballon.be - Belgian site with good gas balloon competition information Stratocat - Historical recompilation project on the use of stratospheric balloons in the scientific research, the military fie
Håkan Bråkan was the Sveriges Television's Christmas calendar of 2003, based on the literary character with the same name. The paper-calendar depicts the Andersson family's house, characters from the series; the background shows the mental institution where Karin lives during parts of the series. The plot is based on Familjen Anderssons sjuka jul and the Christmas show featured Håkan as the protagonist. Contrary to the belief of Sune, Håkan is a nice and thoughtful 7-year-old boy, he is quite ingenious and does lots of pranks that puts him or others in a tight spot but this is his intended purpose. When Håkan's mother Karin is doing all of the Christmas chores, she becomes so stressed she winds up in a mental hospital, this is the main story of the TV show since Christmas is ending and there is still no Christmas presents or candy. Chaos ensues. Håkan's rather stupid father Rudolf is by his side in this and throughout the show he tries his best to make Christmas perfect, but fails miserably, he and Håkan try to bring the mother home from a crazed doctor at the mental institution, obsessed with keeping the mother there and not having to celebrate Christmas alone.
The series got quite bad reviews because the scenario was deemed to be unrealistic. It was considered a bit depressing for a TV show aimed at kids. Many said it was too vulgar with too many innuendo jokes and toilet humor, a few examples of this are when Håkan vomits cascades, when harasses his teacher Veronica and felt her breasts and when Håkan dreamed about drinking beer. Mobile telephones aren't used; the classroom reminds of schools from old days. In early February 1999 it was announced. Which turned out to become the 2003 SVT Christmas calendar. Recordings began on 27 January 2003. Axel Skogberg - Håkan Bråkan Leo Holm - Sune Per Svensson - Daddy Rudolf Tintin Anderzon - Mommy Karin Emma Engström - Anna Johan Rheborg - Ragnar Sten Elfström - Dr. Malte Severin Sissela Kyle - Miss Malin Henrik Hjelt - Larsa Pernilla August - Leader of Space Maria Bonnevie - Veronica Lakke Magnusson - Kurt The series was released to DVD och VHS in 2004, in 2011 it became available in the "Håkan Bråkan-boxen" box set, consisting of both the TV series "Håkan Bråkan" and the film Håkan Bråkan & Josef.