Theodor Seuss Geisel was an American children's author, political cartoonist, animator. He is known for his work writing and illustrating more than 60 books under the pen name Doctor Seuss, his work includes many of the most popular children's books of all time, selling over 600 million copies and being translated into more than 20 languages by the time of his death. Geisel adopted the name "Dr. Seuss" as an undergraduate at Dartmouth College and as a graduate student at Lincoln College, Oxford, he left Oxford in 1927 to begin his career as an illustrator and cartoonist for Vanity Fair and various other publications. He worked as an illustrator for advertising campaigns, most notably for FLIT and Standard Oil, as a political cartoonist for the New York newspaper PM, he published his first children's book And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street in 1937. During World War II, he took a brief hiatus from children's literature to illustrate political cartoons, he worked in the animation and film department of the United States Army where he wrote, produced or animated many productions – both live-action and animated – including Design for Death, which won the 1947 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.
After the war, Geisel returned to writing children's books, writing classics like If I Ran the Zoo, Horton Hears a Who!, If I Ran the Circus, The Cat in the Hat, How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, Green Eggs and Ham. He published over 60 books during his career, which have spawned numerous adaptations, including 11 television specials, five feature films, a Broadway musical, four television series. Geisel won the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1958 for Horton Hatches the Egg and again in 1961 for And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street. Geisel's birthday, March 2, has been adopted as the annual date for National Read Across America Day, an initiative on reading created by the National Education Association. Geisel was born and raised in Springfield, the son of Henrietta and Theodor Robert Geisel, his father managed the family brewery and was appointed to supervise Springfield's public park system by Mayor John A. Denison after the brewery closed because of Prohibition. Mulberry Street in Springfield, made famous in his first children's book And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, is near his boyhood home on Fairfield Street.
The family was of German descent, Geisel and his sister Marnie experienced anti-German prejudice from other children following the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Geisel attended Dartmouth College, graduating in 1925. At Dartmouth, he joined the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity and the humor magazine Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern rising to the rank of editor-in-chief. While at Dartmouth, he was caught drinking gin with nine friends in his room. At the time, the possession and consumption of alcohol was illegal under Prohibition laws, which remained in place between 1920 and 1933; as a result of this infraction, Dean Craven Laycock insisted that Geisel resign from all extracurricular activities, including the Jack-O-Lantern. To continue working on the magazine without the administration's knowledge, Geisel began signing his work with the pen name "Seuss", he was encouraged in his writing by professor of rhetoric W. Benfield Pressey, whom he described as his "big inspiration for writing" at Dartmouth. Upon graduating from Dartmouth, he entered Lincoln College, intending to earn a D.
Phil. in English literature. At Oxford, he met Helen Palmer, who encouraged him to give up becoming an English teacher in favor of pursuing drawing as a career, she recalled that "Ted's notebooks were always filled with these fabulous animals. So I set to work diverting him. Geisel left Oxford without earning a degree and returned to the United States in February 1927, where he began submitting writings and drawings to magazines, book publishers, advertising agencies. Making use of his time in Europe, he pitched a series of cartoons called Eminent Europeans to Life magazine, but the magazine passed on it, his first nationally published cartoon appeared in the July 16, 1927, issue of The Saturday Evening Post. This single $25 sale encouraged Geisel to move from Springfield to New York City; that year, Geisel accepted a job as writer and illustrator at the humor magazine Judge, he felt financially stable enough to marry Helen. His first cartoon for Judge appeared on October 22, 1927, the Geisels were married on November 29.
Geisel's first work signed "Dr. Seuss" was published in Judge about six months after he started working there. In early 1928, one of Geisel's cartoons for Judge mentioned Flit, a common bug spray at the time manufactured by Standard Oil of New Jersey. According to Geisel, the wife of an advertising executive in charge of advertising Flit saw Geisel's cartoon at a hairdresser's and urged her husband to sign him. Geisel's first Flit ad appeared on May 31, 1928, the campaign continued sporadically until 1941; the campaign's catchphrase "Quick, the Flit!" became a part of popular culture. It was used as a punch line for comedians such as Fred Allen and Jack Benny; as Geisel gained notoriety for the Flit campaign, his work was in demand and began to appear in magazines such as Life and Vanity Fair. The money Geisel earned from his advertising work and magazine submissions made him wealthier than his most successful Dartmouth classmates; the increased income allowed the Geisels to move to better quarters and to socialize in higher social circles.
They became friends with the wealthy
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t
Julian Tuwim, known under the pseudonym "Oldlen" as a lyricist, was a Polish poet of Jewish descent, born in Łódź. He was educated in Warsaw where he studied law and philosophy at Warsaw University. After Poland's return to independence in 1919, Tuwim co-founded the Skamander group of experimental poets with Antoni Słonimski and Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz, he was a major figure in Polish literature, admired for his contribution to children's literature. He was a recipient of the prestigious Golden Laurel of the Polish Academy of Literature in 1935. Tuwim was born into a family of assimilated Jews; the surname comes from the Hebrew tovim meaning "good". His parents and Adela, provided Julian with a comfortable middle class upbringing, he was not a diligent student and had to repeat the sixth grade. In 1905 the family had to flee from Łódź to Wrocław in order to escape possible repercussions following Izydor's involvement in the Revolution of 1905. Tuwim's poetry more than that of the other "Skamandrites", represented a decisive break with turn-of-the-20th-century mannerism.
It was characterized by an expression of optimism, in praise of urban life. His poems celebrated everyday life with its triviality and vulgarity. Tuwim used vernacular language in his work, along with slang as well as poetic dialogue, his collections "Czyhanie na Boga", "Sokrates tańczący", "Siódma jesień", "Wierszy tom czwarty" are typical of his early work. In his collections — "Słowa we krwi" ), "Rzecz Czarnoleska", "Biblia cygańska" and "Treść gorejąca" Tuwim became restless and bitter, wrote with fervour and vehemence about the emptiness of urban existence, he drew more from the romantic and classicist traditions, while perfecting his form and style, becoming a virtuoso wordsmith. From the beginning and throughout his artistic career, Tuwim was satirically inclined, he supplied monologues to numerous cabarets. In his poetry and articles, he derided obscurantism and bureaucracy as well as militaristic and nationalistic trends in politics, his burlesque, "Bal w Operze" is regarded as his best satirical poem.
In 1918 Tuwim co-founded the cabaret, "Picador", worked as a writer or artistic director with many other cabarets such as "Czarny kot", "Quid pro Quo", "Banda" The Gang and "Stara Banda" The Old Gang and "Cyrulik Warszawski". Since 1924 Tuwim was a staff writer at "Wiadomości Literackie" where he wrote a weekly column, "Camera Obscura", he wrote for the satirical magazine, "Szpilki". Tuwim displayed his caustic sense of humour and unyielding individuality in works such as "Poem in which the author politely but implores the vast hosts of his brethren to kiss his arse." Here, Tuwim systematically enumerates and caricatures various personalities of the European social scene of the mid-1930s --'perfumed café intellectuals','drab socialists','fascist jocks','Zionist doctors','repressed Catholics' and so on, ends every stanza by asking each to perform the action indicated in the title. The poem ends with a note to the would-be censor who would be tempted to expunge all mention of this piece for its breach of'public standards.'
His poem "Do prostego człowieka", first published on October 7, 1929 in "Robotnik", provoked a storm of personal attacks on Tuwim from antisemitic right wing circles criticizing Tuwim's pacifist views. Julian's aunt was married to Adam Czerniaków, his uncle from his mother's side was Arthur Rubinstein. In 1939, at the beginning of World War II and the Nazi occupation of Poland, Tuwim emigrated through Romania first to France, after France's capitulation, to Brazil, by way of Portugal, to the US, where he settled in 1942. In 1939-41 he collaborated with the émigré weekly "Wiadomosci Polskie", but broke off the collaboration due to differences in views on the attitude towards the Soviet Union. In 1942-46 he worked with the monthly "Nowa Polska" published in London, with leftist Polish-American newspapers, he was affiliated with the Polish section of the International Workers Organization from 1942. He was a member of the Association of Writers From Poland. During this time he wrote "Kwiaty Polskie", an epic poem in which he remembers with nostalgia his early childhood in Łódź.
In April 1944 he published a manifesto, entitled "My, Żydzi Polscy". Tuwim did not produce much in Stalinist Poland, he died in 1953 at the age of 59 in Zakopane. Although Tuwim was well known for serious poetry he wrote satirical works and poetry for children, for example "Lokomotywa" translated into many languages, he wrote well-regarded translations of Pushkin and other Russian poets. Russian Soviet poet Yelizaveta Tarakhovskaya translated most of Tuwim's children's poetry into Russian. Czyhanie na Boga Sokrates tańczący Siódma jesień Wierszy tom czwarty Murzynek Bambo Czary i czarty polskie Wypisy czarnoksięskie A to pan zna? Czarna msza Tysią
Bruno Jasieński pronounced. Today one of the streets of Klimontów is named after him. Jasieński is one of the best known Polish futurists, acclaimed by members of the various modernist art groups as their patron. An annual literary festival "Brunonalia" held in Klimontów, Poland, is named after him. Wiktor Zysman was born at Klimontów to a Polish Jewish family of Jakub Zysman. From his mother's side he was a descendant of the Christian nobility, his Jewish father Jakub was a local doctor and a social worker, member of the Klimontów intelligentsia. Jakub converted to Protestantism to be able to marry Eufemia Maria Modzelewska, a Polish Catholic and member of the Modzelewski family of the Bończa coat of arms, they had three children: the first-born Wiktor and Irena. Little is known of Jasieński's early life as he did not describe it in his works, he didn't finish it. In 1914, as the First World War raged on, his family relocated deeper into the Russian Empire, where Bruno graduated from the secondary school in Moscow.
There, his fascination with Igor Severyanin's ego-futurism started, followed by lectures of Velimir Chlebnikov, Vladimir Mayakovsky and Alexiey Kruchonykh's so-called Visual poems. In 1918, after Poland regained its independence, Bruno returned to Kraków, where he applied for a position in the philosophical faculty of the Jagiellonian University. However, he suspended his studies to join the volunteer unit of the Polish Army and took part in the disarming of Austrian and German soldiers. After the Polish-Soviet War, he studied at various faculties, he became one of the founders of a club of futurists named Katarynka. In 1921 Jasieński published one of his first futurist works, Nuż w bżuhu and, together with Stanisław Młodożeniec became known as one of the founders of the Polish Futurist movement; the same year he published a number of other works, including manifestos, leaflets and all kinds of new art unknown in Poland. A volume of poems entitled But w butonierce, published in Warsaw; the same year he gained much fame as an enfant terrible of Polish literature and was well received by the critics in many Polish cities, including Warsaw and Lwów, where he met other notable writers of the epoch.
Among them were Marian Hemar, Tytus Czyżewski, Aleksander Wat and Anatol Stern. He collaborated with various newspapers including the leftist Trybuna Robotnicza, Nowa Kultura and Zwrotnica. In 1922 another of his works was published, the Pieśń o głodzie, followed by 1924 Ziemia na lewo. In 1923 he married daughter of a notable merchant from Lwów, they moved to France. The couple lived a humble life, making ends meet as journalists and correspondents of various Polish newspapers. Although Bruno Jasieński did not seek contacts with the local Polonia, together with Zygmunt Modzelewski he formed an amateur theatre for the Polish worker Diaspora living in Saint Denis, he wrote numerous poems and books, many of which were quite radical. In 1928 he serialised the work which secured his reputation, Palę Paryż, a futurist novel depicting the collapse and decay of the city and social tensions within the capitalist societies in general, in the leftist L'Humanité newspaper in a French version, Je brûle Paris, translated into Russian.
The following year the original Polish text was published in Warsaw. The novel was a humorous reply to Paul Morand's pamphlet I Burn Moscow published shortly before; the novel gained Jasieński much fame in France, but became the main reason why he was deported from the country. Not admitted to Belgium and Luxembourg, he stayed in Frankfurt am Main for a while and – when the extradition order had been withdrawn – returned to France only to be expelled once more for communist agitation. In 1929 Jasieński moved to the USSR and settled in Leningrad, where he accepted Soviet citizenship, was promoted by the authorities; the first Russian edition of I Burn Paris was sold out in one day. The same year his son was born and Bruno became the editor-in-chief of Kultura mas, a Polish-language monthly and a journalist of the Soviet Tribune; the following year he divorced Klara because of numerous scandals she was involved in. Soon afterwards he married Anna Berzin, with whom he had a daughter. In 1932 he transferred from the Polish division of the French Communist Party to the All-Union Communist Party and soon became a prominent member of that organization.
He migrated to Moscow. During that period he served at various posts in the branch unions of communist writers, he was granted honorary citizenship of Tajikistan. By the mid-1930s he became a strong supporter of Genrikh Yagoda's political purges within the writers' community. Jasieński is mentioned as the initiator of the persecution of Isaak Babel. From 1933 to 1937 he worked on the editorial staff of the magazine Internatsionalnaya Literatura. However, in 1937 the tide turned and Yagoda himself was arrested and Jasieński lost a powerful protector. Soon afterwards Jasieński's former wife, who had had an affair with Yagoda, was arrested, sentenced to death and executed. Jasieńs
Clement Clarke Moore
Clement Clarke Moore was a writer and American Professor of Oriental and Greek Literature, as well as Divinity and Biblical Learning, at the General Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in New York City. The seminary was developed on land donated by Moore and it continues on this site at Ninth Avenue between 20th and 21st streets, in an area known as Chelsea Square. Moore's connection with the seminary continued for more than 25 years. Moore gained considerable wealth by subdividing and developing other parts of his large inherited estate in what became known as the residential neighborhood of Chelsea. Before this, the urbanized part of the city ended at Houston Street on Manhattan island. For 10 years, Moore served as a board member of the New York Institution for the Blind, he is credited and is most known as the author of the Christmas poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas", first published anonymously in 1823, it became known as "'Twas the Night Before Christmas" and has been published in numerous illustrated versions in various languages.
Scholars debate the identity of the author, calling on textual and handwriting analysis as well as other historical sources. Moore was born on July 15, 1779 in New York City at Chelsea, at his mother's family estate, although his parents established their own residence in Elmhurst, Queens, he was the son of Bishop Benjamin Charity Moore. His father headed the Episcopal Diocese of New York, which covered the state, it was organized after the American Revolutionary War when the church became independent of the Church of England. During the uncertain years of the war, when Loyalists associated with what was known as King's College left for Canada, Moore became president of the renamed Columbia College, he served twice in this position. Moore's paternal grandfather was Major Thomas Clarke, an English officer who stayed in the colony after fighting in the French and Indian War, he owned the large Manhattan estate "Chelsea," in the country north of the developed areas of the city. As a girl, Moore's mother Charity Clarke wrote letters to her English cousins.
Preserved at Columbia University, these show her disdain for the policies of the British monarchy and her growing sense of patriotism in pre-Revolutionary days. Moore's grandmother Sarah Fish was a descendant of Elizabeth Fones and Joris Woolsey, one of the earlier settlers of Manhattan. After his grandfather Clarke's and mother's deaths, Moore inherited the Chelsea estate, he earned great wealth by developing it in the 19th century. Moore graduated from Columbia College, where he earned both his B. A. and his M. A.. One of Moore's earliest known works was an anonymous pro-Federalist pamphlet published prior to the 1804 presidential election, attacking the religious views of Thomas Jefferson, his polemic, titled in full "Observations upon Certain Passages in Mr. Jefferson's Notes on Virginia, which Appear to Have a Tendency to Subvert Religion, Establish a False Philosophy", focused on Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia. Moore concluded this work was an "instrument of infidelity". In 1820, Moore helped Trinity Church organize a new parish church, St. Luke in the Fields, on Hudson Street.
He gave 66 tracts of land – the apple orchard from his inherited Chelsea estate– to the Episcopal Diocese of New York to be the site of the General Theological Seminary. Based on this donation, on the publication of his Hebrew and English Lexicon in 1809, Moore was appointed as professor of Biblical learning at the Seminary, he held this post until 1850. Moore owned several slaves during his lifetime, he opposed the abolition of slavery. New York State passed a gradual abolition law in 1799 after the Revolution. After the seminary was built, Moore began the residential development of his Chelsea estate in the 1820s with the help of James N. Wells, dividing it into lots along Ninth Avenue and selling them to well-heeled New Yorkers. Covenants in the deeds of sale created a planned neighborhood, specifying what could be built on the land as well as architectural details of the buildings. Stables and commercial uses were forbidden in the development. From 1840 to 1850, Moore served as a board member of the New York Institution for the Blind at 34th Street and Ninth Avenue.
He published a collection of poems. This poem, "arguably the best-known verses written by an American", was first published anonymously in the Troy Sentinel on December 23, 1823, it was sent to the paper by a friend of Moore. It was reprinted thereafter and published as a small book in illustrated versions, it was not until 1837, in The New-York Book of Poetry, that the poem was first attributed in print to Moore. Moore claimed authorship by including it in an 1844 anthology of his works, his children, for whom he had written the piece, encouraged this publication. At first Moore had not wished to be connected with the popular verse, given his public reputation as a professor of ancient languages. By the original publisher and at least seven others had acknowledged him as author. Moore was said to have written the poem while visiting his cousin, Mary McVicker, at Constable Hall, in what is now known as Constableville, New York. In 1855, Mary C. Moore Ogden, one of the Moores' married daughters, painted "illuminations" to go with the first color edition of her father's celebrated verse about Christmas.
Scholars have debated whe
"Annabel Lee" is the last complete poem composed by American author Edgar Allan Poe. Like many of Poe's poems, it explores the theme of the death of a beautiful woman; the narrator, who fell in love with Annabel Lee when they were young, has a love for her so strong that angels are envious. He retains his love for her after her death. There has been debate over who, if anyone, was the inspiration for "Annabel Lee". Though many women have been suggested, Poe's wife Virginia Eliza Clemm Poe is one of the more credible candidates. Written in 1849, it was not published until shortly after Poe's death that same year; the poem's narrator describes his love for Annabel Lee, which began many years ago in a "kingdom by the sea". Though they were young, their love for one another burned with such an intensity that angels became envious, it is for that reason. So, their love is strong enough that it extends beyond the grave and the narrator believes their two souls are still entwined; every night, the narrator sees the brightness of her eyes in the stars.
Every night the narrator lies down by her side in her tomb by the sea. Like many other Poe poems including "The Raven", "Ulalume", "To One in Paradise", "Annabel Lee" follows Poe's favorite theme: the death of a beautiful woman, which Poe called "the most poetical topic in the world". Like women in many other works by Poe, she is struck with illness and marries young; the poem focuses on an ideal love, unusually strong. In fact, the narrator's actions show that he not only loves Annabel Lee, but he worships her, something he can only do after her death; the narrator admits that he and Annabel Lee were children when they fell in love, but his explanation that angels murdered her is in itself childish, suggesting he has failed to mature since then. His repetition of this assertion suggests he is trying to rationalize his own excessive feelings of loss. Unlike "The Raven", in which the narrator believes he will "nevermore" be reunited with his love, "Annabel Lee" says the two will be together again, as not demons "can dissever" their souls.
The unnamed narrator is presumed to be male, however this is a heteronormative way to read the poem. What is more interesting is to leave this unnamed narrator genderless, it provides a lens to analyze the poem differently. In addition to what is viewed as sortof an eternal love type of tone, it is only this if the love is reciprocated. For poor Annabell Lee we have no evidence; the reading changes to a much more dark and oppressive tone if the love happened to only be one-sided. "Annabel Lee" consists of six stanzas, three with six lines, one with seven, two with eight, with the rhyme pattern differing in each one. Though it is not technically a ballad, Poe referred to it as one. Like a ballad, the poem uses repetition of words and phrases purposely to create its mournful effect; the name Annabel Lee emphasizes the letter "L", a frequent device in Poe's female characters such as "Eulalie", "Lenore", "Ulalume". The Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore, Maryland has identified 11 versions of "Annabel Lee" that were published between 1849 and 1850.
The biggest variation is in the final line: Original manuscript: In her tomb by the side of the sea Alternative version: In her tomb by the sounding sea It is unclear on whom the eponymous character Annabel Lee is based. Biographers and critics suggest Poe's frequent use of the "death of a beautiful woman" theme stems from the repeated loss of women throughout his own life, including his mother Eliza Poe and his foster mother Frances Allan. Biographers interpret that "Annabel Lee" was written for Poe's wife Virginia, who had died two years prior, as was suggested by poet Frances Sargent Osgood, though Osgood is herself a candidate for the poem's inspiration. A strong case can be made for Poe's wife Virginia: She was the one he loved as a child, the only one, his bride, the only one who had died. Autobiographical readings of the poem have been used to support the theory that Virginia and Poe never consummated their marriage, as "Annabel Lee" was a "maiden". Critics, including T. O. Mabbott, believed that Annabel Lee was the product of Poe's gloomy imagination and that Annabel Lee was no real person in particular.
A childhood sweetheart of Poe's named Sarah Elmira Royster believed the poem was written with her in mind and that Poe himself said so. Sarah Helen Whitman and Sarah Anna Lewis claimed to have inspired the poem. Local legend in Charleston, South Carolina tells the story of a sailor who met a woman named Annabel Lee, her father disapproved of the pairing and the two met in a graveyard before the sailor's time stationed in Charleston was up. While away, he heard of Annabel's death from yellow fever, but her father would not allow him at the funeral; because he did not know her exact burial location, he instead kept vigil in the cemetery where they had secretly met. There is no evidence that Edgar Allan Poe had heard of this legend, but locals insist it was his inspiration considering Poe was stationed in Charleston while in the army in 1827. "Annabel Lee" was composed in May 1849. Poe took steps to ensure, he gave a copy to Rufus Wilmot Griswold, his literary executor and personal rival, gave another copy to John Thompson to repay a $5 debt, sold a copy to Sartain's Union Magazine for publication.
Though Sartain's was the first authorized printing in January 1850, Griswold was the first to publish it on October 9, 1849, two days after Poe's death as part of his obituary of Poe in the New York Daily Tribune. Thompson had it published in the Southern Litera
Adam Bernard Mickiewicz was a Polish poet, essayist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, political activist. He is regarded as national poet in Poland and Belarus. A principal figure in Polish Romanticism, he is counted as one of Poland's "Three Bards" and is regarded as Poland's greatest poet, he is considered one of the greatest Slavic and European poets and has been dubbed a "Slavic bard". A leading Romantic dramatist, he has been compared in Europe to Byron and Goethe, he is known chiefly for the national epic poem Pan Tadeusz. His other influential works include Konrad Grażyna. All these served as inspiration for uprisings against the three imperial powers that had partitioned the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth out of existence. Mickiewicz was born in the Russian-partitioned territories of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania, part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, was active in the struggle to win independence for his home region. After, as a consequence, spending five years exiled to central Russia, in 1829 he succeeded in leaving the Russian Empire and, like many of his compatriots, lived out the rest of his life abroad.
He settled first in Rome in Paris, where for a little over three years he lectured on Slavic literature at the Collège de France. He died of cholera, at Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire, where he had gone to help organize Polish and Jewish forces to fight Russia in the Crimean War. In 1890, his remains were repatriated from Montmorency, Val-d'Oise, in France, to Wawel Cathedral in Kraków, Poland. Adam Mickiewicz was born on 24 December 1798, either at his paternal uncle's estate in Zaosie near Navahrudak or in Navahrudak itself in what was part of the Russian Empire and is now Belarus; the region was on the periphery of Lithuania proper and had been part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania until the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Its upper class, including Mickiewicz's family, were either Polonized; the poet's father, Mikołaj Mickiewicz, a lawyer, was a member of the Polish nobility and bore the hereditary Poraj coat-of-arms. Adam was the second-born son in the family.
Mickiewicz spent his childhood in Navahrudak taught by his mother and private tutors. From 1807 to 1815 he attended a Dominican school following a curriculum, designed by the now-defunct Polish Commission for National Education, the world's first ministry of education, he was a mediocre student, although active in games and the like. In September 1815, Mickiewicz enrolled at the Imperial University of Vilnius, studying to be a teacher. After graduating, under the terms of his government scholarship, he taught secondary school at Kaunas from 1819 to 1823. In 1818, in the Polish-language Tygodnik Wileński, he published his first poem, "Zima miejska"; the next few years would see a maturing of his style from sentimentalism/neoclassicism to romanticism, first in his poetry anthologies published in Vilnius in 1822 and 1823. By 1820 he had finished another major romantic poem, "Oda do młodości", but it was considered to be too patriotic and revolutionary for publication and would not appear for many years.
About the summer of 1820, Mickiewicz met the love of Maryla Wereszczakówna. They were unable to marry due to his family's poverty and low social status. In 1817, while still a student, Tomasz Zan and other friends had created a secret organization, the Philomaths; the group focused on self-education but had ties to a more radical pro-Polish-independence student group, the Filaret Association. An investigation of secret student organizations by Nikolay Novosiltsev, begun in early 1823, led to the arrests of a number of students and ex-student activists including Mickiewicz, taken into custody and imprisoned at Vilnius' Basilian monastery in late 1823 or early 1824. After investigation into his political activities his membership in the Philomaths, in 1824 Mickiewicz was banished to central Russia. Within a few hours of receiving the decree on 22 October 1824, he penned a poem into an album belonging to Salomea Bécu, the mother of Juliusz Słowacki. Mickiewicz crossed the border into Russia about 11 November 1824, arriving in Saint Petersburg that month.
He would spend most of the next five years in Saint Petersburg and Moscow, except for a notable 1824 to 1825 excursion to Odessa on to Crimea. That visit, from February to November 1825, inspired a notable collection of sonnets. Mickiewicz was welcomed into the leading literary circles of Saint Petersburg and Moscow, where he became a great favorite for his agreeable manners and extraordinary talent for poetic improvisation; the year 1828 saw the publication of his poem Konrad Wallenrod. Novosiltsev, who recognized its patriotic and subversive message, missed by the Moscow censors, unsuccessfully attempted to sabotage its publication and to damage Mickiewicz's reputation. In Moscow, Mickiewicz met the Polish journalist