1968 Summer Olympics
The 1968 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, from October 12th to the 27th. These were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Latin America and the first to be staged in a Spanish-speaking country, they were the first Games to use an all-weather track for track and field events instead of the traditional cinder track. The 1968 Games were the third to be held in the last quarter of the year, after the 1956 Games in Melbourne and the 1964 Games in Tokyo; the Mexican Student Movement of 1968 happened concurrently and the Olympic Games were correlated to the government's repression. On October 18, 1963, at the 60th IOC Session in Baden-Baden, West Germany, Mexico City finished ahead of bids from Detroit, Buenos Aires and Lyon to host the Games; the 1968 torch relay recreated the route taken by Christopher Columbus to the New World, journeying from Greece through Italy and Spain to San Salvador Island, on to Mexico. American sculptor James Metcalf, an expatriate in Mexico, won the commission to forge the Olympic torch for the 1968 Summer Games.
In the medal award ceremony for the men's 200 meter race, black American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos took a stand for civil rights by raising their black-gloved fists and wearing black socks in lieu of shoes. The Australian Peter Norman, who had run second, wore an American "civil rights" badge as support to them on the podium. In response, the IOC banned Smith and Carlos from the Olympic Games for life, Norman's omission from Australia's Olympic team in 1972 was as punishment. George Foreman won the gold medal in heavyweight boxing division by defeating Soviet Ionas Chepulis via a second-round TKO. After the victory, Foreman waved a small American flag; the high elevation of Mexico City, at 2,240 m above sea level, influenced many of the events in track and field. No other Summer Olympic Games before or since have been held at high elevation. In addition to high elevation, this was the first Olympics to use a synthetic all-weather surface for track and field events; the tracks at previous Olympics were conventional cinder.
For the first time and West Germany competed as separate teams, after being forced by the IOC to compete as a combined German team in 1956, 1960, 1964. Al Oerter won his fourth consecutive gold medal in the discus to become only the second athlete to achieve this feat in an individual event, the first in track & field. Bob Beamon leapt 8.90 m in the long jump, an incredible 55 cm improvement over the previous world record. It remained the Olympic record and stood as the world record for 23 years, until broken by American Mike Powell in 1991. Jim Hines, Tommie Smith and Lee Evans set long-standing world records in the 100 m, 200 m and 400 m, respectively. In the triple jump, the previous world record was improved five times by three different athletes. Winner Viktor Saneev won in 1972 and 1976, won silver in 1980. Dick Fosbury won the gold medal in the high jump using his unconventional Fosbury flop technique, which became the dominant technique in the event. Věra Čáslavská of Czechoslovakia won four gold medals in gymnastics and protested the Soviet invasion of her country.
Debbie Meyer became the first swimmer to win three individual gold medals, in the 200, 400 and 800 m freestyle events. The 800 m was a new long-distance event for women. Meyer was only 16 years old, a student at Rio Americano High School in California. Meyer was the first of several American teenagers to win the 800 m. American swimmer Charlie Hickcox won three gold medals and one silver medal; the introduction of doping tests resulted in the first disqualification because of doping: Swedish pentathlete Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall was disqualified for alcohol use. John Stephen Akhwari of Tanzania became internationally famous after finishing the marathon, in the last place, despite a dislocated knee; this was the first of three Olympic participation by Jacques Rogge. He competed in yachting and would become the president of the IOC. Norma Enriqueta Basilio de Sotelo of Mexico became the first woman to light the Olympic cauldron with the Olympic flame, it was the first games. Africans won at least one medal in all running events from 800 meters to the marathon, in so doing they set a trend for future games.
Most of these runners came from high-altitude areas of countries like Kenya and Ethiopia, they were well-prepared for the 2240 m elevation of Mexico City. Kipchoge Keino of Kenya, competing in spite of unexpected bouts of severe abdominal pain diagnosed as a gall bladder infection, finished the 10,000 meters in spite of collapsing from pain with two laps to go, won silver in the 5000, won gold in the 1500 meters, it was the first Olympic games in which the closing ceremony was transmitted in color to the world, as well as the events themselves. South Africa was provisionally invited to the Games, on the understanding that all segregation and discrimination in sport would be eliminated by the 1972 Games. However, African countries and African American athletes promised to boycott the Games if South Africa was present, Eastern Bloc countries threatened to do likewise. In April 1968 the IOC conceded that "it would be most unwise for South Africa to participate". Responding to growing social unrest and protests, the government of Me
Sergei Alexandrovich Belov was a professional basketball player, most noted for playing for CSKA Moscow and the senior Soviet Union national basketball team. He is considered to be one of the best European basketball players of all time, was given the honor of lighting the Olympic Cauldron with the Olympic flame during the 1980 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, in Moscow. In 1991, Belov was named by FIBA as the Best FIBA Player ever, he became the first international player to be inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame on May 11, 1992. He was inducted into the FIBA Hall of Fame in 2007 and was named one of the 50 Greatest EuroLeague Contributors in 2008. Sergei Belov was born in the village of Nashchyokovo, Shegarsky District, Tomsk Oblast, Soviet Union. In 1968, he became an Honored Master of Sports of the USSR, he became an Honored Coach of Russia in 1995, served as President of the Russian Basketball Federation. At the age of twenty, Belov made his debut in the USSR League, with the team of Uralmash Sverdlovsk, where he played from 1964 to 1967.
He played with CSKA Moscow for twelve years. With CSKA, he won the USSR League championship eleven times, the USSR Cup twice, the EuroLeague twice, in 1969 and 1971; as a member of the senior Soviet Union national basketball team, for nearly fourteen years, Belov helped them win a Summer Olympic Games gold medal in 1972, three bronze medals in 1968, 1976, 1980. He helped them to become the FIBA World Cup champions in 1967 and 1974, the EuroBasket champions in 1967, 1969, 1971, 1979, he won the Summer Universiade, in 1970, as well. In the gold medal game of the 1972 Summer Olympics, Belov scored 20 points against the United States national basketball team, as the Soviet Union controversially defeated the USA, by a score of 51–50, to win the gold. Belov was the head coach of CSKA Moscow, with whom he won the USSR League championship in 1982 and 1990, he was the head coach of Ural Great Perm. With Ural Great Perm, he won the Russian Championship title in both 2001 and 2002, the Russian Cup in 2004, the North European League championship in 2001.
As the head coach of the senior men's Russian national basketball team, he won silver medals at both the 1994 FIBA World Championship and the 1998 FIBA World Championship, the bronze medal at the EuroBasket 1997. Sergei Alexandrovich Belov died on October 2013, in Perm, Russia. Honoured Master of Sports of the USSR Order of the Badge of Honour Medal "For Distinguished Labour" As a player: 2 × EuroLeague Champion: 1969, 1971 3 × EuroLeague Finals Top Scorer: 1970, 1971, 1973 11 × USSR League Champion: 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980 2 × USSR Cup Winner: 1972, 1973 Summer Universiade: Gold: 1970 Summer Olympic Games: Gold: 1972 Bronze: 1968, 1976, 1980 FIBA World Cup: Gold: 1967, 1974 Silver: 1978 Bronze: 1970 FIBA EuroBasket: Gold: 1967, 1969, 1971, 1979 Silver: 1975, 1977 Bronze: 1973 FIBA's 50 Greatest Players: 1991 Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame: 1992 FIBA Hall of Fame: 2007 50 Greatest EuroLeague Contributors: 2008 As a head coach: 2 × USSR League Champion: 1982, 1990 FIBA Order of Merit: 1995 2 × Russian Championship Champion: 2001, 2002 Russian Cup Winner: 2004 North European League Champion: 2001 FIBA World Cup: Silver: 1994, 1998 FIBA EuroBasket: Bronze: 1997 Media related to Sergei Belov at Wikimedia Commons Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame Profile at the Wayback Machine FIBA Hall of Fame Profile at the Wayback Machine Euroleague.net Article On Belov Euroleague.net 50 Greatest Contributors Profile FIBA.com Olympic Legends Profile at the Wayback Machine Interbasket.net Profile Sergey Belov at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Sergey Belov at the International Olympic Committee FIBA.com Profile
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
The International Basketball Federation, more known as FIBA, from its French name Fédération internationale de basket-ball, is an association of national organizations which governs the sport of basketball worldwide. Known as the Fédération internationale de basket-ball amateur, in 1989 it dropped the word amateur from its name but retained the acronym. FIBA defines the rules of basketball, specifies the equipment and facilities required, organises international competitions, regulates the transfer of athletes across countries, controls the appointment of international referees. A total of 213 national federations are now members, organized since 1989 into five zones: Africa, Asia and Oceania; the FIBA Basketball World Cup is a world tournament for men's national teams held every four years. Teams compete for the Naismith Trophy, named in honor of basketball's Canadian creator James Naismith; the tournament structure is similar but not identical to that of the FIFA World Cup in football. A parallel event for women's teams, the FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup, is held quadrennially.
The women's tournament will continue to be held in the same year as the FIFA World Cup. In 2009 FIBA announced three new tournaments: two 12-team U-17 World Championships to be played in July 2010, an eight-team FIBA World Club Championship to be launched in October 2010. However, the FIBA World Club Championship did not materialize. In its place, FIBA instead relaunched its original world club championship for men, the FIBA Intercontinental Cup, in 2013; the newest global FIBA tournaments for national teams are in the three-player half-court variation, 3x3. The FIBA 3x3 U-18 World Championships were inaugurated in 2011, the FIBA 3x3 World Championships for senior teams followed a year later. All events included separate tournaments for men's, women's, mixed teams, but mixed championships are no longer contested; the U-18 championships, held annually, feature 32 teams in each individual tournament. The senior championships have 24 teams in each individual tournament, are held in even-numbered years.
The association was founded in Geneva in 1932, two years after the sport was recognized by the IOC. Its original name was Fédération internationale de basket-ball amateur. Eight nations were founding members: Argentina, Greece, Latvia, Portugal and Switzerland. During the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, the Federation named James Naismith, the founder of basketball, as its Honorary President. FIBA has organized a World Championship, now known as World Cup, for men since 1950 and a Women's World Championship, now known as the Women's World Cup, since 1953. From 1986 through 2014, both events were held every four years; as noted above, the men's World Cup will be moved to a new four-year cycle, with tournaments in the year before the Summer Olympics, after 2014. The Federation headquarters moved to Munich in 1956 returned to Geneva in 2002. In 1991, it founded the FIBA Hall of Fame. During its 81st anniversary in 2013, FIBA moved into its new headquarters, "The House of Basketball", at Mies.
Andreas Zagklis is the current Secretary General of FIBA. The Youth Olympic Games are an U-19 event, played in FIBA 3x3 format. FIBA Oceania no longer conducts senior-level championships for either sex. Since 2017, that region's members have competed for FIBA Asia senior championships. FIBA Oceania continues to hold age-grade championships. #1 men's team: United States #1 women's team: United States #1 boys' team: United States #1 girls' team: United States #1 combined ranking: United States Beijing Enterprises Group Company Limited Molten Tencent Wanda Group Nike, Inc. TCL Corporation Tissot Official website History of amateur and professional basketball in Canada at Frozen Hoops InterBasket – International Basketball News and Forum, covering FIBA, Euroleague, NBA FIBA at the Wayback Machine
Estonia the Republic of Estonia, is a country in North East Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia, to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia; the territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2, water 2,839 km2, land area 42,388 km2, is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the third most spoken Finno-Ugric language; the territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B. C. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized, following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Swedes and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries; this culminated in independence from Russia in 1920 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I.
Democratic, after the Great Depression Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since 1934 during the Era of Silence. During World War II, Estonia was contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany being incorporated into the former as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August 1991; the sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union since joining in 2004, the economic monetary Eurozone, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Schengen Area, of the Western military alliance of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
It is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy, among the fastest-growing in the EU. Estonia ranks high in the Human Development Index, performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties and press freedom. Estonian citizens are provided with universal health care, free education, the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD. One of the world's most digitally advanced societies, in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, in 2014 the first state to provide e-residency. In the Estonian language the oldest known endonym of the Estonians was maarahvas, meaning "country people" or "people of the soil"; the land inhabited by Estonians was called Maavald meaning "Country Realm" or "Land Realm". One hypothesis regarding the modern name of Estonia derives it from the Aesti, a people described by the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania; the historic Aesti were Baltic people, whereas the modern Estonians are Finno-Ugric. The geographical areas of the Aesti and of Estonia do not match, with the Aesti living farther south.
Ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to an area called Eistland, as the country is still called in Icelandic, with close parallels to the Danish, Dutch and Norwegian terms Estland for the country. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name include Hestia. Esthonia was a common alternative English spelling before 1921. Human settlement in Estonia became possible 13,000 to 11,000 years ago, when the ice from the last glacial era melted; the oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in south-western Estonia. According to radiocarbon dating it was settled around 11,000 years ago; the earliest human inhabitation during the Mesolithic period is connected to the Kunda culture, named after the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. At that time the country was covered with forests, people lived in semi-nomadic communities near bodies of water. Subsistence activities consisted of hunting and fishing. Around 4900 BC appear ceramics of the neolithic period, known as Narva culture.
Starting from around 3200 BC the Corded Ware culture appeared. The Bronze Age started around 1800 BC, saw the establishment of the first hill fort settlements. A transition from hunting-fishing-gathering subsistence to single-farm-based settlement started around 1000 BC, was complete by the beginning of the Iron Age around 500 BC; the large amount of bronze objects indicate the existence of active communication with Scandinavian and Germanic tribes. A more troubled and war-ridden middle Iron Age followed, with external threats appearing from different directions. Several Scandinavian sagas referred to major confrontations with Estonians, notably when Estonians defeated and killed the Swedish king Ingvar. Similar threats appeared in the east. In 1030 Yaroslav the Wise established a fort in modern-day Tartu. Around the 11th century, the Scandinavian Viking era around the Baltic Sea was succeeded by the Baltic Viking era, with seaborne
Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic known as Soviet Estonia or Estonia was an unrecognized republic of the Soviet Union, administered by a subordinate of the Soviet government. The ESSR was established on the territory of the Republic of Estonia on 21 July 1940, following the invasion of Soviet troops on 17 June 1940, the installation of a puppet government backed by the Soviet Union, which declared Estonia a Soviet constituency; the Estonian SSR was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet state on 9 August 1940. The territory was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1944 and administered as a part of Reichskommissariat Ostland. Most countries did not recognize the incorporation of Estonia de jure and only recognized its Soviet government de facto or not at all. A number of these countries continued to recognize Estonian diplomats and consuls who still functioned in the name of their former government; this policy of non-recognition gave rise to the principle of legal continuity, which held that de jure, Estonia remained an independent state under occupation throughout the period 1940–91.
On 16 November 1988, the Estonian SSR became the first republic within the Soviet sphere of influence to declare state sovereignty from Moscow. On 30 March 1990, the Estonian SSR declared that Estonia had been occupied since 1940 and declared a transitional period for the country's full independence; the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic was renamed as the Republic of Estonia on 8 May 1990. The independence of the Republic of Estonia was re-established on 20 August during the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt the following year and the Soviet Union itself recognised the independence of Estonia on 6 September 1991; as part of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Estonia came within the Soviet sphere of interest. The history of Soviet Estonia formally begins with the establishment of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1941; the Secret Additional Protocol of the German–Soviet Nonaggression Pact signed on 23 August 1939, assigned the Republic of Estonia to the Soviet sphere of influence. On 24 September 1939, warships of the Soviet Navy appeared off Estonian ports and Soviet bombers began patrolling over the area around Tallinn.
Moscow demanded that Estonia allow the USSR to establish Soviet military bases and station 25,000 troops on Estonian soil for the duration of the European war. The government of Estonia accepted the ultimatum, signing the corresponding mutual assistance agreement on 28 September 1939. On 12 June 1940, according to the director of the Russian State Archive of the Naval Department Pavel Petrov, the order for total military blockade of Estonia was given to the Soviet Baltic Fleet. On 14 June, the Soviet military blockade of Estonia went into effect while the world's attention was focused on the fall of Paris to Nazi Germany. Two Soviet bombers downed a Finnish passenger airplane "Kaleva" flying from Tallinn to Helsinki carrying three diplomatic pouches from the U. S. legations in Tallinn and Helsinki. On 16 June, Soviet NKVD troops raided border posts in Estonia. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin claimed that the 1939 mutual assistance treaties had been violated, gave six-hour ultimatums for new governments to be formed in each country, including lists of persons for cabinet posts provided by the Kremlin.
The Estonian government decided, according to the Kellogg–Briand Pact, to not respond to the Soviet ultimatums by military means. Given the overwhelming Soviet force both on the borders and inside the country, the order was given not to resist in order to avoid bloodshed and open war. On 17 June, the Red Army emerged from its military bases in Estonia and, aided by an additional 90,000 Soviet troops, took over the country, occupying the territories of the Republic of Estonia, organizing and supporting communist demonstrations all over the country. Most of the Estonian Defence Forces and the Estonian Defence League surrendered according to the orders and were disarmed by the Red Army. Only the Estonian Independent Signal Battalion stationed at Raua Street in Tallinn showed resistance; as the Red Army brought in additional reinforcements supported by six armoured fighting vehicles, the battle lasted several hours until sundown. There was one dead, several wounded on the Estonian side and about 10 killed and more wounded on the Soviet side.
The military resistance was ended with negotiations and the Independent Signal Battalion surrendered and was disarmed. By 18 June, military operations of the occupation of the Baltic States were complete. Thereafter, state administrations were liquidated and replaced by Soviet cadres, followed by mass repression. Time magazine reported on 24 June, that "Half a million men and countless tanks" of the Soviet Red Army "moved to safeguard frontier against conquest-drunk Germany," one week before the Fall of France. On 21 June 1940, the Soviet occupation of the Republic of Estonia was complete; that day, the President Konstantin Päts was pressured into affirming the Andrei Zhdanov appointed puppet government of Johannes Vares, following the arrival of demonstrators accompanied by Red Army troops with armored vehicles to the Presidential palace. The Flag of Estonia was replaced with a Red flag on Pikk Hermann tower. On 14–15 July, extraordinary, single-party parliamentary elections were held, in which voters were presented with a single list of pro-Communist candidates.
The goal of occupation authorities was to maximize turnout to legitimize the new system, which included stamping passports in voting facilities fo
Modestas Paulauskas is a former Soviet and Lithuanian professional basketball coach and basketball player. Captain of the Soviet Union national basketball team 1969-1974. Olympic Champion of 1972, World champion of 1967 and 1974, four times Europe Champion. Height - 194 cm; as a player, he was the youngest EuroBasket MVP in history, being only 20 years old at the time he won the award. He is known for having been one of the best Lithuanian basketball players of all time, for having excellent dribbling ability, he was selected as the Lithuanian Sportsman of the Year, a record seven times, in 1965–1967, 1969–1972.. As the player of Soviet Union national basketball team achieved Olympic Gold in 1972 in Munich. In 1991, he was named one of FIBA's 50 Greatest Players. Paulauskas spent his whole club career with Žalgiris Kaunas, despite getting attention from teams based in Western Europe and the National Basketball Association, he could not join them due to political reasons, as Lithuania was part of the Soviet Union at that time, people could not travel abroad.
He was asked to join Žalgiris Kaunas's main rival, CSKA Moscow, but he declined. Paulauskas was a part of the senior Soviet Union national basketball teams that won the bronze medal at the 1968 Summer Olympic Games, the gold medal at the 1972 Summer Olympic Games. Paulauskas became the captain of the senior Soviet national team in 1969. After retiring from playing basketball competitions, Paulauskas worked as a coach of the Soviet Union junior national teams from 1977 to 1989. In the early 1990s, he was the head coach of Žalgiris Kaunas. After that, he coached basketball both in Lithuania and in Russia. INTERVIU: M. Paulauskas: "Noriu būti reikalingas". Eurobasket.lt. Modestas PAULAUSKAS. Kauno diena. FIBA Player Profile