Vasile Bătrânac was the head of the anti-Soviet group Arcaşii lui Ştefan and a political prisoner in the Soviet Union. His father was Ion Bătrânac, arrested in 1944 for anti-Soviet activity. National Organization of Bessarabia Arcaşii lui Ştefan was formed in 1945, on the territory of the former Soroca County by teachers Vasile Bătrânac, Victor Solovei, Nicolae Prăjină, Teodosie Guzun, Anton Romaşcan a student, Nichita Brumă. Vasile Bătrânac was the head of the organization. Vasile Plopeanu is a conspirative name that Vasile Bătrânac used while he was the head of the organization from Soroca. In March 1947, the organization had 140 members. On March 23, 1947, Vasile Bătrânac and Vasile Cvasniuc were arrested. On June 11, 1947, he was sent to Siberia. Ştefan Tudor, Organizaţia Naţională din Basarabia "Arcaşii lui Ştefan", Basarabia, 1992, nr.9 Ştefan Tudor, O. N. B. "Arcaşii lui Ştefan" în Literatura şi Arta, nr 14, 16, 19, 21, 24, 25, 26 1997, aprilie-iunie Mihail Ursachi, Organizatia Nationala Din Basarabia Arcaşii lui Ştefan: Amintiri, Rezistenţă armată anticomunistă Organizația Națională din Basarabia “Arcașii lui Ștefan”
Yuli Markovich Daniel was a Soviet dissident writer, poet and political prisoner. He wrote under the pseudonyms Nikolay Arzhak and Yu. Petrov. Yuli Daniel was born in the son of the Yiddish playwright M. Daniel. In 1942, during World War II, Yuli Daniel lied about his age and volunteered to serve on the 2nd Ukrainian and the 3rd Belorussian fronts. In 1944 he was demobilized. In 1950, Daniel graduated from Moscow Pedagogical Institute, went to work as a schoolteacher in Kaluga and Moscow, he published translations of verse from a variety of languages, like his friend Andrei Sinyavsky, wrote topical stories and novellas and smuggled them to France to be published under pseudonyms. Daniel married Larisa Bogoraz, who also became a famous dissident. In 1965, Daniel and Sinyavsky were tried in the infamous Sinyavsky-Daniel trial. Both writers entered a plea of not guilty. On February 14, 1966, Daniel was sentenced to five years of hard labor for "anti-Soviet activity". In 1967, Andrei Sakharov appealed directly to Yuri Andropov on behalf of Daniel.
Sakharov was told that both Daniel and Sinyavsky would be released under a general amnesty on the fiftieth anniversary of the October revolution. This turned out to be false. According to Fred Coleman, "Historians now have no difficulty pinpointing the birth of the modern Soviet dissident movement, it began in February 1966 with the trial of Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel, two Russian writers who ridiculed the Communist regime in satires smuggled abroad and published under pen names. They didn't realize at the time that they were starting a movement that would help end Communist rule." Sinyavsky and Daniel did not intend to oppose the Soviet Union. Daniel was genuinely worried about a resurgence of the Cult of Personality under Khrushchev, which inspired his story "This is Moscow Speaking", while Sinyavsky affirmed that he believed Socialism was the way forward but that the methods employed were at times erroneous. After four years of captivity in Mordovia labor camps of Dubravlag and one year in Vladimir Prison, Daniel refused to emigrate and lived in Kaluga.
Before his death Bulat Okudzhava acknowledged that some translations published under Okudzhava's name had in fact been ghostwritten by Daniel, on the list of authors banned from being published in the Soviet Union. Books"Бегство", 1956 "Человек из МИНАПа", 1960 "Говорит Москва", 1961 "Искупление", 1964 "Руки" "Письмо другу", 1969 "Ответ И.Р.Шафаревичу", 1975 "Книга сновидений" "Я все сбиваюсь на литературу..." Письма из заключения. Стихи, 1972 "This is Moscow Speaking", Other Stories, Harvill: London, 1968, translated by Michael Scammell. ArticlesDaniel, Yuli. "Satirist who stood trial for freedom". Index on Censorship. 18: 42. Doi:10.1080/03064228908534600. "Russia: a bit of fear". Time. 25 February 1966. "World: a day in the life of Yuli Daniel". Time. 6 June 1969. Chapple, Richard. "Criminals and criminality according to the Soviet dissidents–works of Andrey Sinyavsky and Yuly Daniel". In Fox, Vernon. Proceedings of the 21st annual Southern conference on corrections. 21. Tallahassee: Florida State University.
Pp. 149–158. Nivat, Georges. URSS: gli scrittori del dissenso: Bukowsky, Daniel, Pliusc, Solgeniztin. Venezia: La Biennale di Venezia. OCLC 797904993. Daniel, Yuli. тюремные стихи. Translated by Burg, David. Chicago: J. Philip O'Hara, Inc. ISBN 978-0-87955-501-6. Materials of Daniel's case, poetry HRO-Russia Memoirs by Larisa Bogoraz Poetry Memoirs about Yuli Daniel by Natalia Rapoport Толстой, Иван. "Алфавит инакомыслия. Юлий Даниэль". Svoboda.org. Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2016-04-28. Бабицкий, Андрей. "Подкаст Правосудие. Человек имеет право". Svoboda.org. Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2016-04-28
Mikhail Samuilovich Agursky, real name Melik Samuilovich Agursky, was asovietologist and historian of National Bolshevism. Agursky was a member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences and Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Mikhail Agursky was the pen name of Melik Agursky. Other variations of the name are Melib, he was the son of a historian and party leader Samuel Haimovich Agursky. In 1955 he married Vera Feodorovna Kondratieva. Mikhail Agursky was born as Melik Samuilovich Agursky in Moscow in 1933 to a Jewish family, his father Samuel Agursky was historian. Mikhail Agursky defended a dissertation on cybernetics. In 1975 he emigrated to Israel. Agursky became a Fellow of the Soviet and East European Research Center at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, his book "The Ideology of National Bolshevism" was published in Paris in 1980. On 21 August 1991 Agursky was found dead on in his hotel room in Moscow. Mikhail Agursky - The Ideology of National Bolshevism
Ivan Fedorovych Drach was a Ukrainian poet, literary critic and political activist. Drach played an important role in the founding of Rukh – the People's Movement of Ukraine – and led the organisation from 1989 to 1992. After finishing secondary school Ivan Drach did military service, after which from 1959 – 1963 he studied at the language and literature faculty of Kyiv University. At this time Drach visited popular in Kyiv the "Klub tvorchoyi molodi". Drach took part in literary evenings; the creative way started in the period of Khrushchev thaw. He made his debut in 1961, when his poem-tragedy "Knife in the Sun" was published in the Kyiv literary newspaper. Ivan Drach worked in the newspapers "Literary Ukraine" and "Fatherland", as well as in the film studio O. P. Dovzhenko. After the start of Perestroika resumed contacts in dissident circles. Together with Vyacheslav Chornovil, Mykhailo Horyn and a number of other Ukrainian activists Ivan Drach created in 1989, the People's Movement of Ukraine, first official Ukrainian pro-reform organization.
Ivan Drach was the first chairman of Rukh - September 8, 1989 to February 28, 1992. From February 28 to December 4, 1992, he was co-chairman of the NRU with Vyacheslav Chornovil and Mykhailo Horyn. In the spring of 1990, Ivan Drach was elected to the Verkhovna Rada from Artemivsk constituency. For it voted 66.38% of voters. After retiring from his high office in the NRU in late 1992, Ivan Drach retired from politics in 1994. Drach has promoted the use of the Ukrainian language in Ukraine and whilst serving as the Ukraine's minister of communication proposed wide-ranging measures including setting quotas for Ukrainian-language broadcasts and tax breaks for Ukrainian publishing. At the last 29 March 1998 elections to the Verkhovna Rada member Ivan Drach NRU ran for parliament from Ternopil constituency and voting results, the second time he was elected to Parliament. In the parliamentary elections of March 2002 Ivan Drach appeared in the Our Ukraine party at number 31. Thus, the third time he became a deputy.
After a long dispute with the party leadership NRU Ivan Drach in March 2005 left the party and joined the Ukrainian People's Party Yuri Kostenko. In the parliamentary elections of March 26, 2006, he was number 14 on the electoral list "Ukrainian National Bloc of Kostenko and the Ivy", but the unit lost the election, Ivan Drach in Parliament has not passed. From August 1992 to May 19, 2000 Ivan Drach was the head of the Ukrainian World Coordinating Council. Drach's other positions have included the chairmanship of the Ukrainian Intelligentsia Congress and heading the Writers' Union. In 2006 Drach was awarded the title Hero of Ukraine. Ivan Drach died 19 June 2018 in Kiev after a serious illness. Drach has requested to be buried next to the grave of his son Maksym in his native village of Telizhyntsi. Antonovych prize Soniashnyk Protuberantsi sertsia Poeziï Balady budniv Do dzherel Korin' i krona Kyïvs'ke nebo Duma pro vchytelia Soniashnyi feniks Sontse i slovo Amerykans'kyi zoshyt Shablia i khustyna Dramatychni poemy Kyïvs'kyi oberih Telizhentsi, Khram sontsia Lyst do kalyny Vohon' iz popelu Propala Hramota List of heroes of Ukraine People's Movement of Ukraine
Viacheslav Chornovil was a Ukrainian politician. A prominent Ukrainian dissident in the Soviet Union, he was arrested multiple times in the 1960s and 1970s for his political views. A long-time advocate of Ukrainian independence, he was one of the most prominent political figures of the late 1980s and early 1990s who paved the path of the contemporary Ukraine to its independence. Chornovil enrolled into the University of Kiev at the College of Philology, but after the first semester transferred to the College of Journalism. In 1958 due to conflict in the university he took a break from studying and went for construction project in Zhdanov of a blast furnace and worked for the "Kiev Komsomolets". Chornovil was a member of the Komsomol of Ukraine, he graduated in 1960 with honors and defended his diploma with a thesis "Publicistic work of Borys Hrinchenko". Chornovil worked for various newspapers and in television in Lviv and Kyiv between 1960-64. In 1964 he moved to Vyshhorod and participated in the construction of the Kyiv HES.
During the same year Chornovil enrolled into the aspirantura of the Kyiv Pedagogical Institute, but was not allowed to study. On September 4, 1965 together with Ivan Dzyuba and Vasyl Stus, Chornovil conducted protest in the movie theater "Ukraina" at the premier of the film "Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors". After that he was fired out of his job, searched by authorities. For refusing to stand witness and testify at the trials of the Horyn brothers, Chornovil was given three months of forced labor, he became known as a dissident after documenting the illegal imprisonment of some Ukrainian intellectuals. He covered a similar story about twenty Ukrainians, he was charged with slander and sentenced to three years in the prison of maximum security, but was released in half the time under a general amnesty in 1967 to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the October Revolution. The Times awarded him the Tomalin Prize for the documentation of the trials. During his exile in 1969 Chornovil married to Atena Pashko.
In 1970 he managed to find a job at the meteorological station in Zakarpattia, provided a manual labor for an archaeological expedition to the Odessa Region, at the railroad station "Sknyliv" in Lviv. At the same time Chornovil created an underground magazine "Ukrainian informer". Since 1971 he worked in the Lviv department of the Ukraine Nature Conservation Society, he was imprisoned another time for being involved in Ukrainian independence movements and affiliated publications in 1972. This time Chornovil was given three more years of exile, his term he spent in Mordva camps for political prisoners in the villages of Barashevo. Half of his term Chornovil spent in a penalized isolation cell and a room of cell type. Chornovil renounced his Soviet citizenship and decided to move to Canada in 1975, but was not permitted to do so, he joined the Ukrainian Helsinki Group, which helped to monitor and enforce the 1975 Helsinki Accords. In 1978 by train Chornovil was exiled to the village of Chappandu where he worked as a laborer at a local state farm as a supplier in Nyurba.
In 1978 he was admitted to the International PEN society. He was arrested yet again for "attempted rape" in April 1980 and was sentenced to five years in prison, after which he carried out a 120-day-long hunger strike, he was released in 1983 following the protest of the Prosecutor of Yakutia not to allow return to Ukraine. In May 1985 Chornovil found job as a stoker at a specialized school. In the late 1980s he participated in the Ukrainian national movement becoming the first leader of the People's Movement of Ukraine. In 1988 there was a first attempt to create the "Democratic Front in support of Perestroika" in Lviv only to be dispersed by the Soviet OMON canine unit, he promoted several nationally oriented actions, one of them was the Human chain that took place on January 21, 1990 and commemorated the act of unification of the Ukrainian lands in 1919. Chornovil was defeated, winning only in western Ukraine, he was one of the most important members of the People's Movement of Ukraine. He was elected to the Verkhovna Rada for the People's Movement of Ukraine in 1994 and 1998 and was the head of that party.
In 1999 his party was dissolved due to disagreements within. There are speculations that the failure to liquidate the party led to the road accident that took Chornovil's life; that fact is mentioned in the documentary movie of Volodymyr Onyshchenko He who awoke the Stone state. Chornovil was expected to become the main opposition candidate against the incumbent president Leonid Kuchma for the 1999 presidential election, but Chornovil's presidential campaign was interrupted in its early stages by his suspicious death in an automobile crash on March 25, 1999, his assistant Yevhen Pavlov was killed in the crash; the official investigation carried by the Ministry of Internal Affairs concluded that the crash was purely accidental and discovered no evidence of the foul play. However, some of Chornovil's supporters called his death a political murder and called on bringing those responsible for it to justice; the theory of murder is stated on the website dedicated to Vyacheslav Chornovil and created by his son Taras Chornovil, a deputy of Verkhovna Rada from the Party of Regions.
In 2003, the National Bank of Ukraine issued a commemorative coin with the nominal of 2 Hryvnias dedicated to
Larisa Iosifovna Bogoraz was a dissident in the Soviet Union. Born in Kharkiv, at the time capital of the Ukrainian SSR, to a family of Communist Party bureaucrats, she graduated as a linguist from the University of Kharkiv and in 1950, married her first husband, Yuli Daniel, a writer. Together, they moved to Moscow, her marriage to Daniel would lead to her becoming involved in activism. In 1965, Daniel and a friend of his, Andrei Sinyavsky, were arrested for a number of writings that they had had published overseas under pseudonyms; the trial of the two men was the beginning of a crackdown on dissent under General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev. They were both sent to terms in forced labor camps. After their detention, Bogoraz wrote to Brezhnev in protest, despite knowing that such an act could land her in prison. Bogoraz became well known when, on August 25, 1968, she organized seven people to protest in Red Square against the Soviet Union's invasion of Czechoslovakia at the 1968 Red Square demonstration, together with Pavel Litvinov, Natalya Gorbanevskaya, Vadim Delaunay and other protesters.
As all participants, Bogoraz was arrested and sentenced to four years of exile in Siberia, which she spent in a woodworking plant. Daniel was released in 1970, their marriage did not survive much longer, they soon divorced. However, soon after her release, Bogoraz resumed her resistance of the Soviet regime, she signed many public appeals to the authorities. She co-wrote an underground book, which detailed Stalin's terror and was subsequently published overseas, she contributed to the underground publication A Chronicle of Current Events. In 1975, she wrote a letter to Yuri Andropov, the head of the KGB at the time, requesting that he open the organization's archives. Bogoraz married Anatoly Marchenko, another prominent dissident. Together, they co-wrote a number of appeals. Marchenko was arrested in 1980, unlike Daniel, did not survive his sentence. Bogoraz launched a campaign in 1986 to have all political prisoners freed; the campaign was successful, as the following year, General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev began releasing them.
This came too late for Marchenko, who died as a result of a hunger strike shortly before the initial release. In 1987, she tried to initiate a campaign for amnesty for political prisoners. In 1989, Bogoraz joined, subsequently became chairwoman of, the newly re-founded Moscow Helsinki Group, she acted as a bridge between the old guard of dissidents, the new generation that were arising as the Soviet Union dissolved. After the demise of the Soviet Union, Bogoraz continued her activism, visiting prisoners and holding seminars on the defense of human rights, she became chairwoman of the Seminar on Human Rights, a joint Russian-American nongovernmental organization. She resigned from the latter in 1996, but continued to exert influence in human rights circles up until her death. Not long before her death, she issued an open letter condemning both the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia and the 2003 Iraq War, she died on April 2004, aged 74, after a series of strokes. Bogoraz is mentioned in the song Ilyich by Yuliy Kim, available at several sites.
That song is about reaction of Brezhnev on the demonstration catches the spirit of the epoch of Brezhnev stagnation, although at the time of writing of the song, the text of the letter of Andropov to Central Committee was not available. Bogoraz, Larisa. "Living the movies". Index on Censorship. 3: 15–17. Doi:10.1080/03064220208537038. Obituary: Larisa Bogoraz, The Independent, April 10, 2004 Obituary: Larisa Iosifovna Bogoraz, https://web.archive.org/web/20061029105127/http://www.artukraine.com/historical/bogoraz.htm CAUCASIAN KNOT / PERSONS. Bogoraz, Larissa Iosifovna http://eng.kavkaz.memo.ru/printperson/engperson/id/656175.html Vaissié, Cécile. Russie, une femme en dissidence: Larissa Bogoraz. Plon. ISBN 978-2259191555
David Devdariani was a Professor of Jurisprudence and Head of Law Faculty at Georgian Technical University. He was the son of the famous Georgian revolutionary Gaioz Devdariani, executed during the Great Purge in 1938 by orders of Joseph Stalin. David was born in Tbilisi and attended the Russian gymnasium in Ukraine. In 1950, just before applying for university studies in Tbilisi, he was arrested by MVD for being “the son of the enemy of the people” and charged with Article 58 of counter-revolutionary activities. In KGB operated jail Devdariani suffered a great ordeal. While imprisoned Devdariani began a dissident activities for Independence of Georgia from USSR. In 1956 after condemnation of Stalinism in USSR, Devdariani was released by the orders of Nikita Khrushchev. Soon after his release Devdariani enrolled in the Tbilisi State University and graduated with honours from the Faculty of Law. In the 1970s, he became the Head of the Faculty of Law and Jurisprudence at Georgian Polytechnic University and lived with his sister Medea Devdariani.
During the pro-independence movement in Tbilisi in 1989, Devdariani was involved in various demonstrations and activities for the support of Georgian independence. In 1992-1993, he began petitioning and working for the peaceful conflict settlement in Georgia’s breakaway region of Abkhazia. Devdariani wrote numerous appeals and letters to the United Nations, heads of G8 and introduced his reform proposal of United Nations Security Council to Kofi Annan. Devdariani published numerous articles on Law, United Nations reforms and Conflictology. In 2001, Devdariani was awarded Order of Honor by the President of Georgia Edward Shevardnadze for his contributions for the study of Jurisprudence and raising the awareness about the tragedy in Abkhazia. In 2005, he published the book: "The Oath Book of the 21st Century," which contained propositions and recommendations for the reformation of UN and the peaceful settlements of Post-Soviet conflicts. David Devdariani died in Tbilisi on June 2006 from cancer.