Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament is an organisation that advocates unilateral nuclear disarmament by the United Kingdom, international nuclear disarmament and tighter international arms regulation through agreements such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. It opposes military action that may result in the use of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and the building of nuclear power stations in the UK. CND began in November 1957 when a committee was formed, including Canon John Collins as chairman, Bertrand Russell as president and Peggy Duff as organising secretary; the committee organised CND's first public meeting at Methodist Central Hall, Westminster on 17 February 1958. Since CND has periodically been at the forefront of the peace movement in the UK, it claims to be Europe's largest single-issue peace campaign. Between 1959 and 1965 it organised the Aldermaston March, held over the Easter weekend from the Atomic Weapons Establishment near Aldermaston to Trafalgar Square, London.
CND's current strategic objectives are: The elimination of British nuclear weapons and global abolition of nuclear weapons. It campaigns for the cancellation of the Trident programme by the British government and against the deployment of nuclear weapons in Britain; the abolition of weapons of mass destruction, in particular chemical and biological weapons. CND wants a ban on the manufacture and use of depleted uranium weapons A nuclear-free, less militarised and more secure Europe, it supports the Organisation for Co-operation in Europe. It opposes US military bases and nuclear weapons in Europe and British membership of NATO; the closure of the nuclear power industry. In recent years CND has extended its campaigns to include opposition to US and British policy in the Middle East, rather as it broadened its anti-nuclear campaigns in the 1960s to include opposition to the Vietnam War. In collaboration with the Stop the War Coalition and the Muslim Association of Britain, CND has organised anti-war marches under the slogan "Don't Attack Iraq", including protests on 28 September 2002 and 15 February 2003.
It organised a vigil for the victims of the 2005 London bombings. CND campaigns against the Trident missile. In March 2007 it organised a rally in Parliament Square to coincide with the Commons motion to renew the weapons system; the rally was attended by over 1,000 people. It was addressed by Labour MPs Jon Trickett, Emily Thornberry, John McDonnell, Michael Meacher, Diane Abbott and Jeremy Corbyn, Elfyn Llwyd of Plaid Cymru and Angus MacNeil of the Scottish National Party. In the House of Commons, 161 MPs voted against the renewal of Trident and the Government motion was carried only with the support of Conservatives. In 2006 CND launched a campaign against nuclear power, its membership, which had fallen to 32,000 from a peak of 110,000 in 1983, increased threefold after Prime Minister Tony Blair made a commitment to nuclear energy. CND is based in London and has national groups in Wales and Scotland, regional groups in Cambridgeshire, the East Midlands, London, Merseyside, Mid Somerset, South Cheshire and North Staffordshire, Southern England, South West England, Surrey, Sussex and Wear, the West Midlands and Yorkshire, local branches.
There are five "specialist sections": Trade Union CND, Christian CND, Labour CND, Green CND and Ex-Services CND, which have rights of representation on the governing council. There are parliamentary and student groups; the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament was founded in 1957 in the wake of widespread fear of nuclear conflict and the effects of nuclear tests. In the early 1950s Britain had become the third atomic power, after the USA and the USSR, had tested an H-bomb. In November 1957 J. B. Priestley wrote an article for the New Statesman magazine, "Britain and the Nuclear Bombs", advocating unilateral nuclear disarmament by Britain. In it he said: In plain words: now that Britain has told the world she has the H-bomb she should announce as early as possible that she has done with it, that she proposes to reject, in all circumstances, nuclear warfare; the article prompted many letters of support and at the end of the month the editor of the New Statesman, Kingsley Martin, chaired a meeting in the rooms of Canon John Collins in Amen Court to launch the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.
Collins was chosen as its chairman, Bertrand Russell as its president and Peggy Duff as its organising secretary. The other members of its executive committee were Martin, Ritchie Calder, journalist James Cameron, Howard Davies, Michael Foot, Arthur Goss, Joseph Rotblat; the Campaign was launched at a public meeting at Central Hall, Westminster, on 17 February 1958, chaired by Collins and addressed by Michael Foot, Stephen King-Hall, J. B. Priestley, Bertrand Russell and A. J. P. Taylor, it was attended by 5,000 people, a few hundred of whom demonstrated at Downing Street after the event. The new organisation attracted considerable public interest and drew support from a range of interests, including scientists, religious leaders, journalists, writers and musicians, its sponsors included John Arlott, Peggy Ashcroft, the Bishop of Birmingham Dr J. L. Wilson, Benjamin Britten, Viscount Chaplin, Michael de la Bédoyère, Bob Edwards, MP, Dame Edith Evans, A. S. Frere, Gerald Gardiner, QC, Victor Gollancz, Dr I.
Grunfeld, E. M. Forster, Barbara Hepworth, Patrick Heron, Rev. Trevor Huddleston, Sir Julian Huxley, Edward Hyams, the Bishop of Llandaff Dr Glyn Simon, Doris Lessing, Sir Compton Mackenzie, the Very Rev George McLeod, Miles Malleson, Denis Matthews, Sir Francis Meynell, Henry Moore, John Napper, Ben Nicholson, Sir Herbert Read, Flora Robson, Michael Tippett, the cartoonist'Vicky', Professor
The British counter-culture or underground scene developed during the mid 1960s, was linked to the hippie and subculture of the United States. Its primary focus was around Notting Hill in London, it generated its own magazines and newspapers, bands and alternative lifestyle, associated with cannabis and LSD use and a strong socio-political revolutionary agenda to create an alternative society. Many in the blossoming underground movement were influenced by 1950s Beatnik Beat generation writers such as William Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, who paved the way for the hippies and the counterculture of the 1960s. During the 1960s, the Beatnik writers engaged in symbiotic evolution with freethinking academics including experimental psychologist Timothy Leary. An example of the cross-over of beatnik poetry and music can be seen when Burroughs appeared at the Phun City festival, organised in 24–26 July 1970 by Mick Farren with underground community bands including The Pretty Things, the Pink Fairies, the Edgar Broughton Band and, from the United States, the MC5.
The UK's underground movement was focused on the Ladbroke Grove/Notting Hill area of London, which Mick Farren said "was an enclave of freaks and bohemians long before the hippies got there". It had been depicted in Colin MacInnes' novel Absolute Beginners, about street culture at the time of the Notting Hill Riots in the 1950s; the underground paper International Times began to appear in 1966 and Steve Abrams, founder of Soma, summarised the underground as a "literary and artistic avant-garde with a large contingent from Oxford and Cambridge. John Hopkins, a member of the editorial board of International Times for example, was trained as a physicist at Cambridge." Police harassment of members of the underground became commonplace against the underground press. According to Farren, "Police harassment, if anything, made the underground press stronger, it focused attention, stiffened resolve, tended to confirm that what we were doing was considered dangerous to the establishment." Key underground bands of the time who performed at benefit gigs for various worthy causes included Pink Floyd, Soft Machine, The Deviants, Pink Fairies.
Within Portobello Road stood the Mountain Grill, a greasy spoon cafe, which in the late 1960s and early 1970s was frequented by several UK underground artists, including Hawkwind and the Pink Fairies. In 1974 Hawkwind released an album titled Hall Of The Mountain Grill and Steve Peregrin Took wrote Ballad of the Mountain Grill. Mick Farren said, My own feeling is that, not just sex, but anger and violence, are part and parcel of rock n' roll; the rock concert can work as an alternative for an outlet for violence. But at that time there were a lot of things that made us angry. We were outraged! In the U. S. the youth were sent to Vietnam and there was nothing we could do to change the way the government did it. Smoking cannabis and doing things to get thrown in jail were our own way of expressing our anger, we wanted change - I believed that picking up a guitar, not a gun, would bring about change. It's like Germaine Greer said about the underground - it's not just some sort of scruffy club you can join, you're in or you're out... it's like being a criminal.
The underground movement was symbolised by the use of drugs. The types of drugs used were varied and in many cases the names and effects were unknown as The Deviants/Pink Fairies member Russell Hunter, working at International Times, recalled. "People used to send in all kinds of strange drugs and things and powders, stuff to smoke and that. They'd always give them to me to try to find out what they were! ". Part of the sense of humour of the underground, no doubt induced by the effects of both drugs and radical thinking was an enjoyment at "freakin' out the norms". Mick Farren recalls actions sure to elicit the required response. "The band's baroque House of Usher apartment on London's Shaftesbury Avenue had witnessed pre-Raphaelite hippy scenes, like Sandy the bass player, Tony the now and again keyboard player, a young David Bowie, fresh from Beckenham Arts Lab, sunbathing on the roof, taking photos of each other and posing coyly as sodomites". The image of the underground as manifested in magazines such as Oz and newspapers like International Times was dominated by key talented graphic artists Martin Sharp and the Nigel Waymouth–Michael English team and the Coloured Coat, who fused Alfons Mucha's Art Nouveau arabesques with the higher colour key of psychedelia.
There was a smaller, less spread manifestation from the UK underground termed the "Overground", which referred to an explicitly spiritual, quasi-religious intent, though this was an element that had always been present. At least two magazines—Gandalf's Garden and Vishtaroon—adopted this "overground" style. Gandalf's Garden was a shop/restaurant/meeting place at World's End, Chelsea; the magazines were printed on pastel paper using multi-coloured inks and contained articles about meditation, mandalas, poetry and other subjects at a distance from the more wild and militant aspects of the underground. The first issue of Gand
Hardcore punk is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is faster and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock, its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time. It was inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk. New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger and subversive humor. Hardcore punk disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock" and addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics."Hardcore sprouted underground scenes across the United States in the early 1980s in Washington, D. C. New York, New Jersey, Boston—as well as in Australia and the United Kingdom. Hardcore has spawned the straight edge movement and its associated submovements and youth crew.
Hardcore was involved in the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980s and with the DIY ethics in underground music scenes. It has influenced various music genres that have experienced widespread commercial success, including alternative rock and thrash metal. While traditional hardcore has never experienced mainstream commercial success, some of its early pioneers have garnered appreciation over time. Black Flag's Damaged, Minutemen's Double Nickels on the Dime and Hüsker Dü's New Day Rising were included in Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2003 and Dead Kennedys have seen one of their albums reach gold status over a period of 25 years. In 2011, Rolling Stone writer David Fricke placed Greg Ginn of Black Flag 99th place in his 100 Greatest Guitarists list. Although the music genre started in English-speaking western countries, notable hardcore scenes have existed in Italy, Japan and the Middle East. Steven Blush states that the Vancouver-based band D. O.
A.'s 1981 album, Hardcore'81 "...was where the genre got its name." This album helped to make people aware of the term "hardcore". Konstantin Butz states that while the origin of the expression "hardcore" "...cannot be ascribed to a specific place or time", the term is "...usually associated with the further evolution of California's L. A. Punk Rock scene". A September 1981 article by Tim Sommer shows the author applying the term to the "15 or so" punk bands gigging around the city at that time, which he considered a belated development relative to Los Angeles, San Francisco, Washington D. C. Hardcore historian Steven Blush said that the term "hardcore" is a reference to the sense of being "fed up" with the existing punk and new wave music. Blush states that the term refers to "an extreme: the absolute most Punk."Kelefa Sanneh states that the term "hardcore" referred to an attitude of "turning inwards" towards the scene and "ignoring broader society", all with the goal of achieving a sense of "shared purpose" and being part of a community.
Sanneh cites Agnostic Front's band member selection approach as an example of hardcore's emphasis on "scene citizenship". An article in Drowned in Sound argues that 1980s-era "hardcore is the true spirit of punk", because "after all the poseurs and fashionistas fucked off to the next trend of skinny pink ties with New Romantic haircuts, singing wimpy lyrics", the punk scene consisted only of people "completely dedicated to the DIY ethics". One definition of the genre is "a form of exceptionally harsh punk rock." Like the Oi! subgenre of the UK, hardcore punk can be considered an internal music reaction. Hardcore has been called a "...faster, meaner genre" of punk, a "stern refutation" of punk rock. Steven Blush states that though punk rock had an "unruly edge", "Reagan-era kids demanded something more primal and immediate, with speed and aggression as the starting point."According to one writer, "distressed by the'art'ificiality of much post-punk and the emasculated sellouts of new wave, hardcore sought to strengthen its core punk principles."
Lacking the art-school grace of post-punk, hardcore punk "favor low key visual aesthetic over extravagance and breaking with original punk rock song patterns." Hardcore "...disavows...synthetic technological effects... the recording industry." Around 1980, as punk became "moribund" and radio-friendly, angry "shorn-headed suburban teenagers" discarded new wave's artistic statements and pop music influences and created a new genre, for which there were no places to play, which forced the performers to create independent and DIY venues. Music writer Barney Hoskyns compared punk rock with hardcore and stated that hardcore was "younger and angrier, full of the pent up rage of dysfunctional Orange County adolescents" who were sick of their life in a "bland Republican" area. While the hardcore scene was young white males, both onstage and in the audience, there are notable exceptions, such as the all-African-American band Bad Brains and notable women such as Crass singer Joy de Vivre and Black Flag's second bassist, Kira Roessler.
Steven Blush states that Minor Threat's Ian MacKaye "set in motion a die-hard mindset that begat everything we now call Hardcore" with his "virulent anti- industry, anti-star, pro-scene exhortations." One of the important philosophies in the hardcore scene is authenticity. The
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o
Hawkwind are an English rock band and one of the earliest space rock groups. Formed in November 1969, Hawkwind have gone through many incarnations and they have incorporated different styles into their music, including hard rock, progressive rock and psychedelic rock, their lyrics favour urban and science fiction themes. They are regarded as an influential proto-punk band. Dozens of musicians and writers have worked with the band since their inception. Notable musicians to have performed in the band include Lemmy, Ginger Baker, Nik Turner and Huw Lloyd-Langton, but the band are most associated with their founder, the singer and guitarist Dave Brock, the only remaining original member, they are best known for the song "Silver Machine", which became a number three UK hit single in 1972, but they scored further hit singles with "Urban Guerrilla" and "Shot Down in the Night." The band had a run of twenty-two of their albums charting in the UK from 1971 to 1993. Dave Brock and Mick Slattery had been in the London-based psychedelic band Famous Cure, a meeting with bassist John Harrison revealed a mutual interest in electronic music which led the trio to embark upon a new musical venture together.
Seventeen-year-old drummer Terry Ollis replied to an advert in a music weekly, while Nik Turner and Michael "Dik Mik" Davies, old acquaintances of Brock, offered help with transport and gear, but were soon pulled into the band. Gatecrashing a local talent night at the All Saints Hall, Notting Hill, they were so disorganised as to not have a name, opting for "Group X" at the last minute, nor any songs, choosing to play an extended 20-minute jam on the Byrds' "Eight Miles High." BBC Radio 1 DJ John Peel was in the audience and was impressed enough to tell event organiser, Douglas Smith, to keep an eye on them. Smith signed them up and got them a deal with Liberty Records on the back of a deal he was setting up for Cochise; the band settled on the name "Hawkwind" after being billed as "Group X" and "Hawkwind Zoo". An Abbey Road session took place recording demos of "Hurry on Sundown" and others, after which Slattery left to be replaced by Huw Lloyd-Langton, who had known Brock from his days working in a music shop selling guitar strings to Brock a busker.
Pretty Things guitarist Dick Taylor was brought in to produce the 1970 debut album Hawkwind. Although it was not a commercial success, it did bring them to the attention of the UK underground scene, which found them playing free concerts, benefit gigs, festivals. Playing free outside the Bath Festival, they encountered another Ladbroke Grove based band, the Pink Fairies, who shared similar interests in music and recreational activities, their use of drugs, led to the departure of Harrison, who did not partake, to be replaced by Thomas Crimble. Crimble played on a few BBC sessions before leaving to help organise the Glastonbury Free Festival 1971. Lloyd-Langton quit, after a bad LSD trip at the Isle of Wight Festival led to a nervous breakdown, their follow-up album, 1971's In Search of Space, brought greater commercial success, reaching number 18 on the UK album charts. This album offered a refinement of the band's image and philosophy courtesy of graphic artist Barney Bubbles and underground press writer Robert Calvert, as depicted in the accompanying Hawklog booklet, which would be further developed into the Space Ritual stage show.
Science fiction author Michael Moorcock and dancer Stacia started contributing to the band. Dik Mik had left the band, replaced by sound engineer Del Dettmar, but chose to return for this album giving the band two electronics players. Bass player Dave Anderson, in the German band Amon Düül II, had joined and played on the album but departed before its release because of personal tensions with some other members of the band. Anderson and Lloyd-Langton formed the short-lived band Amon Din. Meanwhile, Ollis quit; the addition of bassist Ian "Lemmy" Kilmister and drummer Simon King propelled the band to greater heights. One of the early gigs the band played was a benefit for the Greasy Truckers at The Roundhouse on 13 February 1972. A live album of the concert, Greasy Truckers Party, was released, after re-recording the vocal, a single, "Silver Machine", was released, reaching number three in the UK charts; this generated sufficient funds for the subsequent album Doremi Fasol Latido Space Ritual tour.
The show featured dancers Stacia and Miss Renee performing either topless or wearing only body paint, mime artist Tony Carrera and a light show by Liquid Len and was recorded on the elaborate package Space Ritual. At the height of their success, in 1973, the band released the single "Urban Guerrilla", which coincided with an IRA bombing campaign in London, so the BBC refused to play it and the band's management reluctantly decided to withdraw it fearing accusations of opportunism, despite the disc having climbed to number 39 in the UK chart. Dik Mik departed during 1973 and Calvert ended his association with the band to concentrate on solo projects. Dettmar indicated that he was to leave the band, so Simon House was recruited as keyboardist and violinist playing live shows, a North America tour and recording the 1974 album Hall of the Mountain Grill. Dettmar left after a European tour and emigrated to Canada, whilst Alan Powell deputised for an incapacitated King on that European tour, but remained giving the band two drummers.
At the beginning of 1975, the band recorded the al
May 1968 events in France
The May 1968 events in France refers to the volatile period of civil unrest throughout France during May 1968, punctuated by demonstrations and major general strikes as well as the occupation of universities and factories across France. At its height, the events brought the economy of France to a halt; the protests reached such a point that political leaders feared civil revolution. The protests spurred an artistic movement, with songs, imaginative graffiti and slogans; the unrest began with a series of student occupation protests against capitalism, American imperialism and traditional institutions and order. It spread to factories with strikes involving 11 million workers, more than 22% of the total population of France at the time, for two continuous weeks; the movement was characterized by decentralized wildcat disposition. It was the largest general strike attempted in France, the first nationwide wildcat general strike; the student occupations and wildcat general strikes initiated across France were met with forceful confrontation by university administrators and police.
The de Gaulle administration's attempts to quell those strikes by police action only inflamed the situation further, leading to street battles with the police in the Latin Quarter, followed by the spread of general strikes and occupations throughout France. De Gaulle fled to a French military base in Germany, after returning dissolved the National Assembly, called for new parliamentary elections for 23 June 1968. Violence evaporated as as it arose. Workers went back to their jobs, when the elections were held in June, the Gaullist party emerged stronger than before. "May 68" affected French society for decades afterward. It is considered to this day as a cultural and moral turning point in the history of the country; as Alain Geismar—one of the leaders of the time—later pointed out, the movement succeeded "as a social revolution, not as a political one". In February 1968, the French Communists and French Socialists formed an electoral alliance. Communists had long supported Socialist candidates in elections, but in the "February Declaration" the two parties agreed to attempt to form a joint government to replace President Charles de Gaulle and his Gaullist Party.
On 22 March far-left groups, a small number of prominent poets and musicians, 150 students occupied an administration building at Paris University at Nanterre and held a meeting in the university council room dealing with class discrimination in French society and the political bureaucracy that controlled the university's funding. The university's administration called the police. After the publication of their wishes, the students left the building without any trouble. After this first record some leaders of what was named the "Movement of 22 March" were called together by the disciplinary committee of the university. Following months of conflicts between students and authorities at the Nanterre campus of the University of Paris, the administration shut down the university on 2 May 1968. Students at the Sorbonne campus of the University of Paris in Paris met on 3 May to protest against the closure and the threatened expulsion of several students at Nanterre. On Monday, 6 May, the national student union, the Union Nationale des Étudiants de France —still the largest student union in France today—and the union of university teachers called a march to protest against the police invasion of Sorbonne.
More than 20,000 students and supporters marched towards the Sorbonne, still sealed off by the police, who charged, wielding their batons, as soon as the marchers approached. While the crowd dispersed, some began to create barricades out of whatever was at hand, while others threw paving stones, forcing the police to retreat for a time; the police responded with tear gas and charged the crowd again. Hundreds more students were arrested. High school student unions spoke in support of the riots on 6 May; the next day, they joined the students and increasing numbers of young workers who gathered at the Arc de Triomphe to demand that: All criminal charges against arrested students be dropped, the police leave the university, the authorities reopen Nanterre and Sorbonne. Negotiations broke down, students returned to their campuses after a false report that the government had agreed to reopen them, only to discover the police still occupying the schools; this led to a near revolutionary fervor among the students.
On Friday, 10 May, another huge crowd congregated on the Rive Gauche. When the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité again blocked them from crossing the river, the crowd again threw up barricades, which the police attacked at 2:15 in the morning after negotiations once again floundered; the confrontation, which produced hundreds of arrests and injuries, lasted until dawn of the following day. The events were broadcast on radio as they occurred and the aftermath was shown on television the following day. Allegations were made that the police had participated in the riots, through agents provocateurs, by burning cars and throwing Molotov cocktails; the government's heavy-handed reaction brought on a wave of sympathy for the strikers. Many of the nation's more mainstream singers and poets joined after the police brutality came to light. American artists began voicing support of the strikers; the major left union federations, the Confédération Gén
An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals. The vibration occurs when a guitar player strums, fingerpicks, slaps or taps the strings; the pickup uses electromagnetic induction to create this signal, which being weak is fed into a guitar amplifier before being sent to the speaker, which converts it into audible sound. The electric signal can be electronically altered to change the timbre of the sound; the signal is modified using effects such as reverb, distortion and "overdrive". Invented in 1931, the electric guitar was adopted by jazz guitar players, who wanted to play single-note guitar solos in large big band ensembles. Early proponents of the electric guitar on record include Les Paul, Lonnie Johnson, Sister Rosetta Tharpe, T-Bone Walker, Charlie Christian. During the 1950s and 1960s, the electric guitar became the most important instrument in popular music, it has evolved into an instrument, capable of a multitude of sounds and styles in genres ranging from pop and rock to country music and jazz.
It served as a major component in the development of electric blues and roll, rock music, heavy metal music and many other genres of music. Electric guitar design and construction varies in the shape of the body and the configuration of the neck and pickups. Guitars may have a fixed bridge or a spring-loaded hinged bridge, which lets players "bend" the pitch of notes or chords up or down, or perform vibrato effects; the sound of an electric guitar can be modified by new playing techniques such as string bending and hammering-on, using audio feedback, or slide guitar playing. There are several types of electric guitar, including: the solid-body guitar. In pop and rock music, the electric guitar is used in two roles: as a rhythm guitar, which plays the chord sequences or progressions, riffs, sets the beat. In a small group, such as a power trio, one guitarist switches between both roles. In large rock and metal bands, there is a rhythm guitarist and a lead guitarist. Many experiments at electrically amplifying the vibrations of a string instrument were made dating back to the early part of the 20th century.
Patents from the 1910s show telephone transmitters were adapted and placed inside violins and banjos to amplify the sound. Hobbyists in the 1920s used carbon button microphones attached to the bridge. With numerous people experimenting with electrical instruments in the 1920s and early 1930s, there are many claimants to have been the first to invent an electric guitar. Electric guitars were designed by acoustic guitar makers and instrument manufacturers; the demand for amplified guitars began during the big band era. The first electric guitars used in jazz were hollow archtop acoustic guitar bodies with electromagnetic transducers. Early electric guitar manufacturers include Rickenbacker in 1932; the first electrically amplified stringed instrument to be marketed commercially was designed in 1931 by George Beauchamp, the general manager of the National Guitar Corporation, with Paul Barth, vice president. The maple body prototype for the one-piece cast aluminium "frying pan" was built by Harry Watson, factory superintendent of the National Guitar Corporation.
Commercial production began in late summer of 1932 by the Ro-Pat-In Corporation, in Los Angeles, a partnership of Beauchamp, Adolph Rickenbacker, Paul Barth. In 1934, the company was renamed the Rickenbacker Electro Stringed Instrument Company. In that year Beauchamp applied for a United States patent for an Electrical Stringed Musical Instrument and the patent was issued in 1937. By early-mid 1935, Electro String Instrument Corporation had achieved mainstream success with the A-22 "Frying Pan" steel guitar, set out to capture a new audience through its release of the Electro-Spanish Model B and the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts, the first full 25" scale electric guitar produced; the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was revolutionary for its time, providing players a full 25" scale, with easy access to 17 frets free of the body. Unlike other lap-steel electrified instruments produced during the time, the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was designed to play standing vertical, upright with a strap; the Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts was the first instrument to feature a hand-operated vibrato as a standard appointment, a device called the "Vibrola," invented by Doc Kauffman.
It is estimated that fewer than 50 Electro-Spanish Ken Roberts were constructed between 1933 and 1937. The solid-body electric guitar is made without functionally resonating air spaces; the first solid-body Spanish standard guitar was offered by Vivi-Tone no than 1934. This model featured a guitar-shaped body of a single sheet