Canaan was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC. The name Canaan appears throughout the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: Phoenicia, Philistia and other nations; the word Canaanites serves as an ethnic catch-all term covering various indigenous populations—both settled and nomadic-pastoral groups—throughout the regions of the southern Levant or Canaan. It is by far the most used ethnic term in the Bible. In the Book of Joshua, Canaanites are included in a list of nations to exterminate, described as a group which the Israelites had annihilated. Biblical scholar Mark Smith notes that archaeological data suggests "that the Israelite culture overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture... In short, Israelite culture was Canaanite in nature; the name "Canaanites" is attested, many centuries as the endonym of the people known to the Ancient Greeks from c. 500 BC as Phoenicians, following the emigration of Canaanite-speakers to Carthage, was used as a self-designation by the Punics of North Africa during Late Antiquity.
Canaan had significant geopolitical importance in the Late Bronze Age Amarna period as the area where the spheres of interest of the Egyptian, Hittite and Assyrian Empires converged. Much of modern knowledge about Canaan stems from archaeological excavation in this area at sites such as Tel Hazor, Tel Megiddo, Gezer; the English term Canaan comes via Greek Χαναάν Khanaan and Latin Canaan. It appears as in the Amarna letters, knʿn is found on coins from Phoenicia in the last half of the 1st millennium, it first occurs in Greek in the writings of Hecataeus as Khna. Scholars connect the name Canaan with knʿn, Kana'an, the general Northwest Semitic name for this region; the etymology is uncertain. An early explanation derives the term from the Semitic root knʿ "to be low, subjugated"; some scholars have suggested that this implies an original meaning of "lowlands", in contrast with Aram, which would mean "highlands", whereas others have suggested it meant "the subjugated" as the name of Egypt's province in the Levant, evolved into the proper name in a similar fashion to Provincia Nostra.
An alternative suggestion put forward by Ephraim Avigdor Speiser in 1936 derives the term from Hurrian Kinahhu, purportedly referring to the colour purple, so that Canaan and Phoenicia would be synonyms. Tablets found in the Hurrian city of Nuzi in the early 20th century appear to use the term Kinahnu as a synonym for red or purple dye, laboriously produced by the Kassite rulers of Babylon from murex shells as early as 1600 BC, on the Mediterranean coast by the Phoenicians from a byproduct of glassmaking. Purple cloth became a renowned Canaanite export commodity, mentioned in Exodus; the dyes may have been named after their place of origin. The name'Phoenicia' is connected with the Greek word for "purple" referring to the same product, but it is difficult to state with certainty whether the Greek word came from the name, or vice versa; the purple cloth of Tyre in Phoenicia was well known far and wide and was associated by the Romans with nobility and royalty. However, according to Robert Drews, Speiser's proposal has been abandoned.
Canaanite culture developed in situ from the earlier Ghassulian chalcolithic culture, which pioneered the Mediterranean agricultural system typical of the Canaanite region, which comprised intensive subsistence horticulture, extensive grain growing, commercial wine and olive cultivation and transhumance pastoralism. Ghassulian itself developed from the Circum-Arabian Nomadic Pastoral Complex, which in turn developed from a fusion of their ancestral Natufian and Harifian cultures with Pre-Pottery Neolithic B farming cultures, practicing animal domestication, during the 6200 BC climatic crisis which led to the Agricultural Revolution/Neolithic Revolution in the Levant; the Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically though its Ugaritic language does not belong to the Canaanite language group proper. A disputed reference to Lord of ga-na-na in the Semitic Ebla tablets from the archive of Tell Mardikh has been interpreted by some scholars to mention the deity Dagon by the title "Lord of Canaan" If correct, this would suggest that Eblaites were conscious of Canaan as an entity by 2500 BC.
Jonathan Tubb states that the term ga-na-na "may provide a third-millennium reference to Canaanite", while at the same time stating that the first certain reference is in the 18th century BC. See Ebla-Biblical controversy for further details. A letter from Mut-bisir to Shamshi-Adad I of the Old Assyrian Empire has been translated: "It is in Rahisum that the brigands and the Canaanites are situated", it was found in 1973 in the ruins of an Assyrian outpost at that time in Syria. Additional unpublished references to Kinahnum in the Mari letters refer to the same episode. Whether the term Kinahnum refers to people from a specific region or rather people of "foreign origin" has been disputed, such that Robert Drews states that the "first certain cuneiform reference" to Canaan is found on the Alalakh statue of King Idrim
Almon, Mateh Binyamin
Almon known as Anatot, is an Israeli settlement organized as a community settlement in the West Bank. Located near Jerusalem, it falls under the jurisdiction of the Mateh Binyamin Regional Council. In 2017 it had a population of 1,391; the international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank illegal under international law, but the Israeli government disputes this. According to ARIJ, Almon is located on 783 dunams of land which Israel confiscated from the Palestinian town of'Anata. Anatot was established in 1982 by secular families with the help of the Amana organisation, it was named Anatot after the Kohanic city of Anathoth mentioned in the Book of Jeremiah 1:1. The name Almon has its origins in the Bible; the original biblical site of Almon is believed to lay on the adjacent mountain, southwest of Almon, in what is called Khirbet Almit, based on the testimony of a Jewish pilgrim to the region in 1850. Until 1990, Anatot was the site of an Israel Defense Forces detention center.
It was closed on February 7, 1990 after the Association for Civil Rights in Israel petitioned the High Court of Justice to shut down the jail because of inhumane conditions there. The IDF closed the facility voluntarily. According to one Ta'ayush source, the settlement is built on the property of an Israeli Arab citizen, Abu Salah al Rifai. Anatot settlers claim that they have been subject to harassment by activists, while Ta'ayush members and other activists claim they suffered attacks by large numbers of settlers from the township while trying to assist a local Palestinian in protecting his property. Anatot is the site of one of many quarries operated by Israeli companies in the West Bank. Yesh Din legal counsel Michael Sfard said that "according to international law, so long as the West Bank is not annexed to Israel, it is forbidden for Israel to exploit the natural resources there for non-security related purposes." Sfard stated that 74% of the gravel mined from these quarries is used for construction inside Israel, that that means the existence of the quarries violates international law.
The Israeli Supreme Court ruled. Almon is located on a hill near the ruins of the Hariton Monastery and the Prat Stream, between Jerusalem, Ma'ale Adumim/Kfar Adumim, it is close to the Palestinian villages ` Hizma. Almon is connected to Jerusalem and Highway 1 via Road 437. Buses are the only form of public transport available, entering the village four times per workday. Anatot was one of a number of settlements linked by a road secretly built by settlers in 1995; the road links Anatot to Kfar Adumim, Nofei Prat, Alon. According to Pinhas Wallerstein head of the Mateh Binyamin Regional Council, the road was one of a number under clandestine construction in the area. Wallerstein claimed that as council head, he did not need permission to construct roads, but that he would stop construction if the Israel Defense Forces told him to, he said "What are they going to do, tell us to take the road away? If the road is illegal let them take us to court." The international community considers Israeli settlements to violate the Fourth Geneva Convention's prohibition on the transfer of an occupying power's civilian population into occupied territory.
Israel disputes that the Fourth Geneva Convention applies to the Palestinian territories as they had not been held by a sovereign prior to Israel taking control of them. This view has been rejected by the International Court of Justice and the International Committee of the Red Cross; the 1988 HBO movie Steal the Sky, starring Mariel Hemingway and Ben Cross, was filmed in Anatot, used as a location substitute for Iraq. The producer bought war insurance which covered the production for up to $2 million in case the production was disrupted by the Arab-Israeli conflict. Town website Anatot winery: Israeli wine from anatot village
Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, was the longest-reigning and most powerful monarch of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. His father Nabopolassar was an official of the Neo-Assyrian Empire who rebelled in 620 BCE and established himself as the king of Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar ascended the throne in 605 BCE and subsequently fought several campaigns in the West, where Egypt was trying to organise a coalition against him, his conquest of Judah is described in the Bible's Books of Kings and Book of Jeremiah. His capital, Babylon, is the largest archaeological site in the Middle East; the Bible remembers him as the destroyer of Solomon's Temple and the initiator of the Babylonian captivity. He is an important character in the Book of Daniel, a collection of legendary tales and visions dating from the 2nd century BC. Nebuchadnezzar was the eldest son and successor of Nabopolassar, an Assyrian official who rebelled against the Assyrian Empire and established himself as the king of Babylon in 620 BC.
Nebuchadnezzar is first mentioned in 607 BC, during the destruction of Babylon's arch-enemy Assyria, at which point he was crown prince. In 605 BC he and his ally Cyaxares, ruler of the Medes, led an army against the Assyrians and Egyptians, who were occupying Syria, in the ensuing Battle of Carchemish, Pharaoh Necho II was defeated and Syria and Phoenicia were brought under the control of Babylon. Nabopolassar died in August 605 BC, Nebuchadnezzar returned to Babylon to ascend the throne. For the next few years, his attention was devoted to subduing his eastern and northern borders, in 595/4 BC there was a serious but brief rebellion in Babylon itself. In 594/3 BC, the army was sent again to the west in reaction to the elevation of Psamtik II to the throne of Egypt. King Zedekiah of Judah attempted to organize opposition among the small states in the region but his capital, was taken in 587 BC. In the following years, Nebuchadnezzar incorporated Phoenicia and the former Assyrian provinces of Cilicia into his empire and may have campaigned in Egypt.
In his last years he seems to have begun behaving irrationally, "pay no heed to son or daughter," and was suspicious of his sons. The kings who came after him ruled only and Nabonidus not of the royal family, was overthrown by the Persian conqueror Cyrus the Great less than twenty-five years after Nebuchadnezzar's death; the ruins of Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon are spread over two thousand acres, forming the largest archaeological site in the Middle East. He enlarged the royal palace and repaired temples, built a bridge over the Euphrates, constructed a grand processional boulevard and gateway lavishly decorated with glazed brick; each spring equinox, the god Marduk would leave his city temple for a temple outside the walls, returning through the Ishtar Gate and down the Processional Way, paved with colored stone and lined with molded lions, amidst rejoicing crowds. The Babylonian king's two sieges of Jerusalem are depicted in 2 Kings 24–25; the Book of Jeremiah calls Nebuchadnezzar the "destroyer of nations" and gives an account of the second siege of Jerusalem and the looting and destruction of the First Temple.
Nebuchadnezzar is an important character in the Old Testament Book of Daniel. Daniel 1 introduces Nebuchadnezzar as the king who takes Daniel and other Hebrew youths into captivity in Babylon, to be trained in "the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans". In Nebuchadnezzar's second year, Daniel interprets the king's dream of a huge image as God's prediction of the rise and fall of world powers, starting with Nebuchadnezzar's kingdom. Nebuchadnezzar twice admits the power of the God of the Hebrews: first after Hashem saves three of Daniel's companions from a fiery furnace and secondly after Nebuchadnezzar himself suffers a humiliating period of madness, as Daniel predicted; the consensus among critical scholars is. His name is sometimes recorded in the Bible as "Nebuchadrezzar", but as "Nebuchadnezzar"; the form Nebuchadrezzar is more consistent with the original Akkadian, some scholars believe that Nebuchadnezzar may be a derogatory pun used by the Israelites, meaning "Nabu, protect my jackass".
Babylonia Book of Daniel Kings of Babylonia List of biblical figures identified in extra-biblical sources Nabucco Neo-Babylonian Empire Inscription of Nabuchadnezzar. Babylonian and Assyrian Literature – old translation Nabuchadnezzar Ishtar gate Inscription Jewish Encyclopedia on Nebuchadnezzar Nebuchadnezzar II on Ancient History Encyclopedia
Anat, classically Anath is a major northwest Semitic goddess. In the Ugaritic Baal Cycle, ‘Anat is a violent war-goddess, a maiden, the sister and, according to a much disputed theory, the lover of the great god Ba‘al Hadad. Ba‘al is called the son of Dagan and sometimes the son of El, who addresses ‘Anat as "daughter". Either relationship is figurative. ‘Anat's titles used again and again are "virgin ‘Anat" and "sister-in-law of the peoples". In a fragmentary passage from Ugarit, Syria ‘Anat appears as a fierce and furious warrior in a battle, wading knee-deep in blood, striking off heads, cutting off hands, binding the heads to her torso and the hands in her sash, driving out the old men and townsfolk with her arrows, her heart filled with joy. "Her character in this passage anticipates her subsequent warlike role against the enemies of Baal". ’Anat boasts that she has put an end to Yam the darling of El, to the seven-headed serpent, to Arsh the darling of the gods, to Atik'Quarrelsome' the calf of El, to Ishat'Fire' the bitch of the gods, to Zabib'flame?' the daughter of El.
When Ba‘al is believed to be dead, she seeks after Ba‘al "like a cow for its calf" and finds his body and buries it with great sacrifices and weeping. ‘Anat finds Mot, Ba‘al Hadad's supposed slayer and she seizes Mot, splits him with a sword, winnows him with a sieve, burns him with fire, grinds him with millstones and scatters the remnants to the birds. Text CTA 10 tells how ‘Anat seeks after Ba‘al, out hunting, finds him, is told she will bear a steer to him. Following the birth she brings the new calf to Ba‘al on Mount Zephon. Nowhere in these texts is ‘Anat explicitly Ba‘al Hadad's consort. To judge from traditions ‘Athtart is more to be Ba‘al Hadad's consort. Complicating matters is that northwest Semitic culture permitted more than one wife and nonmonogamy is normal for deities in many pantheons. In the North Canaanite story of Aqhat, the protagonist Aqhat son of the judge Danel is given a wonderful bow and arrows, created for ‘Anat by the craftsman god Kothar-wa-Khasis but, given to Danel for his infant son as a gift.
When Aqhat grew to be a young man, the goddess ‘Anat tried to buy the bow from Aqhat, offering immortality, but Aqhat refused all offers, calling her a liar because old age and death are the lot of all men. He added to this insult by asking'what would a woman do with a bow?' Like Inanna in the Epic of Gilgamesh, ‘Anat complained to El and threatened El himself if he did not allow her to take vengeance on Aqhat. El conceded. ‘Anat launched her attendant Yatpan in hawk form against Aqhat to knock the breath out of him and to steal the bow back. Her plan succeeds, but Aqhat is killed instead of beaten and robbed. In her rage against Yatpan, Yatpan runs away and the bow and arrows fall into the sea. All is lost. ‘Anat mourned for Aqhat and for the curse that this act would bring upon the land and for the loss of the bow. The focus of the story turns to Paghat, the wise younger sister of Aqhat, she sets off to avenge her brother's death and to restore the land, devastated by drought as a direct result of the murder.
The story is incomplete. It breaks at an dramatic moment when Paghat discovers that the mercenary whom she has hired to help her avenge the death is, in fact, her brother's murderer; the parallels between the story of ‘Anat and her revenge on Mot for the killing of her brother are obvious. In the end, the seasonal myth is played out on the human level. Gibson thinks Rahmay, co-wife of El with Athirat, is the goddess ‘Anat, but he fails to take into account the primary source documents. Use of dual names of deities in Ugaritic poetry are an essential part of the verse form, that two names for the same deity are traditionally mentioned in parallel lines. In the same way, Athirat is called Elath in paired couplets; the poetic structure can be seen in early Hebrew verse forms. Anat first appears in Egypt in the 16th dynasty along with other northwest Semitic deities, she was worshiped in her aspect of a war goddess paired with the goddess `Ashtart. In the Contest Between Horus and Set, these two goddesses appear as daughters of Re and are given as allies to the god Set, identified with the Semitic god Hadad.
During the Hyksos period Anat had temples in the Hyksos capital of Avaris and in Beth-Shan as well as being worshipped in Memphis. On inscriptions from Memphis of 15th to 12th centuries BCE, Anat is called "Bin-Ptah", Daughter of Ptah, she is associated with Reshpu in some texts and sometimes identified with the native Egyptian goddess Neith. She is sometimes called "Queen of Heaven", her iconography varies. She is shown carrying one or more weapons; the name of Anat-her, a shadowy Egyptian ruler of this time, is derived from "Anat". In the New Kingdom Ramesses II made ‘Anat his personal guardian in battle and enlarged Anat's temple in Pi-Ramesses. Ramesses named his daughter Bint-Anat'Daughter of Anat', his dog appears in a carving in Beit el Wali temple with the name "Anat-in-vigor" and one of his horses was named ‘Ana-herte'Anat-is-satisfied'. In Akkadian, the form one would expect Anat to take would be Antu, earlier Antum; this would be the normal feminine form that would be taken by Anu, the Akkadian form of An'Sky', the Sumerian god of heaven
The Levitical cities were 48 cities in ancient Israel set aside for the tribe of Levi, who were not allocated their own territorial land when the Israelites entered the Promised Land. Numbers 35:1-8 relates God's command to Moses to establish 48 cities for the Levites, of which six would function as cities of refuge to which a manslayer could flee; each settlement was to comprise a walled city and the common land around it for pasture, measured radially as one thousand cubits in each direction, or as a square measuring two thousand cubits along each side. The land for the cities was to be'donated' by the host tribe and was allocated to the Levites according to their tribal sub-divisions. 13 cities were for the Aaronite priestly division. 13 cities were for the Gershonite division. 10 cities were for the Kohathite division. 12 cities were for the Merarite division. The six cities which were to be Cities of Refuge were Golan and Bezer, on the east of the Jordan River, Kedesh and Hebron on the western side.
Joshua 21 recounts the fulfilment of God's command at the request of the Levite leaders. A further list is provided in 1 Chronicles 6:54-81; the following table reflects the list in Joshua 21: John Calvin suggested that the Levites had been'overlooked' in the allocation of land on entry to the Promised Land, until the Levites brought forward a reminder of the divine commandment, making this an example of how:... it is apt to happen, every one being so attentive in looking after his own affairs that brethren are forgotten. It was disgraceful to the people that they required to be pulled by the ear, put in mind of what the Lord had ordered respecting the Levites. However, the writer of the Pulpit Commentary disagreed:'We are not to suppose, with Calvin, that the Levites had been overlooked; such a supposition is little in keeping with the devout spirit of him who now directed the affairs of the Israelites, minister to Moses the Levite, had but been concerned with Eleazar, the high priest, in making a public recognition of that God to whose service the Levites had been specially set apart.
The delay in appointing to the Levites their cities arose from the nature of the arrangement which had to be made for the Levitical cities.'This'arrangement' was the fulfilment of Jacob's prophecy in Genesis 49:5-7 - I will scatter them in Israel -, a punishment for Simeon and Levi's massacre of the men of Shechem. The Levites could not be scattered amongst the cities of the other tribes until the other tribes had all been appointed to their territories after the entry into the Promised Land. Matthew Henry commented that Jacob's condemnation of Levi became a blessing for Israel:'The sentence as it respects Levi was turned into a blessing; this tribe performed an acceptable service in their zeal against the worshippers of the golden calf. Being set apart to God as priests, they were in that character scattered through the nation of Israel
David's Mighty Warriors
David's Mighty Warriors are a group of 37 men in the Hebrew Bible who fought with King David and are identified in 2 Samuel 23:8–38, part of the "supplementary information" added to the Second Book of Samuel in its final four chapters. The International Standard Version calls them "David's special forces". A similar list is given in 1 Chronicles 11:10-47 but with several variations, sixteen more names; the text divides them into the "Three", of which there are three, "Thirty", of which there are more than thirty. The text explicitly states that there are 37 individuals in all, but it is unclear whether this refers to The Thirty, which may or may not contain The Three, or the combined total of both groups; the text refers to The Three and The Thirty as though they were both important entities, not just an arbitrary list of three or 30-plus significant men. Some textual scholars regard the passages referring to The Three and The Thirty as having come from either a source distinct to the main sources in the Books of Samuel, or being otherwise out of place.
Since parts of the text have distinct stylistic differences from other portions—appearing as a list, as a series of character introductions, or as a flowing narrative—Some suspect that the passages may themselves be compiled from multiple source documents. Further, as 2 Samuel 23:23–24 reads "... David put him in command of his bodyguard. Asahel, brother of Joab. Among the thirty were...", the text is regarded as corrupted, the middle of verse 23:24 is presumed to have been lost. The Three are named Ishbaal the Tachmonite, Eleazar son of Dodo the Ahohite, Shammah son of Agee the Hararite; the Three are mentioned in the Book of Chronicles, where, in the Masoretic Text, the first of these three is named as Jashobeam instead. However, the Septuagint version of the same passage presents a name that scholars regard as being a transliteration from Isbosheth—the euphemism employed in some parts of the Bible for the name Ishbaal. Hence the first member of The Three was Ishbaal, Saul's son and heir. Ishbaal is said to have killed 800 men in a single encounter.
Ishbaal is described as a Tahkemonite, a corruption of Hacmonite, the latter being how he is described by the Book of Chronicles. Eleazar is described as standing his ground against the Philistines at Pas Dammim when the rest of the Hebrews ran away, as defeating them. Shammah is described as having stood his ground when the Philistines attacked a "field of ripe lentils" despite the rest of his associates dispersing, as having defeated the attackers; the Thirty are not described by the text listed. There are several differences between the ancient manuscripts of the list, whether they are of the Masoretic text or of the Septuagint. Textual scholars consider the Septuagint to be more reliable than the Masoretic text in regard to this list since the Masoretic text of Chronicles matches the Septuagint version of the Books of Samuel more than the Masoretic version. In addition there are a few places where it is uncertain whether one person is referred to or if it is two people; the individuals that are identified are: Elhanan son of Dodo from Bethlehem Shammah from Arad Helez from Beth-Palet Ira son of Ikkesh from Tekoa Abiezer from Anathoth a man from Hushah, named either Mebunnai or was named Sibbecai Zalmon, descended from Ahoah Maharai from Netophah Heleb son of Baanah from Netophah Ithai son of Ribai from Gibeah Benaiah from Pirathon a man from the ravines of Gaash, named Hiddai or was named Hurai Abi-Albon from Beth-Arabah Azmaveth from Bahurim Eliahba from Shaalbim the sons of a man, either named Hashem and was from Gizon or was named 16.
Jashen Ahiam from Arad, whose father was either named Sharar or was named Sacar Eliphelet from Maacah, whose father was either named Ahasbai or Ur Eliam son of Ahithophel from Giloh Hezro from Carmel Zelek from Ammon Ira from Jattir Gareb from Jattir Uriah the Hittite. In addition to these, there are a few cases where an individual is named, is followed by a description, unclear as to whether it refers to them, or whether it refers to an additional unnamed person: Naharai from Beeroth, the armour-bearer of Joab Igal son of Nathan from Zobah, the son of a man named Hagri or Haggadi. For the remaining names of the list, there are some significant textual issues, the most minor of which being that the Books of Samuel lists Paarai the Arbite but the Book of Chronicles lists Naarai son of Exbai instead; the list in Samuel is presented in pairs, where each member of a pair comes from a similar location to the other member, but this pattern is broken by Shammah and Helez, who make a trio. The final name on th
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah after Saul and Ish-bosheth. In the biblical narrative, David is a young shepherd who gains fame first as a musician and by killing the enemy champion Goliath, he becomes a close friend of Saul's son Jonathan. Worried that David is trying to take his throne, Saul turns on David. After Saul and Jonathan are killed in battle, David is anointed as King. David conquers Jerusalem, taking the Ark of the Covenant into the city, establishing the kingdom founded by Saul; as king, David commits adultery with Bathsheba, leading him to arrange the death of her husband Uriah the Hittite. Because of this sin, God denies David the opportunity to build the temple, his son Absalom tries to overthrow him. David flees Jerusalem during Absalom's rebellion, but after Absalom's death he returns to the city to rule Israel. Before his peaceful death, he chooses his son Solomon as successor, he is honored in the prophetic literature as an ideal king and an ancestor of a future Messiah, many psalms are ascribed to him.
Historians of the Ancient Near East agree that David existed around 1000 BCE, but that there is little that can be said about him as a historical figure. There is no direct evidence outside of the Bible concerning David, but the Tel Dan Stele, an inscribed stone erected by a king of Damascus in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE to commemorate his victory over two enemy kings, contains the phrase Hebrew: ביתדוד, consisting of the Hebrew words "house" and "David", which most scholars translate as "House of David". Ancient Near East historians doubt that the united monarchy as described in the Bible existed. David is richly represented in post-biblical Jewish written and oral tradition, is discussed in the New Testament. Early Christians interpreted the life of Jesus in light of the references to the Messiah and to David. David is written tradition as well; the biblical character of David has inspired many interpretations in art and literature over centuries. The first book of Samuel portrays David as the youngest of the eight sons of Jesse of Bethlehem.
His mother is not named in any book of the Bible, but the Talmud identifies her as Nitzevet daughter of Adael. When the story was retold in 1 Chronicles he was made the youngest of seven sons and given two sisters and Abigail; the Book of Ruth traces his ancestry back to Ruth the Moabite. David is described as cementing his relations with various political and national groups through marriage. King Saul offered David his oldest daughter Merab. David did not refuse the offer, but humbled himself in front of Saul to be considered among the King's family. Saul reneged and instead gave Merab in marriage to Adriel the Meholathite. Having been told that his younger daughter Michal was in love with David, Saul gave her in marriage to David upon David's payment in Philistine foreskins. Saul tried to have him killed. David escaped. Saul sent Michal to Galim to marry Palti, son of Laish. David took wives in Hebron, according to 2 Samuel 3. David wanted Michal back and Saul's son Ish-boshet delivered her to David, causing her husband great grief.
The Book of Chronicles lists his sons with his various concubines. In Hebron, David had six sons: Amnon, by Ahinoam. By Bathsheba, his sons were Shammua, Shobab and Solomon. David's sons born in Jerusalem of his other wives included Ibhar, Eliphelet, Nepheg, Japhia and Eliada. Jerimoth, not mentioned in any of the genealogies, is mentioned as another of his sons in 2 Chronicles 11:18, his daughter Tamar, by Maachah, is raped by her half-brother Amnon. God is angered when Saul, Israel's king, unlawfully offers a sacrifice and disobeys a divine command both to kill all of the Amalekites and to destroy their confiscated property. God sends the prophet Samuel to anoint a shepherd, the youngest son of Jesse of Bethlehem, to be king instead. After God sends an evil spirit to torment Saul, his courtiers recommend that he send for David, a man skilled in playing the lyre, wise in speech, brave in battle. David thus enters Saul's service as one of the royal armour-bearers and plays the lyre to soothe the king.
War comes between Israel and the Philistines, the giant Goliath challenges the Israelites to send out a champion to face him in single combat. David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Saul's army, declares that he can defeat Goliath. Refusing the king's offer of the royal armour, he kills Goliath with his sling. Saul inquires the name of the young hero's father. Saul sets David over his army. All Israel loves David. Saul plots his death, but Saul's son Jonathan, one of those who loves David, warns him of his father's schemes and David flees, he goes first to Nob, where he is fed by the priest Ahimelech and given Goliath's sword, to Gath, the Philistine city of Goliath, intending to seek refuge with King Achish there. Achish's servants or officials question his loyalty, David sees that he is in danger there, he goes next to the cave of Adullam. From there he goes to seek refuge with the king of