Kibbeh, is a Levantine dish made of bulgur, minced onions, finely ground lean beef, goat, or camel meat with Middle Eastern spices. Other types of kibbeh may be shaped into balls or patties, baked, cooked in broth, or served raw. Kibbeh is considered to be the national dish of many Middle Eastern countries. Kibbeh is a popular dish in Middle Eastern cuisine, it is found in Lebanon, Palestine, Egypt, Iraq, as well as Armenia, Israel, Cyprus and in Turkey it is called içli köfte. It is found throughout Latin American countries which received substantial numbers of Levantine immigrants during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the region, the dish is popular in the Yucatan peninsula and the Caribbean coastline of Colombia and in Brazil; the word is derived from the Classical Arabic kubbah, which means "ball". Various transliterations of the name are used in different countries: in English and kibbeh and in Latin America, quibbe, kibe, or quipe. In Levantine cuisine, a variety of dishes made with bulghur and minced lamb are called kibbeh.
The northern Syrian city of Aleppo is famous for having more than 17 different types. These include kibbeh prepared with sumac, quince, lemon juice, pomegranate sauce, cherry sauce, other varieties, such as the "disk" kibbeh, the "plate" kibbeh and the raw kibbeh. Kibbeh nayyeh is a raw dish made from a mixture of bulghur finely minced lamb or beef similar to steak tartare, Middle Eastern spices, served on a platter as part of a meze in Lebanon and Syria, garnished with mint leaves and olive oil, served with green onions or scallions, green hot peppers, pita/pocket bread or markouk bread. Kubba Halab is an Iraqi version of kibbeh created with a rice crust and named after the largest city in Syria, Aleppo. Kubba Mosul Iraqi, is flat and round like a disc. Kubbat Shorba is an Iraqi-Kurdish version prepared as a stew made with tomato sauce and spices, it is served with arak and various salads. The Iraqi versions are part of the same versions eaten in Iran. A Syrian soup known as kubbi kishk consists of kubbi "torpedoes" or "footballs" in a yogurt and butter broth with stewed cabbage leaves.
Another soup, known as kibbeh hamda, consists of a chicken stock with vegetables, lemon juice and garlic, with small kibbeh made with ground rice as dumplings. In the Syrian Jewish diaspora this is popular both at Pesach and as the pre-fast meal on the day before Yom Kippur. On Colombia's Caribbean coast, the most local variations of the dish use ground beef instead of lamb, but the original recipe, or one with mixture of beef and lamb, can be found served by the large Middle Eastern population of the zone; the dish has acquired vernacular presence and is served in social occasions at both Arab and non-Arab households. When served as an adopted local dish, it is offered as a starter along with other regional delicacies, including Empanadas, Tequeños and Carimañolas. Food portal Middle Eastern and Levantine cuisine Arab cuisine Armenian cuisine Assyrian cuisine Cuisine of the Mizrahi Jews Egyptian cuisine Greek cuisine Iranian cuisine Iraqi cuisine Israeli cuisine Jordanian cuisine Kurdish cuisine Lebanese cuisine Syrian cuisine Palestinian cuisine Turkish cuisine Brazilian cuisine Colombian cuisine Cypriot cuisine Haitian cuisine
Tahini is a condiment made from toasted ground hulled sesame. It is served by itself or as a major ingredient in hummus, baba ghanoush, halva. Tahini is used in the cuisines of the Eastern Mediterranean, the South Caucasus, the Middle East, as well as parts of North Africa, it is used in Chinese and Southeast Asian cuisine. Tahini is a loanword from Arabic: طحينة, or more ṭaḥīniyya طحينية, is derived from the root ط ح ن Ṭ-Ḥ-N which as a verb طحن ṭaḥana means "to grind", the same root as طحين, "flour" in some dialects; the word "tahini" appeared in English by the late 1930s. Plain, unprocessed sesame paste with no added ingredients is sometimes known as raw tahini; the oldest mention of sesame is in a cuneiform document written 4000 years ago that describes the custom of serving the gods sesame wine. The historian Herodotus writes about the cultivation of sesame 3500 years ago in the region of the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, it was used as a source of oil. Tahini is mentioned as an ingredient of hummus kasa, a recipe transcribed in an anonymous 13th-century Arabic cookbook, Kitab Wasf al-Atima al-Mutada.
Sesame paste is an ingredient in some Japanese dishes. Sesame paste is used in Indian cuisine. In the United States, sesame tahini, along with other raw nut butters, was available by 1940 in health food stores. Tahini is made from sesame seeds that are soaked in water and crushed to separate the bran from the kernels; the crushed seeds are soaked in salt water. The floating kernels are skimmed off the surface and ground to produce an oily paste; because of tahini's high oil content, many manufacturers recommend refrigeration to prevent spoilage. This is true among makers of raw, organic tahini, who will prepare their tahini at low temperatures and ship and store it in refrigerated cases to maximize quality and shelf life. Tahini-based sauces are common in Middle Eastern restaurants as a side dish or as a garnish including lemon juice and garlic, thinned with water. Hummus is made of cooked, mashed chickpeas blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice and garlic. Tahini sauce is a popular topping for meat and vegetables in Middle Eastern cuisine.
In Armenia, tahini can be used as a sauce to put in a lahmajoun. In Turkey, tahini is mixed with pekmez to form a dish called tahin-pekmez. Due to its high-caloric nature, it is served as a breakfast item or after meals as a dessert to dip pieces of bread in during the wintertime. In Iraq, tahini is known as "rashi" and is mixed with date syrup to make a sweet dessert eaten with bread. Tahini is called ardeh in harda in Kuwait. In Iran it is used to make halvardeh, a kind of halva made of tahini, egg whites, other ingredients, it is eaten during breakfast with an accompanying sweet substance grape syrup, date syrup, jams, etc. Ardeh and halvardeh are among the souvenirs of the Iranian cities of Ardakan. In Cyprus, locally known as tashi, is used as a dip for bread and in pitta souvlaki rather than tzatziki, customary in Greece. In Greece, tahini is topped with honey or jam. Jars of tahini ready-mixed with honey or cocoa are available in the breakfast food aisles of Greek supermarkets. In Israel, tahini is a staple foodstuff, introduced by Mizrahi Jews.
It is served as a dip with flat bread or pita, a topping for many foods such as falafel, Jerusalem mixed grill and shwarma, as an ingredient in various spreads. It is used as a cooking sauce for meat and fish, in sweet desserts like halva, halva parfait, halva ice cream and tahini cookies, it is served baked in the oven with kufta made of lamb or beef with spices and herbs, or with a whole fish in the coastal areas and the Sea of Galilee. In the Gaza Strip, a rust colored variety known as "red tahina" is served in addition to ordinary tahina, it is achieved by a different and lengthier process of roasting the sesame seeds, has a more intense taste. Red tahina is used in sumagiyya and salads native to the falaheen from the surrounding villages, as well as southern Gaza. In the Palestinian city of Nablus, tahina is mixed with qizha paste to make "black tahina", used in baking. In the Levant, tahini is a staple foodstuff prepared with salt, lemon juice, optionally mashed garlic, it is served as a dip with pita, a topping for falafel and shwarma, as an ingredient in various spreads.
It is used as a cooking sauce for meat and always served as a side with fish. It is a main ingredient in a seafood dish called Siyadiyeh. Tahini is in sweet desserts like halva with pistachios. In East Asia, sesame paste is a major condiment used in dry noodles. Sesame paste can be eaten as a dessert, known as black sesame soup. A sweet spread, halawa taḥīniyya حلاوة طحينية'sweet tahini' is a type of halva sweet, it sometimes sliced pistachio pieces sprinkled inside or on top. It is spread on bread and eaten as a quick snack. Tahini is a source of calcium, the amino acid methionine, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Tahini made from raw sesame seeds is lower in fat than tahini made from roasted seeds. Tahini's high levels of calcium and protein make it a useful addition to vegetarian and vegan diets, as well as to raw food diets when eaten in its unroasted form. Compared
Eggplant salads and appetizers
Many cuisines feature eggplant salads and appetizers. Baba ghanoush is a popular Levantine dish of eggplant mixed with various seasonings; the eggplant is baked or broiled over an open flame before peeling, so that the pulp is soft and has a smoky taste. Baba ghanoush is eaten as a dip with pita bread, is sometimes added to other dishes, it is of an earthy light brown color. In Ethiopia, this dish is known as blagadoush. Similar to baba ghanoush is another Levantine dish mutabbal, which includes mashed cooked aubergines and tahini, mixed with salt, olive oil, anar seeds. Mutabbal is sometimes said to be a spicier version of baba ghanoush. In Turkey, a similar meze is called patlıcan salatası, it is made with olive oil, lemon juice and garlic. More eggplant is mixed with yoghurt, olive oil and garlic; the version with cut eggplants can be found in southern Turkey in Antakya. In other varieties, called şakşuka or köpoğlu, roasted and chopped eggplants and peppers are served with garlic yogurt or tomato sauce.
The latter is a typical eggplant appetizer in Bulgaria, where it is called kyopolou. Hünkarbeğendi is another Turkish dish, a mutton or lamb stew where the meat is served hot on a bed of eggplant purée; the purée contains kaşar cheese and flour. In Armenia the dish is known as mutabal; the essential ingredients in Armenian mutabal are eggplant, garlic and onion. Georgian badrijnis khizilala is made of chopped eggplants. Further typical ingredients are onions, pomegranate, hot red pepper, vegetable oil and fresh green cilantro. In Israel, the traditional version called salat ḥatzilim is made with mashed grilled aubergines, olive oil, lemon and parsley. A variation made with mayonnaise instead of tahini, called salat ḥatzilim b'mayonnaise, is widely available. In Morocco, a fried eggplant dish made with tomatoes, olive oil, cumin and parsley is called zaalouk. Eggplant relish is middle eastern-north African dish, it is made of eggplant, olive oil and parsley. Several Egyptian versions of this food are made with cheese.
It is served hot. Eggplant relish is eaten on bread. In Iranian cuisine, eggplant is prepared into an appetizer known as kashk e badamjan, it is made with whey sauce. This variant is prepared in Turkish and Azerbaijani cuisines. In Greece and Cyprus, melitzanosalata is made with lemon juice. Malidzano, a traditional Macedonian spread, is made from puréed eggplants, sirenje cheese and spices, it is served as appetizer along with bread. In other countries of Western Balkans it is prepared from green peppers and eggplant. Salată de vinete or vinete is both a Romanian and Hungarian mashed eggplant salad made of grilled and finely chopped eggplants, sunflower oil and chopped onions; the eggplants are grilled on an open flame. The crust is cleaned off and the remaining cooked eggplant is mashed with a blunt, thick wooden cleaver on a wooden platter; the eggplant mash is mixed in a bowl, stirring continuously, with sunflower oil, chopped onions and salt. The mix is beaten vigorously. Crushed garlic and ground pepper may be added too.
Instead of oil, mayonnaise can be used, although not traditionally. A zest of lemon is added at the end and the platter is sometimes garnished with tomato slices. A typical zakuska in Russia and Ukraine is known as baklažannaja ikra; some versions add chopped tomatoes to the basic recipe. Another eggplant salad popular in Russia is called he iz baklažanov, it is influenced by Korean cuisine. Eggplant he is based on julienned cooked aubergines and other vegetables, prepared with concentrated vinegar. After adding the vinegar, it is set aside for several hours to cure before eating. In Indian and Pakistani cuisine, an eggplant dish, by the name of baingan bartha, is popular in the regions of Punjab, Bihar and West Bengal, it is eaten across Pakistan, as well as in Bangladesh. The dish has many names, depending on the local language. In the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Tamils prepare kathrikai thayir kothsu, in which the eggplant is cooked and sautéed with mustard, red chili peppers, sesame oil, after which yogurt is added to the mixture and dressed with cilantro coriander leaves.
It is eaten with an Indian flatbread, is served with rice, and/or raita. Kashmiris prepare a spicy and tangy dish of eggplants called choek wangun with tamarind constituting an important part of the gravy. Eggplant mud is a Chinese recipe of mashed eggplant, it is served with dressings such as pounded garlic with soy sauce. In Sichuan cuisine many people like to add hot peppers and cilantro, it may be eaten with rice or rolls. Mashed eggplant is part of Hmong cuisine and it contains hot peppers and cilantro. In Korea, steamed or poached strips of eggplant seasoned with garlic, t
Cyprus the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, southeast of Greece. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia, Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC; as a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great. Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians, was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878.
Cyprus was placed under the UK's administration based on the Cyprus Convention in 1878 and was formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders and Turkey in the 1950s. Turkish leaders for a period advocated the annexation of Cyprus to Turkey as Cyprus was considered an "extension of Anatolia" by them. Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960; the crisis of 1963–64 brought further intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, which displaced more than 25,000 Turkish Cypriots into enclaves and brought the end of Turkish Cypriot representation in the republic. On 15 July 1974, a coup d'état was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta in an attempt at enosis, the incorporation of Cyprus into Greece; this action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July, which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus in the following month, after a ceasefire collapsed, the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots.
A separate Turkish Cypriot state in the north was established by unilateral declaration in 1983. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute; the Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone, with the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which remain under the UK's control according to the London and Zürich Agreements. However, the Republic of Cyprus is de facto partitioned into two main parts: the area under the effective control of the Republic, located in the south and west, comprising about 59% of the island's area. Another nearly 4% of the island's area is covered by the UN buffer zone; the international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union.
Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean. With an advanced, high-income economy and a high Human Development Index, the Republic of Cyprus has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1961 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone; the earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek, ku-pi-ri-jo, meaning "Cypriot", written in Linear B syllabic script. The classical Greek form of the name is Κύπρος; the etymology of the name is unknown. Suggestions include: the Greek word for the Mediterranean cypress tree, κυπάρισσος the Greek name of the henna tree, κύπρος an Eteocypriot word for copper, it has been suggested, for example, that it has roots in the Sumerian word for copper or for bronze, from the large deposits of copper ore found on the island. Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase aes Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus" shortened to Cuprum.
The standard demonym relating to Cyprus or its people or culture is Cypriot. The terms Cypriote and Cyprian are used, though less frequently; the earliest confirmed site of human activity on Cyprus is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BC, with settled village communities dating from 8200 BC. The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old. Remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with a human body at a separate Neolithic site in Cyprus; the grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating ancient Egyptian civilisation and pushing back the ear
Cypriot cuisine is the cuisine of Cyprus and is related to Greek and Turkish cuisine. Used ingredients are fresh vegetables such as zucchini, green peppers, green beans, carrots, cucumbers and grape leaves, pulses such as beans, broad beans, black-eyed beans, chick-peas and lentils. Pears, grapes, Mandarin oranges, mespila, cherries, figs, melon, citrus, pistachio, chestnut, hazelnut are some of the commonest of the fruits and nuts; the best-known spices and herbs include pepper, arugula, fresh coriander and oregano. Traditionally and coriander seeds make up the main cooking aromas of the island. Mint is a important herb in Cyprus, it grows abundantly, locals use it for everything in dishes containing ground meat. For example, the Cypriot version of pastitsio contains little tomato and generous amounts of mint; the same is true of keftedes or köfte, which are sometimes laced with mint to provide a contrast with the meat. For Turkish Cypriots potato is often used in making keftedes. Fresh coriander or cilantro is another used herb.
It is used in salads, olive breads, spinach pies and other pastries. In some regions of the island it is used to flavour hot dishes tomato-based ones, such as yiachnista. Meats grilled over charcoal are known as souvla or şiş, named after the skewers on which they are prepared. Most these are souvlaki of pork, lamb or chicken and sheftalia, but grilled halloumi or hellim cheese and uniquely to the Greek Cypriots loukaniko are served, they are stuffed into a pitta or pide or wrapped in a thin flatbread, along with a salad of cabbage, thinly sliced onions and sliced cucumber. Although less popular than souvlaki and sheftalia, Gyros or Döner is commonly eaten. Gyros is grilled meat slices instead of chunks, the taste is made different by the salad or dressings added, it is made from various cuts of lamb, pork, or chicken, sometimes but beef. Pourgouri or bulgur, is the traditional carbohydrate other than bread, it is steamed with tomato and onion. Along with pourgouri, natural yogurt is a staple. Wheat and yogurt come together in the traditional peasant meal of tarhana/trahanas, a way of preserving milk in which the cracked wheat is steamed, mixed with sour milk and stored.
Small amounts reheated in water or broth provide a nourishing and tasty meal with added cubes of aged halloumi. Pourgouri is used to make koupes or içli/bulgur köfte, the Cypriot form of kibbeh, where the pourgouri is mixed with flour and water to form a dough, formed into a cigar shape. A hollow is made through the cigar and a mixture of minced meat, onions and cinnamon is packed. After sealing the meat mixture inside the cigar they are deep-fried before serving with lemon juice. For Greek Cypriots, there are many fasting days defined by the Orthodox Church, though not everyone adheres, many do. On these days all animal products must not be consumed. Pulses are eaten instead, sometimes cooked in tomato sauce but more simply prepared and dressed with olive oil and lemon. On some days olive oil is not allowed; these meals consist of raw onion, raw garlic, dried red chili, munched along with these austere dishes to add a variety of taste, though this practice is dying out. Popular seafood dishes include calamari, cuttlefish, red mullet, sea bass, gilt-head bream.
Octopus, due to its peculiar taste and texture, is made into a stiffado with red wine, carrots and onions. Calamari is either cut into rings and fried in batter or is stuffed whole with rice, cloves, sometimes adding mint to the stuffing, baked or grilled. Cuttlefish may like octopus in red wine with onions, it is sometimes prepared with spinach, but without adding garden peas, which are a popular accompaniment for cuttlefish in Turkey, some parts of Greece, Italy. Calamari and cuttlefish feature in meze, a spread of small dishes served as an extensive set of entrées; the most traditional fish is salt cod, which up until recently was baked in the outdoor beehive ovens with potatoes and tomatoes in season. Gilt-head bream is popular because it is inexpensive and like sea bass extensively farmed; until salted herrings bought whole out of wooden barrels were a staple food. They are still enjoyed, but not as much now, as meat are regular alternatives. Many fish restaurants include in the fish meze a variety of different food which include fish, for example fish souffle and fish croquettes.
Cyprus potatoes are waxy with a unique taste, exported internationally. Locals love. Many Cypriots add salt, cumin and some finely sliced onion; when they barbecue, some Cypriots put potatoes into foil and sit them in the charcoal to make them like jacket potatoes – served with butter or as a side dish to salad and meat. Salad vegetables are eaten at every meal
A tahini roll or tahini bread roll is a sweet bread roll served in the South Caucasus, Cyprus and Turkey. List of bread rolls Tahinopita Sweet roll Fig roll
Couscous is a Maghrebi dish of small steamed balls of crushed durum wheat semolina, traditionally served with a stew spooned on top. Pearl millet and sorghum in the Sahel and other cereals can be cooked in a similar way and the resulting dishes are sometimes called couscous. Couscous is a staple food throughout the North African cuisines of Algeria, Tunisia, Mauritania and Egypt, as well as in Israel, due to the large population of Jews of North African origin. In Western supermarkets, it is sometimes sold in instant form with a flavor packet, may be served as a side or on its own as a main dish; the original name may be derived from the Arabic word Kaskasa, meaning "to pound small" or the Berber Seksu, meaning "well rolled", "well formed", or "rounded". Numerous different names and pronunciations for couscous exist around the world. Couscous in the United Kingdom and only the latter in the United States, it is sometimes pronounced kuskusi in Arabic. The origin of couscous appears to be in the region from eastern to northern Africa where Berbers used it as early as the 7th century.
Recognized as a traditional North African delicacy, it is a common cuisine component among Maghreb countries. Ibn Battuta stated in his Rihlah, indicating what may be the earliest mention of couscous in West Africa from the early 1350s: When the traveler arrives in a village the women of the blacks come with anlî and milk and chickens and flour of nabaq, fûnî fonio, this is like the grain of mustard and from it kuskusu and porridge are made, bean flour, he buys from them what he likes, but not rice, as eating the rice is harmful to white men and the fûnî is better than it. Couscous was traditionally made from the hard part of the durum, the part of the grain that resisted the grinding of the millstone; the semolina is sprinkled with water and rolled with the hands to form small pellets, sprinkled with dry flour to keep them separate, sieved. Any pellets that are too small to be finished granules of couscous fall through the sieve and are again rolled and sprinkled with dry semolina and rolled into pellets.
This labor-intensive process continues until all the semolina has been formed into tiny granules of couscous. In the traditional method of preparing couscous, groups of women came together to make large batches over several days, which were dried in the sun and used for several months. Handmade couscous may need to be rehydrated. In some regions couscous is made from coarsely ground barley or pearl millet. In Brazil, the traditional couscous is made from cornmeal. In modern times, couscous production is mechanized, the product is sold in markets around the world; this couscous can be sauteed before it is cooked in another liquid. Properly cooked couscous is not gummy or gritty. Traditionally, North Africans use a food steamer; the base is a tall metal pot shaped rather like an oil jar in which the meat and vegetables are cooked as a stew. On top of the base, a steamer sits where the couscous is cooked, absorbing the flavours from the stew; the lid to the steamer has holes around its edge. It is possible to use a pot with a steamer insert.
If the holes are too big, the steamer can be lined with damp cheesecloth. There is little archaeological evidence of early diets including couscous because the original couscoussier was made from organic materials that could not survive extended exposure to the elements; the couscous, sold in most Western supermarkets has been pre-steamed and dried. It is prepared by adding 1.5 measures of boiling water or stock to each measure of couscous leaving covered for about five minutes. Pre-steamed couscous takes less time to prepare than regular couscous, most dried pasta, or dried grains. In Tunisia, Algeria and Libya, couscous is served with vegetables cooked in a spicy or mild broth or stew, some meat. In Algeria and Morocco it may be served at the end of a meal or by itself as a delicacy called "sfouff"; the couscous is steamed several times until it is fluffy and pale in color. It is sprinkled with almonds and sugar. Traditionally, this dessert is served with milk perfumed with orange flower water, or it can be served plain with buttermilk in a bowl as a cold light soup for supper.
Algerian couscous includes tomatoes and a variety of legumes and vegetables, Moroccan couscous uses saffron. Saharan couscous is served without broth. In Tunisia, it is made spicy with harissa sauce and served with any dish, including lamb, seafood and sometimes in southern regions, camel. Fish couscous is a Tunisian specialty and can be made with octopus, squid or other seafood in hot, spicy sauce. In Libya, it is served with meat mostly lamb, but camel, beef, in Tripoli and the western parts of Libya, but not during official ceremonies or weddings. Another way to eat couscous is as a dessert.