Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions. These are often described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more specifically as institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations, Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful. While anti-statism is central, anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of all relations, including, but not limited to. Anarchism does not offer a fixed body of doctrine from a particular world view. Many types and traditions of anarchism exist, not all of which are mutually exclusive, Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have often divided into the categories of social. The term anarchism is a word composed from the word anarchy and the suffix -ism, themselves derived respectively from the Greek ἀναρχία, i. e. anarchy. The first known use of this word was in 1539, various factions within the French Revolution labelled opponents as anarchists although few shared many views of later anarchists. The first political philosopher to call himself an anarchist was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, on the other hand, some use libertarianism to refer to individualistic free-market philosophy only, referring to free-market anarchism as libertarian anarchism. The earliest anarchist themes can be found in the 6th century BC, among the works of Taoist philosopher Laozi, zhuangzis philosophy has been described by various sources as anarchist. Zhuangzi wrote, A petty thief is put in jail, a great brigand becomes a ruler of a Nation. Diogenes of Sinope and the Cynics, their contemporary Zeno of Citium, Jesus is sometimes considered the first anarchist in the Christian anarchist tradition. Georges Lechartier wrote that The true founder of anarchy was Jesus Christ, the first anarchist society was that of the apostles. This is exemplified when the glorification of the state is viewed as a form of sinful idolatry, the French renaissance political philosopher Étienne de La Boétie wrote in his most famous work the Discourse on Voluntary Servitude what some historians consider an important anarchist precedent. The radical Protestant Christian Gerrard Winstanley and his group the Diggers are cited by authors as proposing anarchist social measures in the 17th century in England. The term anarchist first entered the English language in 1642, during the English Civil War, as a term of abuse, used by Royalists against their Roundhead opponents. By the time of the French Revolution some, such as the Enragés, began to use the term positively, in opposition to Jacobin centralisation of power, by the turn of the 19th century, the English word anarchism had lost its initial negative connotation. Modern anarchism emerged from the secular or religious thought of the Enlightenment, as part of the political turmoil of the 1790s in the wake of the French Revolution, William Godwin developed the first expression of modern anarchist thought
Image: William Godwin
A sympathetic engraving by Walter Crane of the executed "Anarchists of Chicago" after the Haymarket affair. The Haymarket affair is generally considered the most significant event for the origin of international May Day observances.
Italian-American anarchist Luigi Galleani. His followers, known as Galleanists, carried out a series of bombings and assassination attempts from 1914 to 1932 in what they saw as attacks on 'tyrants' and 'enemies of the people'