The shinobue in the context of Japanese traditional arts) is a Japanese transverse flute or fue that has a high-pitched sound. It is found in hayashi and nagauta ensembles, plays important roles in noh and kabuki theatre music, it is heard in traditional Japanese folk songs. There are two styles: hayashi; the uta is properly tuned to the Western scale, can be played in ensembles or as a solo instrument. The hayashi is not in the correct pitch, because it is a piece of hollow bamboo with holes cut into it, it emits a high-pitched sound, is appropriate for the festival/folk music of Japan. Both shinobue flutes play a important role in the Japanese theater. Ryuteki Bamboo musical instruments Kotos and More Ron Korb's Asian Flute Gallery Syoji Yamaguchi's web site on Japanese transverse flutes Japanese Traditional Music
The dizi, is a Chinese transverse flute. It is sometimes known as the di or héngdi, has varieties including the qǔdi and bāngdi; these names are to have multiple spellings, depending on the transliteration used to convert from Chinese names. Nonetheless, dizi seems to be the most common name used in the West; the dizi is a major Chinese musical instrument, is used in many genres of Chinese folk music, as well as Chinese opera, the modern Chinese orchestra. Traditionally, the dizi has been popular among the Chinese common people, it is simple to make and easy to carry. Most dizi are made of bamboo, which explains why dizi are sometimes known by simple names such as Chinese bamboo flute. However, "bamboo" is more of a Chinese instrument classification like "woodwind" in the West. Northern Chinese dizi are made from purple or violet bamboo, while dizi made in Suzhou and Hangzhou are made from white bamboo. Dizi produced in southern Chinese regions such as Chaozhou are made of slender, light-colored bamboo and are much quieter in tone.
Although bamboo is the common material for the dizi, it is possible to find dizi made from other kinds of wood, or from stone. Jade dizi are popular among both collectors interested in their beauty, among professional players who seek an instrument with looks to match the quality of their renditions; the dizi is not the only bamboo flute of China. Other Chinese bamboo wind instruments include the koudi. There are many suggestions for the source of dizi. While legends suggest it was the invention of the Yellow Emperor who wanted to make the bamboo a musical instrument, others suggest that dizi was imported into China during the Han Dynasty. Archaeologists have discovered evidence suggesting that the simple transverse flutes have been present in China for over 9,000 years. Fragments of bone flutes from this period are still playable today, are remarkably similar to modern versions in terms of hole placement, etc; the Jiahu neolithic site in central Henan province of China has yielded flutes dating back to 7,000 BC - 5,000 BC that could represent the earliest playable instruments found.
These flutes were carved with five to eight holes, is capable of producing varied sounds in a nearly accurate octave. The dizi as we know it today dates to the 5th century BC, although form of transverse flute have existed as early as the 9th century BC. There are examples of bamboo dizi that date back to 2nd century BC, found; these flutes share common features of other simple flutes from cultures all around the world, including the ney, an end-blown cane flute, depicted in Egyptian paintings and stone carvings. In fact, recent archeological discoveries in Africa suggest that the history of such flutes may date back a long way in human history. Traditionally dizi is made by using a single piece of bamboo. While simple and straightforward, it is impossible to change the fundamental tuning once the bamboo is cut, which made it a problem when it was played with other instruments in a modern Chinese orchestra. In the 1920s musician Zheng Jinwen resolved this issue by inserting a copper joint to connect two pieces of shorter bamboo.
This method allows the length of the bamboo to be modified for minute adjustment to its fundamental pitch. On traditional dizi the finger-holes are spaced equidistant, which produces a temperament of mixed whole-tone and three-quarter-tone intervals. Zheng repositioned the figure-holes to change the notes produced. During the middle of the 20th century dizi makers further changed the finger hole placements to allow for playing in equal temperament, as demanded by new musical developments and compositions, although the traditional dizi continue to be used for purposes such as kunqu accompaniment. In the 1930s, an 11-hole chromatic version of the dizi was created, pitched in the same range as the western flute. However, the modified dizi's extra tone holes prevent the effective use of the membrane, so this instrument lacks the inherent timbre of the traditional dizi family. While both the bangdi and qudi are the most predominant, other dizi include the xiaodi/gaoyindi, the dadi/diyindi, the deidi/diyindadi Whereas most simple flutes have only a blowing hole and finger-holes, the dizi has a different additional hole, called a mo kong, between the embouchure and finger-holes.
A special membrane called dimo, made from an tissue-like shaving of reed, is made taut and glued over this hole, traditionally with a substance called ejiao, an animal glue. Garlic juice may be used to adhere the dimo, but it is not recommended as a permanent replacement; this application process, in which fine wrinkles are created in the centre of the dimo to create a penetrating buzzy timbre, is an art form in itself. The dimo-covered mo kong has a distinctive resonating effect on the sound produced by the dizi, making it brighter and louder, adding harmonics to give the final tone a buzzing, nasal quality. Dizi have a large range, covering about two-and-a-quarter octave
The piccolo is a half-size flute, a member of the woodwind family of musical instruments. The modern piccolo has most of the same fingerings as its larger sibling, the standard transverse flute, but the sound it produces is an octave higher than written; this gave rise to the name ottavino, which the instrument is called in the scores of Italian composers. It is called flauto piccolo or flautino. Piccolos are now manufactured in the key of C. In the early 20th century, piccolos were manufactured in D♭ as they were an earlier model of the modern piccolo, it was for this D♭ piccolo that John Philip Sousa wrote the famous solo in the final repeat of the closing section of his march "The Stars and Stripes Forever". In the orchestral setting, the piccolo player is designated as "piccolo/flute III", or "assistant principal"; the larger orchestras have designated this position as a solo position due to the demands of the literature. Piccolos are orchestrated to double the violins or the flutes, adding sparkle and brilliance to the overall sound because of the aforementioned one-octave transposition upwards.
In concert band settings, the piccolo is always used and a piccolo part is always available. The piccolo had no keys, should not be confused with the fife, which traditionally was one-piece, had a smaller bore and produced a more strident sound; the Swiss piccolo is used in conjunction with marching drums in traditional formations at the Carnival of Basel, Switzerland. It is a myth that one of the earliest pieces to use the piccolo was Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, premiered in December 1808. Although neither Joseph Haydn nor Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart used it in their symphonies, some of their contemporaries did, including Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Franz Xaver Süssmayr and Michael Haydn. Mozart used the piccolo in his opera Idomeneo. Opera orchestras in Paris sometimes included small transverse flutes at the octave as early as 1735 as existing scores by Jean-Philippe Rameau show. Although once made of wood, glass or ivory, piccolos today are made from plastic, brass, nickel silver, a variety of hardwoods, most grenadilla.
Finely made piccolos are available with a variety of options similar to the flute, such as the split-E mechanism. Most piccolos have a conical body with a cylindrical head, like the Baroque flute and flutes before the popularization of the Boehm bore used in modern flutes. Unlike other woodwind instruments, in most wooden piccolos, the tenon joint that connects the head to the body has two interference fit points that surround both the cork and metal side of the piccolo body joint. There are a number of pieces for piccolo alone, by such composers as Samuel Adler, Miguel del Aguila, Robert Dick, Michael Isaacson, David Loeb, Polly Moller, Vincent Persichetti, Karlheinz Stockhausen. Repertoire for piccolo and piano, many of which are sonatas have been composed by Miguel del Águila, Robert Baksa, Robert Beaser, Rob du Bois, Howard J. Buss, Eugene Damare, Pierre Max Dubois, Raymond Guiot, Lowell Liebermann, Peter Schickele, Michael Daugherty, Gary Schocker. Concertos have been composed for piccolo, including those by Lowell Liebermann, Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, Todd Goodman, Martin Amlin, Will Gay Bottje, Bruce Broughton, Valentino Bucchi, Avner Dorman, Jean Doué, Michael Easton, Egil Hovland, Guus Janssen, Daniel Pinkham and Jeff Manookian.
Additionally, there is now a selection of chamber music. One example is Stockhausen's Zungenspitzentanz, for piccolo and two euphoniums, with optional percussionist and dancer. Another is George Crumb's Madrigals, Book II for soprano and percussion. Other examples include the Quintet for Piccolo and String Quartet by Graham Waterhouse and Malambo for piccolo, double bass, piano by Miguel del Aguila. Published trios for three piccolos include Quelque Chose canadienne by Nancy Nourse and Bird Tango by Crt Sojar Voglar for three piccolos with piano. Petrushka's Ghost for eight piccolos by Melvin Lauf, Jr. and Una piccolo sinfonia for nine piccolos by Matthew King are two more examples. Gippo, Jan; the Complete Piccolo: A Comprehensive Guide to Fingerings and History, second edition, foreword by Laurie Sokoloff. Bryn Mawr: Theodore Presser Company, 2008. ISBN 978-1-59806-111-6 The Woodwind Fingering Guide, with piccolo fingerings
Native American flute
The Native American flute is a flute, held in front of the player, has open finger holes, has two chambers: one for collecting the breath of the player and a second chamber which creates sound. The player breathes into one end of the flute without the need for an embouchure. A block on the outside of the instrument directs the player's breath from the first chamber — called the slow air chamber — into the second chamber — called the sound chamber; the design of a sound hole at the proximal end of the sound chamber causes air from the player's breath to vibrate. This vibration causes a steady resonance of air pressure in the sound chamber. Native American flutes comprise a wide range of designs and variations — far more varied than most other classes of woodwind instruments; the instrument is known by many names. Some of the reasons for the variety of names include: the varied uses of the instrument, the wide dispersal of the instrument across language groups and geographic regions, legal statutes, the Native American name controversy.
Native American names for the flute include: Cheyenne: tâhpeno Chippewa: bĭbĭ'gwûn Dakota: ćotaŋke Kiowa: do'mba' Lakota: Šiyótȟaŋka Opata: bícusirina Unami: achipiquon Zuni: Tchá-he-he-lon-ne, lit.'sacred warbling flute'Alternative English-language names include: American Indian courting flute,courting flute,Grandfather's flute,Indian flute,love flute,Native American courting flute,Native American love flute,Native American style flute, North American flute,Plains flute, Plains Indian courting flute. Names in other languages include: Austro-Bavarian: Indianafletn Dutch: Indiaans-Amerikaanse fluit Esperanto: indiĝena amerikano fluto French: Siyotanka German: Indianerflöte Hawaiian: Papa ʻAmelika ʻohe kani Japanese: ネイティブアメリカンフルート Korean: 인디언 피리 Polish: Flet indiański Russian: Пимак, translit. Pimak By convention, English-language uses of the name of the instrument are capitalized as "Native American flute"; this is in keeping with the English-language capitalization of other musical instruments that use a cultural name, such as "French horn".
The use of abbreviations is discouraged. The prevalent term for a person who plays Native American flutes is "flutist"; this term predominates the term "flautist". "Flute maker" is the predominant term for people. The instrument is classified in the 2011 revision of the Hornbostel–Sachs system by the MIMO Consortium as 421.23 — Flutes with internal duct formed by an internal baffle plus an external tied-on cover. This HS class includes the Suling. Although Native American flutes are played by directing air into one end, it is not an end-blown flute, since the sound mechanism uses a fipple design using an external block, fixed to the instrument; the use of open finger holes classifies the Native American flute as a simple system flute. There are many narratives. In one narrative, woodpeckers pecked holes in hollow branches while searching for termites. Another narrative from the Tucano culture describes Uakti, a creature with holes in his body that would produce sound when he ran or the wind blew through him.
It is not well known how the design of the Native American flute developed before 1823. Some of the influences may have been: Branches or stalks with holes drilled by insects that created sounds when the wind blew; the design of the atlatl. Clay instruments from Mesoamerica; the Anasazi flute developed by Ancient Pueblo Peoples of Oasisamerica. Experience by Native Americans constructing organ pipes as early as 1524. Recorders that came from Europe. Flutes of the Tohono O'odham culture. Although crafted by a Native American people, these instruments are not Native American flutes since they do not have an external block. In place of the block, the flue is formed by the player's finger on top of the sound mechanism; this style of flute may have been a precursor to, or one of the influences for, the Native American flute. Flutes of the Akimel O'odham culture; these flutes may have directly evolved from flutes of the Tohono O'odham culture, with the addition of a piece of cloth over the sound mechanism to serve as the external block.
It is possible that instruments were carried from other cultures during migrations. Flutes of the Mississippian culture have been found that appear to have the two-chambered design characteristic of Native American flutes, they were constructed of river cane. The earliest such flute is curated by the Museum Collections of the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, it was recovered in about 1931 by Samuel C. Dellinger and more identified as a flute by James A. Rees, Jr. of the Arkansas Archeological Society. The artifact is known colloquially as "The Breckenridge Flute" and was conjectured to date in the range 750–1350 CE; this conjecture proved to be accurate when, in 2013, a sample from the artifact yielded a date range of 1020–1160 CE. The earliest extant Native American flute crafted of wood was collected by the Italian adventurer Giacomo Costantino Beltrami in 1823 on his search for the headwaters of the Mississippi River, it is now in the collection of the Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali in Italy.
The two ends of a Native American flute along the longitudinal axis are called the head
A powwow is a social gathering held by many different Native American communities. A modern pow wow is a specific type of event for Native American people to meet and dance, sing and honor their cultures. Pow wows may be public. There is a dancing competition, with many different types of traditional dances and regalia with significant prize money awarded. Pow wows vary in length from a one-day event, to major pow wows called for a special occasion which can be up to one week long. In popular culture, such as older Western movies, the term has been used to describe any gathering of Native Americans, or to refer to any type of meeting, such as among military personnel; this usage is sometimes discouraged because it can be seen as minimizing the cultural and ceremonial importance of pow wows. The word “pow wow” is derived from the Narragansett word powwaw, meaning "spiritual leader"; the term itself has different variants including Powaw, Pawaw and Pawau. A number of different tribes claim to have held the “first” pow wow.
Public dances that most resemble what we now know as pow wows were most common in the Great Plains region of the United States during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a time when the United States government fragmented many Native communities in the hopes of acquiring land for economic exploitation. In 1923, Charles Burke, Commissioner of Indian Affairs in the United States, passed legislation modeled on Circular 1665, which he published in 1921, that limited the times of the year in which Native Americans could practice traditional dance, which he deemed as directly threatening the Christian religion. However, many Native communities continued to gather together in secret to practice their cultures’ dance and music, in defiance of this, other, legislation. By the mid-nineteenth century, pow wows were being held in the Great Lakes region. Planning for a pow wow begins months even a year, in advance of the event by a group of people referred to as a pow wow committee. Pow wows may be sponsored by a tribal organization, by an American Native community within an urban area, a Native American Studies program or American Native club on a college or university campus, tribe, or any other organization that can provide startup funds and volunteer workers.
A pow wow committee consists of a number of individuals. If a pow wow has a sponsor, such as a tribe, college, or organization, many or all members of the committee may come from that group; the committee is responsible to recruit and hire the head staff, publicize the pow wow, secure a location, recruit vendors who pay for the right to set up and sell food or merchandise at the pow wow. The head staff of a pow wow are the people who run the event on the day or days it occurs, they are hired by the pow wow committee several months in advance, as the quality of the head staff can affect attendance. To be chosen as part of the head staff is an honor, showing respect for the person's skills or dedication; the arena director is the person in charge during the pow wow. Sometimes the arena director is referred to as the whip man, sometimes the whip man is the arena director's assistant, many pow wows don't have a whip man; the arena director makes sure dancers are dancing during the pow wow and that the drum groups know what type of song to sing.
If there are contests the arena director is responsible for providing judges, though they have another assistant, the head judge. The arena director is responsible for organizing any ceremonies that may be required during the pow wow, such as when an eagle feather is dropped, others as required. One of the main duties of the arena director is to ensure that the dance arena is treated with the proper respect from visitors to the pow wow; the master of ceremonies, or MC, is the voice of the pow wow. It is his job to keep the singers and public informed as to what is happening; the MC sets the schedule of events, maintains the drum rotation, or order of when each drum group gets to sing. The MC is responsible for filling any dead air time that may occur during the pow wow with jokes; the MC runs any raffles or other contests that may happen during the pow wow. The head dancers consist of the Head Man Dancer and the Head Woman Dancer, Head Teen Dancers, Head Little Boy and Girl Dancers, Head Golden Age Dancers, a Head Gourd Dancer if the pow wow has a Gourd Dance.
The head dancers lead the other dancers in the grand entry or parade of dancers that opens a pow wow. In many cases, the head dancers are responsible for leading the dancers during songs, dancers will not enter the arena unless the head dancers are out dancing; the singers while singing. Host drums are responsible for singing the songs at the beginning and end of a pow wow session a starting song, the grand entry song, a flag song, a veterans or victory song to start the pow-wow, a flag song, retreat song and closing song to end the pow wow. Additionally, if a pow-wow has gourd dancing, the Southern Host Drum is the drum that sings all the gourd songs, though another drum can perform them; the host drums are called upon to sing special songs during the pow-wow. Famous host drums include Black Lodge Singers, Cozad Singers, Yellowhammer. A pow wow is set up as a series of large circles; the center circle is the dance arena, outside of, a larger circle consisting of the MC's table, drum groups, sitting areas for dancers and their families.
Beyond these two circles for participants is an area for spectators, while outside of all are designated areas with vendo
The sáo is a small flute found in Vietnam, traditionally thought to contain the culture and spirit of Vietnam's countryside. When played, the flutist holds the sáo transversely to the right side with his or her mouth placed at the blowing hole; the sáo is performed solo or in an ensemble among other instruments in orchestras of Vietnamese popular opera Chèo, Van singing genre, Royal Small Orchestra. Most made from a single piece of bamboo, the sáo measures between 40 and 55 centimeters in length and 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, with six or ten finger holes and a tuning slide. Located inside the bamboo tube, near the oval blowing hole, is a soft wooden piece that adjust pitches when necessary; the first hole after the blowing hole is 12 centimeters away, while the other holes continue at a distance of 1 centimeter apart. At the other end of the flute, there is a non-covering hole called definite pitch hole, making it easier for the listener to discern pitch; the simple construction of the holes allow for complex techniques in playing the instrument such as the use of breath with changes in the blowing angle for great or minute changes in sound quality, or partial-holding of finger holes to make delicate pitch changes.
The sáo contains the musical spirit of its four peaceful seasons. In Vietnam, the people played sáo when resting before going to sleep at night. By the end of the 1970s, artists Đinh Thìn and Ngo Nam modernized the sáo by making this 6-finger-hole flute into 10-finger-hole flute, extending its register. Examples of the difference between the two variations of the flute can be heard in Đinh Thìn's "Tiếng gọi mùa xuân" and Mão Mèo's performance of "tình xưa nghĩa cũ". Traditional Vietnamese musical instruments Bamboo musical instruments
The qilaut' or qilaat is a type of frame drum native to the Inuit cultures of the Arctic. The drum is distinctive in that it has a handle and is made of caribou skin, not resonant, giving it a dull, rumbling sound, it is beaten with a stick, the qatuk