Orange S. A. France Télécom S. A. is a French multinational telecommunications corporation. It has 256 million customers worldwide and employs 95,000 people in France, 59,000 elsewhere, it is the twelfth largest mobile network operator in the world and the fourth largest in Europe after Vodafone, Telefónica and VEON. In 2015, the group had revenue of €40 billion; the company's head office is located in the 15th arrondissement of Paris. The current CEO is Stéphane Richard; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Orange has been the company's main brand for mobile, internet and IPTV services since 2006, it originated in 1994 when Hutchison Whampoa acquired a controlling stake in Microtel Communications during the early 1990s and rebranded it as "Orange". It became a subsidiary of Mannesmann in 1999 and was acquired by France Télécom in 2000; the company was rebranded as Orange in July 2013. In 1792, under the French Revolution, the first communication network was developed to enable the rapid transmission of information in a warring and unsafe country.
That was the optical telegraphy network of Claude Chappe. In 1878, after the invention of the electrical telegraph and the invention of the telephone, the French State created a Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs. Telephone Services were added to the ministry when they were nationalised in 1889. However, it was not until 1923 that the second'T' appeared and the department of P&T became PTT. In 1941, a General Direction of Telecommunications was created within this ministry. In 1944, the National Centre of Telecommunications Studies was created to develop the telecommunications industry in France. In the 1970s, France tried extra hard to make up its delay on other countries with the programme "delta LP", it was at the time. Moreover, with the help of French manufacturers, digital switching, the Minitel and the GSM standard were invented by engineers and CNET researchers. In 1982, Telecom introduced Minitel online ordering for its customers; until 1988, France Télécom was known as the direction générale des Télécommunications, a division of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications.
It became autonomous in 1990. This was in response to a European directive, aimed at making competition mandatory in public services from 1 January 1998; the 2 July 1990 Bill changed France Télécom into an operator of public law, with Marcel Roulet the first Chairman. Since the company has had a separate body corporate from the State and acquired financial autonomy, it was privatised by Lionel Jospin's Plural Left government starting on 1 January 1998. The French government, both directly and through its holding company ERAP, continues to hold a stake of 27% in the company. In addition, the government Conseil of Ministers names the CEO. In September 1995, Michel Bon was appointed to run France Télécom Group. In 1997, the capital of the new public company was floated whereas the dot-com bubble phenomenon made the stock exchanges bullish. A second share offering occurred in 1998. France Télécom got behind in the internationalization launched by its international competitors such as Vodafone, thus, it started looking for targets at the highest speculation rate of the dot-com bubble.
Moreover, its alliance with Deutsche Telekom based on a reciprocal capital contribution of 2% broke off when Deutsche Telekom announced that they were planning to do business with Telecom Italia without letting the French know – if this project ended up failing. In July 1991, Hutchison Telecom, a UK subsidiary of the Hong Kong-based conglomerate Hutchison Whampoa, acquired a controlling stake in Microtel Communications Ltd, who by had acquired a licence to develop a mobile network in the United Kingdom. Hutchison renamed Microtel to Orange Personal Communications Services Ltd, on 28 April 1994 the Orange brand was launched in the UK mobile phone market. A holding company structure was adopted in 1995 with the establishment of Orange plc. In April 1996, Orange went public and floated on the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ, majority owned by Hutchison, followed by BAe. In June 1996, it became the youngest company to enter the FTSE 100, valued at £2.4 billion. In October 1999 the German conglomerate Mannesmann AG acquired Orange for a price equivalent to €7,900 per customer, i.e. US$33 billion.
Mannesmann's acquisition of Orange triggered Vodafone to make a hostile takeover bid for Mannesmann. Shortly thereafter, in February 2000, Vodafone acquired Mannesmann for US$183 billion, decided to divest Orange because the EU regulations wouldn't allow it to hold two mobile licences. In August 2000, France Télécom bought Orange plc from Vodafone for a total estimated cost of €39.7 billion. At the time, France Télécom bought stakes in several other international firms, of which some have since been sold back. Through this process, France Télécom became the fourth biggest global operator; the mobile telephone operations of Orange plc were merged with the majority of the mobile operations of France Télécom, forming the new group Orange SA. On 13 February 2001, Orange SA was listed on the Euronext Paris stock exchange with an initial public offering of 95 Euros per share, with a secondary listing in London. In May 2001, Orange SA was listed on the CAC 40, the benchmark stock market index of the top 40 French companies in terms of market capitalisation.
In June 2001 the France Telecom Mobile brands Itinéris, OLA, Mobicarte were replaced by the Orange brand. On 21 November 2003, France Telecom withdrew the 13.7% of Orange's shares traded on the Pari
Mya was an intelligent personal assistant under development by Motorola. Proposed features for the program included the ability to read emails and answer questions 24 hours a day. Mya was intended to work with an internet service Motorola was developing called Myosphere, was planned to be a paid service that would be used by other mobile carriers. A female computer-generated character was created to represent Mya in advertising. While the quality of the character's animation was praised, it received criticism for being over sexualised. Both the character and the program were announced to the public via an advertisement in March 2000, though the program was not ready for use at that time. Despite the announcement generating a considerable amount of attention, little was heard regarding the project in subsequent months; the program was never released nor cancelled, though the trademarks for both Myosphere and Mya were abandoned by Motorola in 2002. The name Mya was believed to be a play on the words'My assistant'.
The Internet service that Mya was developed for was called Myosphere. Motorola began development of Myosphere in 1998, it had been described as a speech enabled service "which enables consumers to manage and control wireless and wireline communications from a single point of access using natural voice commands." Several other companies had announced plans for similar software at the time. But the party is to be big.... Motorola's entry will help further legitimize the value of voice response systems, but it's a tough market, it will take time." The term myosphere was "a play on the theme of connecting the elements of an individual's world, or sphere."Intended to provide a human-like interface to the Internet, Mya was to be accessed via a toll-free telephone number and a pin code. The program was designed to work with any phone, including landlines, but for mobiles, was to be accessible 24 hours a day. Mya was said to be able to answer questions on topics such as stock prices, sports, weather conditions, airline reservations and appointments, as well as being able to call contacts in a mobile phone's address book.
Intended to be a paid service that would be ready by December 2000, Motorola hoped that Mya would eventually be used on Palm Pilot and by other mobile carriers. In July 2000 Motorola was reported to be planning to work with Nuance Communications to internationalize Mya, that same month BellSouth was declared to be the first carrier to buy the service. According to an article in Popular Science in August 2000, Motorola was spending "millions of dollars" on both the Mya character and the program. Mya was programmed only for English, though by April 2001 the program was being developed in six languages, additionally Nippon Telegraph and Telephone were said to be working with Motorola to develop a Japanese version. Mya was voiced by actress Gabrielle Carteris, mechanically altered to sound more digital. To create a commercial for Mya, Motorola hired the McCann Erickson company, who in turn hired Digital Domain to create the character; the design was described as a "big-budget" production, though Digital Domain were only given three months to complete the project.
Mya's physical representation: a tall, blonde, blue-eyed white female, was created in the likeness of a human model, Michelle Holgate. The initial inspiration for Mya came from vintage pin-up girls; the first representation of Mya had a small waist and large breasts, was said to resemble Jessica Rabbit, which did not impress either Motorola or McCann Erickson. Motorola asked Digital Domain to make Mya look as human as possible yet still be artificial; the first completed iteration of Mya was so realistic that Motorola asked for her to be made more digital. Viewers were not impressed with Mya because they thought she was a real person. Digital Domain visual effects supervisor and animation director, Fred Raimondi, decided to remodel Mya's appearance to be "just to the left of real". You know how when you first looked at Max Headroom and were like'What is that?' That's. Mya's hair was changed from brunette to bleach blonde, her short spiky hair style was said to resemble that of Serena Altschul. According to Digital Domain, giving Mya hair, longer than ear-length was not possible in the time they had been given, due to the difficulties of creating digital photorealistic hair.
Mya's final body shape was an exact copy of the original model's measurements. Mya was seen wearing a silver pantsuit but appeared in halter tops in some shots and dressed in an evening gown for her debut. While Digital Domain staff wanted Mya to appear in a knee-length skirt with high boots, Motorola and McCann chose the pantsuit, due to its contemporary look. Digital Domain chose not to use motion capture for Mya's movements as they believed it would constrain the character too much. Instead they used rotoscoping to place their digital character over the real model; the evening gown Motorola selected for Mya to debut in was described by Digital Domain as the most difficult item of clothing they could have chosen, due to its transparency and layering. To render 150 frames of Mya moving in the gown in low-resolution required 6 hours of processing time. Mya's rendering was so complex. Mya's creators said they had difficulty making Mya appear as if she were "alive", focused intensely on movemen
Oasis were an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1991. Developed from an earlier group, the Rain, the band consisted of Liam Gallagher, Paul "Bonehead" Arthurs, Paul "Guigsy" McGuigan and Tony McCarroll. Upon returning to Manchester, Liam's older brother, Noel Gallagher joined as a fifth member, which formed the band's core and settled line-up. During the course of their existence, they had various line-up changes. Oasis signed to independent record label Creation Records in 1993 and released their record-setting debut album Definitely Maybe; the following year the band recorded Morning Glory? with drummer Alan White, in the midst of a chart rivalry with Britpop peers Blur. Morning Glory? became one of the best-selling albums of all time, selling over 22 million copies worldwide and the Gallagher brothers were featured in tabloid newspapers for their sibling disputes and wild lifestyles. In 1996, Oasis performed two nights at Knebworth for an audience of 125,000 each night, which were at the time the largest outdoor concerts in UK history.
2.5 million people applied for tickets, which remains the highest demand for a show in British history. In 1997, Oasis released their third album. McGuigan and Arthurs left Oasis in 1999 as the band released Standing on the Shoulder of Giants, they were replaced by former Heavy Stereo guitarist/frontman Gem Archer and former Ride guitarist/frontman Andy Bell. Their fifth studio album Heathen Chemistry was released in 2002. In 2004, White left, leaving them as a four-piece, with the addition of the Who drummer Zak Starkey as an unofficial recording and touring fifth member, they found renewed popularity with Don't Believe the Truth. Following the recording of the band's seventh album Dig Out Your Soul in May 2008, Starkey departed from the band. Chris Sharrock was recruited as a touring member, Oasis did their last tour as a collective band. During the tour the Gallagher brothers' deteriorating relationship led to Noel Gallagher announcing his departure in August 2009, after a backstage altercation with Liam.
The rest of the band, led by Liam, decided to continue, under the name Beady Eye, until their breakup in 2014. Noel formed Noel Gallagher's High Flying Birds. Oasis have had eight UK number-one singles and eight UK number-one albums, they have won 17 NME Awards, nine Q Awards, four MTV Europe Music Awards and six Brit Awards, including one in 2007 for Outstanding Contribution to Music and one for the Best Album of the Last 30 Years–for Morning Glory?–as voted by BBC Radio 2 listeners. They have been nominated for two Grammy Awards; as of 2009, Oasis have sold over 75 million records worldwide. The band were listed in the Guinness World Records book in 2010 for "Longest Top 10 UK Chart Run by a Group" after an unprecedented run of 22 top 10 hits in the UK; the band holds the Guinness World Record for the most successful act in the UK between the years 1995 and 2005, spending 765 weeks in the top 75 singles and albums charts. Oasis evolved from an earlier group, the Rain, composed of bassist Paul McGuigan, guitarist Paul Arthurs, drummer Tony McCarroll and Chris Hutton on vocals.
Unsatisfied with Hutton, Arthurs invited and auditioned acquaintance Liam Gallagher as a replacement. Liam suggested that the band name be changed to Oasis, inspired by an Inspiral Carpets tour poster in the Gallagher brothers' bedroom which listed the Oasis Leisure Centre in Swindon as a venue. Oasis played their first gig on 18 August 1991 at the Boardwalk club in Manchester. Liam's brother Noel Gallagher, a roadie for Inspiral Carpets, went with the band to watch his younger brother's band play. Whilst Noel and his friends did not think Oasis sounded spectacular, he began to consider the possibility of using his brother's group as a possible outlet for a series of songs he had been writing for several years. Noel approached the group about joining with the proviso that he would become the band's sole songwriter and leader, that they would commit to an earnest pursuit of commercial success. "He had loads of stuff written," Arthurs recalled. "When he walked in, we were a band making a racket with four tunes.
All of a sudden, there were loads of ideas." Under Noel, Oasis crafted a musical approach that relied on simplicity: with Arthurs and McGuigan restricted to playing barre chords and root bass notes, McCarroll playing basic rhythms, the band's amplifiers turned up to create distortion, Oasis created a sound "so devoid of finesse and complexity that it came out sounding pretty much unstoppable." After over a year of live shows, rehearsals and a recording of a demo, the Live Demonstration tape, Oasis's big break came in May 1993 when they were spotted by Creation Records co-owner Alan McGee. Oasis were invited to play a gig at King Tut's Wah Wah Hut club in Glasgow, Scotland, by Sister Lovers, who shared their rehearsal rooms. Oasis, along with a group of friends, made the journey to Glasgow; when they arrived, they were refused entry. They were given the opening slot and impressed McGee, there to see 18 Wheeler, one of his own bands. McGee offered them a recording contract. Due to problems securing an American contract
Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech. A computer system used for this purpose is called a speech computer or speech synthesizer, can be implemented in software or hardware products. A text-to-speech system converts normal language text into speech. Synthesized speech can be created by concatenating pieces of recorded speech that are stored in a database. Systems differ in the size of the stored speech units. For specific usage domains, the storage of entire words or sentences allows for high-quality output. Alternatively, a synthesizer can incorporate a model of the vocal tract and other human voice characteristics to create a "synthetic" voice output; the quality of a speech synthesizer is judged by its similarity to the human voice and by its ability to be understood clearly. An intelligible text-to-speech program allows people with visual impairments or reading disabilities to listen to written words on a home computer. Many computer operating systems have included speech synthesizers since the early 1990s.
A text-to-speech system is composed of two parts: a back-end. The front-end has two major tasks. First, it converts raw text containing symbols like numbers and abbreviations into the equivalent of written-out words; this process is called text normalization, pre-processing, or tokenization. The front-end assigns phonetic transcriptions to each word, divides and marks the text into prosodic units, like phrases and sentences; the process of assigning phonetic transcriptions to words is called text-to-phoneme or grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. Phonetic transcriptions and prosody information together make up the symbolic linguistic representation, output by the front-end; the back-end—often referred to as the synthesizer—then converts the symbolic linguistic representation into sound. In certain systems, this part includes the computation of the target prosody, imposed on the output speech. Long before the invention of electronic signal processing, some people tried to build machines to emulate human speech.
Some early legends of the existence of "Brazen Heads" involved Pope Silvester II, Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon. In 1779 the German-Danish scientist Christian Gottlieb Kratzenstein won the first prize in a competition announced by the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences and Arts for models he built of the human vocal tract that could produce the five long vowel sounds. There followed the bellows-operated "acoustic-mechanical speech machine" of Wolfgang von Kempelen of Pressburg, described in a 1791 paper; this machine added models of the tongue and lips, enabling it to produce consonants as well as vowels. In 1837, Charles Wheatstone produced a "speaking machine" based on von Kempelen's design, in 1846, Joseph Faber exhibited the "Euphonia". In 1923 Paget resurrected Wheatstone's design. In the 1930s Bell Labs developed the vocoder, which automatically analyzed speech into its fundamental tones and resonances. From his work on the vocoder, Homer Dudley developed a keyboard-operated voice-synthesizer called The Voder, which he exhibited at the 1939 New York World's Fair.
Dr. Franklin S. Cooper and his colleagues at Haskins Laboratories built the Pattern playback in the late 1940s and completed it in 1950. There were several different versions of this hardware device; the machine converts pictures of the acoustic patterns of speech in the form of a spectrogram back into sound. Using this device, Alvin Liberman and colleagues discovered acoustic cues for the perception of phonetic segments. In 1975 MUSA was released, was one of the first Speech Synthesis systems, it consisted of a stand-alone computer hardware and a specialized software that enabled it to read Italian. A second version, released in 1978, was able to sing Italian in an "a cappella" style. Dominant systems in the 1980s and 1990s were the DECtalk system, based on the work of Dennis Klatt at MIT, the Bell Labs system. Early electronic speech-synthesizers sounded robotic and were barely intelligible; the quality of synthesized speech has improved, but as of 2016 output from contemporary speech synthesis systems remains distinguishable from actual human speech.
Kurzweil predicted in 2005 that as the cost-performance ratio caused speech synthesizers to become cheaper and more accessible, more people would benefit from the use of text-to-speech programs. The first computer-based speech-synthesis systems originated in the late 1950s. Noriko Umeda et al. developed the first general English text-to-speech system in 1968 at the Electrotechnical Laboratory, Japan. In 1961 physicist John Larry Kelly, Jr and his colleague Louis Gerstman used an IBM 704 computer to synthesize speech, an event among the most prominent in the history of Bell Labs. Kelly's voice recorder synthesizer recreated the song "Daisy Bell", with musical accompaniment from Max Mathews. Coincidentally, Arthur C. Clarke was visiting his friend and colleague John Pierce at the Bell Labs Murray Hill facility. Clarke was so impressed by the demonstration that he used it in the climactic scene of his screenplay for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, where the HAL 9000 computer sings the same song as astronaut Dave Bowman puts it to slee
Carol Jean Vorderman, MBE is a British media personality, best known for co-hosting the popular game show Countdown for 26 years from 1982 until 2008, publishing newspaper columns on internet topics, writing books on subjects ranging from school textbooks on mathematics to a #1 best-selling book on Detox diets, advocating for numerous charities, hosting the Pride of Britain awards each year to honour British people who have acted bravely or extraordinarily in challenging situations. Vorderman's career began in 1982, she appeared on the show most with Des O'Connor, with Des Lynam and before that Richard Whiteley. Vorderman left the show in 2008. While appearing on Countdown, Vorderman began presenting other shows for various broadcasters including Better Homes and The Pride of Britain Awards for ITV, as well as guest hosting shows such as Have I Got News for You, The Sunday Night Project and Lorraine. Vorderman was a presenter of ITV's Loose Women from 2011 until 2014. Vorderman was born in Bedford, the youngest of three children of Dutch father Anton'Tony' Vorderman and Welsh mother Edwina Jean.
Her parents separated three weeks after her birth, her mother took the family back to her home town of Prestatyn, North Wales, where Vorderman and her siblings and Trixie, grew up in a one-parent household. Vorderman did not see her father again until she was 42. In 1970, her mother married Italian immigrant Armido Rizzi; the couple separated ten years later. Vorderman's father remarried. Vorderman was educated at the comprehensive Blessed Edward Jones Catholic High School in Rhyl. In 1978, when she was 17, she went to Cambridge, where she read engineering at Sidney Sussex College. Vorderman went to Cambridge as one of the youngest women admitted at the time, her degree was only a Third, a result she herself has described as having been "disappointing". Vorderman did not trace the Dutch side of her family until 2007 It was only that she discovered that her father had been an active member of the Dutch resistance during the Nazi occupation, he died. Her great-grandfather Adolphe Vorderman played a key role in the discovery of vitamins.
Vorderman found employment as a junior civil engineer at Dinorwig Power Station in Wales and as a graduate management trainee in Leeds. In her spare time, she was a backing singer with friend Lindsay Forrest in the Leeds-based pop group Dawn Chorus and the Blue Tits, fronted by radio DJ Liz Kershaw during the early 1980s; the group recorded, among a version of The Undertones' hit Teenage Kicks. During 1984-85 she made regular appearances on the Peter Levy show on Radio Aire, appearing mid-morning to read a story for pre-school children. In the mid-1980s Vorderman worked part-time in the Information Services Department of the UK Atomic Energy Authority, principally in the production of in-house video programmes. Vorderman's mother noticed a newspaper advertisement asking for a woman with good mathematical skills to appear as co-host on a quiz show for the fledgling fourth terrestrial channel, she submitted an application on behalf of her daughter aged 21. Vorderman appeared on Countdown from the show's inception until 2008.
Vorderman's only contribution to the show was the numbers game, she formed part of a five-person presentation team. However, over the following years, the team was pared down, Vorderman's contribution increased. Vorderman thus became a new type of game show hostess, revealing her intellectual ability by carrying out fast and accurate arithmetical calculations during the show, her lasting success on the show led to her becoming one of the highest-paid women in Britain earning her an estimated £1 million per year. In June 2005, the producers of Countdown asked Vorderman if she wanted to fill the role of main presenter vacated by the deceased Richard Whiteley. Vorderman declined, a search for a new presenter began while the show went into a four-month hiatus. In October 2005, Des Lynam replaced co-hosted with Vorderman. In January 2007 Des O'Connor replaced Lynam. On 25 July 2008, after 26 unbroken years with the show, it was announced that Vorderman was stepping down from Countdown, she said she had resigned after failing to agree terms with Channel 4 for a new contract, it was reported that she had been asked to take a cut of 90% from her previous salary, estimated as £900,000.
She had considered leaving the show when the show's original host Richard Whiteley died in 2005, but remained on the show when Lynam took over, until 2008 when his eventual replacement O'Connor announced he was to step down as the show's host. Vorderman and O'Connor both left the show in December 2008. Vorderman recorded her last Countdown show on 13 November 2008, broadcast on 12 December 2008. Both her children were in the audience, together with many of the previous guests from "Dictionary Corner". After the prizegiving at the end of the show, Des O'Connor was presented with a bouquet of flowers by the show's lexicographer Susie Dent, Vorderman received one from Gyles Brandreth, she was too moved to complete her farewells. A special show, One Last Consonant, Please Carol, hosted by Brandreth and featuring Vorderman's highs and lows during the 26 years of the show, was als
Kylie Ann Minogue known mononymously as Kylie, is an Australian-British singer and actress. She achieved recognition starring in the Australian soap opera Neighbours, where she played tomboy mechanic Charlene Robinson. Appearing in the series for two years, Minogue's character married Scott Robinson in an episode viewed by nearly 20 million people in the United Kingdom, making it one of the most watched Australian TV episodes ever. Since Minogue has been a recording artist and has achieved commercial success and critical acclaim in the entertainment industry. Minogue has been recognised with several honorific nicknames, most notably the "Princess of Pop." She is recognised as the highest-selling Australian artist of all time by the Australian Recording Industry Association. Born and raised in Melbourne, Minogue has worked and lived in the United Kingdom since the 1990s, she released her first studio album Kylie the next year. In 1992, she left PWL and signed with Deconstruction Records where she released her self-titled studio album and Impossible Princess, both of which received positive reviews from critics.
Returning to more mainstream dance-oriented music, Minogue signed to Parlophone and released Light Years. The followup, was a hit in many countries, including the United States; the lead single "Can't Get You Out of My Head" became one of the most successful singles of the 2000s, selling over ten million units. It is recognised as her "signature song" and was named "the catchiest song ever" by Yahoo! Music. Other successful singles by Minogue include "I Should Be So Lucky", "The Loco-Motion", "Especially for You", "Hand on Your Heart", "Better the Devil You Know", "Confide in Me", "Spinning Around", "Love at First Sight", "Slow", "2 Hearts" and "All the Lovers". In 2005, while Minogue was on her Showgirl: The Greatest Hits Tour, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. After treatment, she resumed the tour under the title Showgirl: The Homecoming Tour, which critics viewed as a "triumph". Minogue made her film debut in The Delinquents and portrayed Cammy in Street Fighter. Minogue has appeared in the films Moulin Rouge!, Jack & Diane, Holy Motors.
In 2014, she appeared as a judge on the third series of The Voice Australia. Her other ventures include children's books and fashion; as of 2015, Minogue has had worldwide record sales of more than 80 million. She has mounted several successful and critically acclaimed concert world tours and received a Mo Award for "Australian Entertainer of the Year" for her live performances. Minogue was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2008 New Year Honours for services to Music, she was appointed by the French government as a Chevalier of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres for her contribution to the enrichment of French culture. Minogue was awarded an honorary Doctor of Health Science degree by Anglia Ruskin University for her work in raising awareness for breast cancer. In November 2011, on the 25th anniversary of the ARIA Music Awards, she was inducted by the Australian Recording Industry Association into the ARIA Hall of Fame. In December 2016, Billboard ranked her as the 18th most successful dance artist of all-time.
Minogue signed a new global recording contract with BMG Rights Management in early 2017. Her latest album Golden was released on 6 April 2018, debuting at No. 1 in the Australia. Kylie was born to Ronald Charles Minogue and Carol Ann Jones in Melbourne, Australia, on 28 May 1968, her father is a fifth generation Australian, has Irish ancestry, while her mother came from Maesteg, Wales. Jones had lived in Wales until age ten when her mother and father and Denis Jones, decided to move to Australia for a better life. Just before Kylie's birth, Ron qualified as an accountant and worked through several jobs while Carol worked as a professional dancer. Kylie's younger brother, Brendan, is a news cameraman in Australia, while her younger sister Dannii Minogue is a singer and television host; the Minogue family moved around various suburbs in Melbourne to sustain their living expenses, which Kylie found unsettling as a child. After the birth of Dannii, the family moved to South Oakleigh; because money was tight, Ron worked as an accountant at a family-owned car company and Carol worked as a tea lady at a local hospital.
After moving to Surrey Hills, Minogue attended Studfield Primary School before attending Camberwell Primary School. She went on to Camberwell High School. During her schooling years, Minogue found it difficult to make friends, she got her HSC with subjects including English. Minogue described herself as being of "average intelligence" and "quite modest" during her high school years. From the age of 11, Kylie appeared in small roles in soap operas including The Sullivans and Skyways. In 1985, she was cast in one of the lead roles in The Henderson Kids. Minogue took time off school to film The Henderson Kids and while Carol was not impressed, Minogue felt that she needed the independence to make it into the entertainment industry. During filming, co-star Nadine Garner labelled Minogue "fragile" after producers yelled at her for forgetting her lines. Minogue was dropped from the second season of the show after producer Alan Hardy felt the need for her character to be "written off". In retrospect, Hardy stated that removing her from the showing "turned out to be the best thing for her".
Interested in following a career in music, Minogue made a demo tape for the producers of weekly music programme Young Talent Time, which featured Dannii as a regular performer
Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system. Since they allow to check the reliability of chosen mathematical models, computer simulations have become a useful tool for the mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics, climatology, chemistry and manufacturing, human systems in economics, social science, health care and engineering. Simulation of a system is represented as the running of the system's model, it can be used to explore and gain new insights into new technology and to estimate the performance of systems too complex for analytical solutions. Computer simulations are realized by running computer programs that can be either small, running instantly on small devices, or large-scale programs that run for hours or days on network-based groups of computers; the scale of events being simulated by computer simulations has far exceeded anything possible using traditional paper-and-pencil mathematical modeling.
Over 10 years ago, a desert-battle simulation of one force invading another involved the modeling of 66,239 tanks and other vehicles on simulated terrain around Kuwait, using multiple supercomputers in the DoD High Performance Computer Modernization Program. Other examples include a 1-billion-atom model of material deformation; because of the computational cost of simulation, computer experiments are used to perform inference such as uncertainty quantification. A computer model is the algorithms and equations used to capture the behavior of the system being modeled. By contrast, computer simulation is the actual running of the program that contains these equations or algorithms. Simulation, therefore, is the process of running a model, thus one would not "build a simulation". Computer simulation developed hand-in-hand with the rapid growth of the computer, following its first large-scale deployment during the Manhattan Project in World War II to model the process of nuclear detonation, it was a simulation of 12 hard spheres using a Monte Carlo algorithm.
Computer simulation is used as an adjunct to, or substitute for, modeling systems for which simple closed form analytic solutions are not possible. There are many types of computer simulations; the external data requirements of simulations and models vary widely. For some, the input might be just a few numbers, while others might require terabytes of information. Input sources vary widely: Sensors and other physical devices connected to the model. Lastly, the time at which data is available varies: "invariant" data is built into the model code, either because the value is invariant or because the designers consider the value to be invariant for all cases of interest; because of this variety, because diverse simulation systems have many common elements, there are a large number of specialized simulation languages. The best-known may be Simula. There are now many others. Systems that accept data from external sources must be careful in knowing what they are receiving. While it is easy for computers to read in values from text or binary files, what is much harder is knowing what the accuracy of the values are.
They are expressed as "error bars", a minimum and maximum deviation from the value range within which the true value lie. Because digital computer mathematics is not perfect and truncation errors multiply this error, so it is useful to perform an "error analysis" to confirm that values output by the simulation will still be usefully accurate. Small errors in the original data can accumulate into substantial error in the simulation. While all computer analysis is subject to the "GIGO" restriction, this is true of digital simulation. Indeed, observation of this inherent, cumulative error in digital systems was the main catalyst for the development of chaos theory. Computer models can be classified according to several independent pairs of attributes, including: Stochastic or deterministic – see external links below for examples of stochastic vs. deterministic simulations Steady-state or dynamic Continuous or discrete Dynamic system simulation, e.g. electric systems, hydraulic systems or multi-body mechanical s