Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
National Library of Israel
The National Library of Israel Jewish National and University Library, is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage. The library holds more than 5 million books, is located on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the National Library owns the world's largest collections of Hebraica and Judaica, is the repository of many rare and unique manuscripts and artifacts. The B'nai Brith library, founded in Jerusalem in 1892, was the first public library in Palestine to serve the Jewish community; the library was located on B'nai Brith street, between the Meah Shearim neighborhood and the Russian Compound. Ten years the Bet Midrash Abrabanel library, as it was known, moved to Ethiopia Street. In 1920, when plans were drawn up for the Hebrew University, the B'nai Brith collection became the basis for a university library; the books were moved to Mount Scopus. In 1948, when access to the university campus on Mount Scopus was blocked, most of the books were moved to the university's temporary quarters in the Terra Sancta building in Rehavia.
By that time, the university collection included over one million books. For lack of space, some of the books were placed in storerooms around the city. In 1960, they were moved to the new JNUL building in Givat Ram. In the late 1970s, when the new university complex on Mount Scopus was inaugurated and the faculties of Law and Social Science returned there, departmental libraries opened on that campus and the number of visitors to the Givat Ram library dropped. In the 1990s, the building suffered from maintenance problems such as rainwater leaks and insect infestation. In 2007 the library was recognized as The National Library of the State of Israel after the passage of the National Library Law; the law, which came into effect on 23 July 2008, changed the library's name to "National Library of Israel" and turned it temporarily to a subsidiary company of the University to become a independent community interest company, jointly owned by the Government of Israel, the Hebrew University and other organizations.
In 2011, the library launched a website granting public access to books, maps and music from its collections. In 2014, the project for a new home of the Library in Jerusalem was unveiled; the 34,000 square meters building, designed by the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, is scheduled for full completion in 2021. The library's mission is to secure copies of all material published in any language. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, other non-print media. Many manuscripts, including some of the library's unique volumes such the 13th century Worms Mahzor, have been scanned and are now available on the Internet. Among the library's special collections are the personal papers of hundreds of outstanding Jewish figures, the National Sound Archives, the Laor Map Collection and numerous other collections of Hebraica and Judaica; the library possesses some of Isaac Newton's manuscripts dealing with theological subjects.
The collection, donated by the family of the collector Abraham Yahuda, includes a large number of works by Newton about mysticism, analyses of holy books, predictions about the end of days and the appearance of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It contains maps that Newton sketched about mythical events to assist him in his end of days calculations; the library houses the personal archives of Gershom Scholem. Following the occupation of West Jerusalem by Haganah forces in May 1948, the libraries of a number Palestinians who fled the country as well as of other well-to-do Palestinians were transferred to the National Library; these collections included those of Henry Cattan, Khalil Beidas, Khalil al-Sakakini and Aref Hikmet Nashashibi. About 30,000 books were removed from homes in West Jerusalem, with another 40,000 taken from other cities in Mandatory Palestine, it is unclear whether the books were being kept and protected or if they were looted from the abandoned houses of their owners. About 6,000 of these books are in the library today indexed with the label AP – "Abandoned Property".
The books are cataloged, can be viewed from the Library's general catalog and are consulted by the public, including Arab scholars from all over the world. List of national and state libraries Union List of Israel Judaica Archival Project Official website
Tréguier is a port town in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in northwestern France. It is the capital of the province of Trégor. Tréguier is located 36 m. N. W. of Saint-Brieuc by road. The port is situated about 5½ m. from the English Channel at the confluence of two streams that form the Tréguier River. Tréguier, which dates from the sixth century, grew up round a monastery founded by Saint Tudwal. In the 9th century it became the seat of a bishopric, suppressed on July 12, 1790. Pop. 2605. Inhabitants of Tréguier are called trécorrois in French. In 2008, 11.78% of primary school children attended bilingual schools. Count Stephen of Tréguier was the second Earl of Richmond, inheriting the British peerage created by William the Conqueror for his second cousin Alan Rufus; the United States Navy established a naval air station on 1 November 1918 to operate seaplanes during World War I. The base closed shortly after the First Armistice at Compiègne; the cathedral, remarkable in having three towers over the transept, one of, surmounted by a fine spire, dates from the 14th and 15th centuries.
It contains the sumptuous modern mausoleum of Ivo of Kermartin, a canon of the cathedral and patron saint of lawyers. The building of the cathedral was due to him; the Pardon of Saint Ivo, a religious festival, attracts an international audience drawn from the legal profession. To the south of the church there is a cloister with graceful arcades. Near the cathedral there is a statue of a native of the town; as he was a prominent skeptic, author of the "pagan" Prayer on the Acropolis, the 1903 unveiling of Renan's statue, which included a depiction of the goddess Athena, led to widespread protests from the Catholic Church. The town houses the Renan birthplace museum. A notable war memorial, the Pleureuse de Tréguier, was designed by Francis Renaud. A commemorative memorial to Anatole Le Braz by Armel Beaufils is in the jardin du poète; the port and harbour are picturesque, containing many pretty waterfront crêperies. There are dramatic views of the quayside. Saw-milling, boat-building and flaxstripping are carried on, together with trade in cereals, potatoes, etc.
The port carries on a coasting and small foreign trade. Tro Breizh is a Catholic pilgrimage that links the towns of the seven founding saints of Brittany, including Tréguier, Saint Tudwal's town; the Pardon of Saint Yves is a major event. As Yves is patron saint of the legal profession, it attracts Catholic lawyers and judges from all over the world. Tréguier was the birthplace of: Ernest Renan and historian of religion Ernest Hello, critic Hervaeus Natalis 14th Master General of the Dominicans Joseph Savina and sculptor, lived and worked here. Ancient Diocese of Tréguier Communes of the Côtes-d'Armor department The Calvary at Kergrist-Moëlou INSEE This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Tréguier". Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press. P. 238. Tourism office website Town council website Pictures of Tréguier Cathedral:, French Ministry of Culture list for Tréguier
Henry Pomeroy Davison
Henry Pomeroy Davison, Sr. was an American banker and philanthropist. Henry Pomeroy Davison was born on June 12, 1867 in Troy, the oldest of the four children of Henrietta and George B. Davison. Henry's mother died when he was nine years old in 1877. After completing his education he became a bookkeeper in a bank managed by one of his relatives, at age 21 he gained employment at a bank in Bridgeport, the hometown of his wife. Three years he moved to New York City, where he was employed by the Astor Place Bank, sometime became president of the Liberty National Bank. Several years he was involved in the founding and formation of the Bankers Trust Company. In 1909 he became a senior partner at JP Morgan & Company, in 1910 he was a participant in the secretive meeting on Jekyll Island, Georgia that laid the foundation for the creation of the Federal Reserve system in 1913. With the entry of the United States in World War I in 1917, Davison was named Chairman of the War Council of the American Red Cross.
In this capacity, he led a campaign to win financial support for the Red Cross earning four million dollars used to fund Red Cross ambulances. In recognition of his service he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal and was one of the few civilians so honored. After the end of the war, he pressed for the creation of an international organization to coordinate the work of the different national Red Cross societies. Based on his recommendations, the League of Red Cross Societies was founded on May 15, 1919 by the societies of Great Britain, Japan and the United States. Davison, wanted the League of Red Cross Societies to supersede the International Committee of the Red Cross in controlling the Red Cross action in international affairs, he argued that: It should be in reality, not in name an International Committee, a Committee on which there will be representatives from all countries, instead of, as at present, a committee consisting of amiable but somewhat ineffective Geneva gentlemen. That which calls itself "international" has grown rather provincial… New blood, new methods, a new and more comprehensive outlook, these things are necessary.
The League was established in 1919 with Davison as its chairman. However, "Swiss aloofness or unilateralism was hard to overcome", with the result that the relationship between the ICRC and the League became, was to remain, a problem for years to come. In 1919, he published a book, The American Red Cross in the Great War, describing the wartime activities of the Red Cross. Davison was chairman of the league until his death in 1922. On April 13, 1893, he married Kate Trubee. Together, they had two sons, two daughters: Frederick Trubee Davison, was a director of personnel for the Central Intelligence Agency Henry Pomeroy Davison, Jr. was a director at Time magazine who married Anne Stillman, daughter of James A. Stillman Alice Trubee Davison, who married Artemus Lamb Gates in 1922 Frances Pomeroy Davison, who married Ward Cheney, a son of Charles Cheney, a partner at J. P. Morgan & Company, in 1926. Davison died on May 6, 1922, at the age of 54 at his family estate, Peacock Point in Locust Valley, Long Island, while undergoing an operation to remove a brain tumor.
He had undergone two prior failed brain operations. He left the bulk of his estate to his wife to be held in trust; the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the name of the league since 1991, grants the Henry Davison Award in his memory. Notes SourcesHenry P. Davison: The American Red Cross in the Great War; the Macmillan Company, New York 1919 Thomas W. Lamont: Henry P. Davison: The record of a useful life. Arno Press, New York 1975, ISBN 0-405-06969-3. New York 1933 Henry P. Davison of Troy PA
History of literature
The history of literature is the historical development of writings in prose or poetry that attempt to provide entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the reader/listener/observer, as well as the development of the literary techniques used in the communication of these pieces. Not all writings constitute literature; some recorded materials, such as compilations of data are not considered literature, this article relates only to the evolution of the works defined above. Literature and writing, though connected, are not synonymous; the first writings from ancient Sumer by any reasonable definition do not constitute literature—the same is true of some of the early Egyptian hieroglyphics or the thousands of logs from ancient Chinese regimes. Scholars have disagreed concerning when written record-keeping became more like "literature" than anything else. Moreover, given the significance of distance as a cultural isolator in earlier centuries, the historical development of literature did not occur at an pace across the world.
The problems of creating a uniform global history of literature are compounded by the fact that many texts have been lost over the millennia, either deliberately, by accident, or by the total disappearance of the originating culture. Much has been written, for example, about the destruction of the Library of Alexandria in the 1st century BC, the innumerable key texts which are believed to have been lost forever to the flames; the deliberate suppression of texts by organisations of either a spiritual or a temporal nature further shrouds the subject. Certain primary texts, may be isolated which have a qualifying role as literature's first stirrings. Early examples include Epic of Gilgamesh, in its Sumerian version predating 2000 BC, the Egyptian Book of the Dead written down in the Papyrus of Ani in 1250 BC but dates from about the 18th century BC. Ancient Egyptian literature was not included in early studies of the history of literature because the writings of Ancient Egypt were not translated into European languages until the 19th century when the Rosetta stone was deciphered.
Many texts handed down by oral tradition over several centuries before they were fixed in written form are difficult or impossible to date. The core of the Rigveda may date to the mid 2nd millennium BC; the Pentateuch is traditionally dated to the 15th century, although modern scholarship estimates its oldest part to date to the 10th century BC at the earliest. Homer's Iliad and Odyssey date to the 8th century mark the beginning of Classical Antiquity, they stand in an oral tradition that stretches back to the late Bronze Age. Indian śruti texts post-dating the Rigveda, as well as the Hebrew Tanakh and the mystical collection of poems attributed to Lao Tze, the Tao te Ching, date to the Iron Age, but their dating is difficult and controversial; the great Hindu epics were transmitted orally predating the Maurya period. The Classic of Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works by anonymous authors dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC; the Chu Ci anthology is a volume of poems attributed to or considered to be inspired by Qu Yuan's verse writing.
Qu Yuan is the first author of verse in China to have his name associated to his work and is regarded as one of the most prominent figures of Romanticism in Chinese classical literature. The first great author on military tactics and strategy was Sun Tzu, whose The Art of War remains on the shelves of many modern military officers. Philosophy developed far differently in China than in Greece—rather than presenting extended dialogues, the Analects of Confucius and Lao Zi's Tao Te Ching presented sayings and proverbs more directly and didactically; the Zhuangzi is composed of a large collection of creative anecdotes, allegories and fables. Among the earliest Chinese works of narrative history, Zuo Zhuan is a gem of classical Chinese prose; this work and the Shiji or Records of the Grand Historian, were regarded as the ultimate models by many generations of prose stylists in ancient China. The books that constitute the Hebrew Bible developed over a millennium; the oldest texts seem to come from the eleventh or tenth centuries BCE, whilst most of the other texts are somewhat later.
They are edited works, being collections of various sources intricately and woven together. The Old Testament was compiled and edited by various men over a period of centuries, with many scholars concluding that the Hebrew canon was solidified by about the 3rd century BC; the works have been subject to various literary evaluations. Friedrich Nietzsche wrote: “In the Jewish Old Testament, there are men and speeches in so grand a style that Greek and Indian literature have nothing to compare to it. One stands with awe and reverence before these tremendous remnants of what man once was... The taste for the Old Testament is a touchstone of'greatness' and'smallness'.” Ancient Greek society placed considerable emphasis upon literature. Many authors consider the western literary tradition to have begun with the epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey, which remain giants in the literary canon for their skillful and vivid depictions of war and peace and disgrace, love and hatred. Notable among Greek poets was Sappho, who defined, in many ways, lyric poetry as a genre.