A hamadryad is a Greek mythological being that lives in trees. They are a particular type of dryad. Hamadryads are born bonded to a certain tree; some believe that hamadryads are the actual tree, while normal dryads are the entities, or spirits, of the trees. If the tree died, the hamadryad associated with it died as well. For that reason and the gods punished any mortals who harmed trees; the Deipnosophistae of Athenaeus lists eight hamadryads, the daughters of Oxylus and Hamadryas: Karya Balanos Kraneia Morea Aigeiros Ptelea Ampelos Syke Their mother, Hamadryas, is immortalized in two scientific names: the generic name of the cracker butterfly, the specific name of the northernmost monkey in Asia Minor, the hamadryas baboon. The cracker butterfly is more arboreal than most butterflies, as it camouflages itself on trees, it feeds on rotting fruit and dung. The hamadryas baboon is one of the least arboreal monkeys, but was the most common monkey in Hellenic lands. Atlanteia Chrysopeleia Phoebe Byblis Dryope Heliades Hesperides Hamadryad is referenced as a whole in Edgar Allan Poe's poem "Sonnet To Science".
Hamadryad is referenced in Anthony Ashley Cooper's Characteristics of Men, Opinions, Times. In Aldous Huxley's Crome Yellow, Anne Wimbush is referred to as "the slim Hamadryad whose movements were like the swaying of a young tree in the wind". In George Eliot's The Mill on The Floss, Book V, Chapter 3, the character Philip Wakem uses the term to describe Maggie Tulliver. In William Faulkner's novel Soldier's Pay, Chapter 2, Januarius Jones uses this term to describe a young lady. Both hamadryads and dryads exist in C. S. Lewis's Narnia. In Robert A. Heinlein's Time Enough for Love, Hamadryad is the name of a "young" woman. In John Steinbeck's To a God Unknown, Chapter 16: “Jesus is a better savior than a hamadryad”. In Nalo Hopkinson's short story "The Smile on the Face", the main character swallows a cherry from the cherry tree that seems to be inhabited by a hamadryad. Querquetulanae, Roman nymphs of the oak Dryad The Deipnosophists, or, Banquet of the Learned of Athenaeus presented online by the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center Theoi Project - Hamadryades
Greek mythology is the body of myths told by the ancient Greeks. These stories concern the origin and the nature of the world, the lives and activities of deities and mythological creatures, the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own cult and ritual practices. Modern scholars study the myths in an attempt to shed light on the religious and political institutions of ancient Greece and its civilization, to gain understanding of the nature of myth-making itself; the Greek myths were propagated in an oral-poetic tradition most by Minoan and Mycenaean singers starting in the 18th century BC. Two poems by Homer's near contemporary Hesiod, the Theogony and the Works and Days, contain accounts of the genesis of the world, the succession of divine rulers, the succession of human ages, the origin of human woes, the origin of sacrificial practices. Myths are preserved in the Homeric Hymns, in fragments of epic poems of the Epic Cycle, in lyric poems, in the works of the tragedians and comedians of the fifth century BC, in writings of scholars and poets of the Hellenistic Age, in texts from the time of the Roman Empire by writers such as Plutarch and Pausanias.
Aside from this narrative deposit in ancient Greek literature, pictorial representations of gods and mythic episodes featured prominently in ancient vase-paintings and the decoration of votive gifts and many other artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles. In the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an extensive influence on the culture and literature of Western civilization and remains part of Western heritage and language. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes. Greek mythology is known today from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c. 900 BC to c. 800 BC onward. In fact and archaeological sources integrate, sometimes mutually supportive and sometimes in conflict.
Mythical narration plays an important role in nearly every genre of Greek literature. The only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus; this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens wrote on many of these topics, his writings may have formed the basis for the collection. Among the earliest literary sources are the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the "epic cycle", but these and lesser poems now are lost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the "Homeric Hymns" have no direct connection with Homer, they are choral hymns from the earlier part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiod, a possible contemporary with Homer, offers in his Theogony the fullest account of the earliest Greek myths, dealing with the creation of the world. Hesiod's Works and Days, a didactic poem about farming life includes the myths of Prometheus and the Five Ages.
The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, rendered yet more dangerous by its gods. Lyrical poets took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became less narrative and more allusive. Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, relate individual mythological incidents. Additionally, myth was central to classical Athenian drama; the tragic playwrights Aeschylus and Euripides took most of their plots from myths of the age of heroes and the Trojan War. Many of the great tragic stories took on their classic form in these tragedies; the comic playwright Aristophanes used myths, in The Birds and The Frogs. Historians Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, geographers Pausanias and Strabo, who traveled throughout the Greek world and noted the stories they heard, supplied numerous local myths and legends giving little-known alternative versions. Herodotus in particular, searched the various traditions presented him and found the historical or mythological roots in the confrontation between Greece and the East.
Herodotus attempted to reconcile the blending of differing cultural concepts. The poetry of the Hellenistic and Roman ages was composed as a literary rather than cultic exercise, it contains many important details that would otherwise be lost. This category includes the works of: The Roman poets Ovid, Valerius Flaccus and Virgil with Servius's commentary; the Greek poets of the Late Antique period: Nonnus, Antoninus Liberalis, Quintus Smyrnaeus. The Greek poets of the Hellenistic period: Apollonius of Rhodes, Pseudo-Eratosthenes, Parthenius. Prose writers from the same periods who make reference to myths includ
Argos is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It is a major center for the area. Since the 2011 local government reform it has been part of the municipality of Argos-Mykines, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 138.138 km2. It is 11 kilometres from Nafplion, its historic harbour. A settlement of great antiquity, Argos has been continuously inhabited as at least a substantial village for the past 7,000 years; the city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network. A resident of the city of Argos is known as an Argive. However, this term is used to refer to those ancient Greeks who assaulted the city of Troy during the Trojan War. Numerous ancient monuments can be found in the city today. Agriculture is the mainstay of the local economy; the name of the city is ancient and several etymological theories have been proposed as an explanation to its meaning. The most popular one maintains that the name of the city is a remainder from the Pelasgian language, i.e. the one used by the people who first settled in the area, in which Argos meant "plain".
Alternatively, the name is associated with Argos, the third king of the city in ancient times, who renamed it after himself, thus replacing its older name Phoronikon Astu. It is believed that "Argos" is linked to the word "αργός", which meant "white". According to Strabo, the name could have originated from the word "αγρός" by antimetathesis of the consonants. Argos is traditionally considered to be the origins of the ancient Macedonian royal Greek house of the Argead dynasty; the most celebrated members were Philip II of Alexander the Great. As a strategic location on the fertile plain of Argolis, Argos was a major stronghold during the Mycenaean era. In classical times Argos was a powerful rival of Sparta for dominance over the Peloponnese, but was shunned by other Greek city-states after remaining neutral during the Greco-Persian Wars. There is evidence of continuous settlement in the area starting with a village about 7000 years ago in the late Neolithic, located on the foot of Aspida hill.
Since that time, Argos has been continually inhabited at the same geographical location. Its creation is attributed to Phoroneus, with its first name having been Phoronicon Asty, or the city of Phoroneus; the historical presence of the Pelasgian Greeks in the area can be witnessed in the linguistic remainders that survive up to today, such as the name of the city and "Larisa", the name of the city's castle located on the hill of the name. The city is located at a rather propitious area, among Nemea and Arcadia, it benefitted from its proximity to lake Lerna, which, at the time, was at a distance of one kilometre from the south end of Argos. Argos was a major stronghold of Mycenaean times, along with the neighbouring acropolis of Mycenae and Tiryns became a early settlement because of its commanding positions in the midst of the fertile plain of Argolis. Argos experienced its greatest period of expansion and power under the energetic 7th century BC ruler King Pheidon. Under Pheidon, Argos regained sway over the cities of the Argolid and challenged Sparta’s dominance of the Peloponnese.
Spartan dominance is thought to have been interrupted following the Battle of Hyssiae in 669-668 BC, in which Argive troops defeated the Spartans in a hoplite battle. During this time of its greatest power, the city boasted a pottery and bronze sculpturing school, pottery workshops and clothes producers. Moreover, at least 25 celebrations took place in the city, in addition to a regular local products exhibition. A sanctuary dedicated to Hera was found at the same spot where the monastery of Panagia Katekrymeni is located today. Pheidon extended Argive influence throughout Greece, taking control of the Olympic Games away from the citizens of Elis and appointing himself organizer during his reign. Pheidon is thought to have introduced reforms for standard weight and measures in Argos, a theory further reinforced with the unearthing of six "spits" of iron in an Argive Heraion remainders of a dedication from Pheidon. Argos remained neutral or the ineffective ally of Athens during the 5th century BC struggles between Sparta and Athens.
This, led to its weakening and loss of power, which in turn led to the shift of commercial focus from the Ancient Agora to the eastern side of the city, delimited by Danaou and Agiou Konstadinou streets. Argos played a minor role in the Corinthian Wars against Sparta, for a short period of time considered uniting with Corinth to form an expanded Argolid state. However, this plan never came to fruition, Argos continued to remain a minor power in Greek affairs. Argos was a democracy for most of the classical period, with only a brief hiatus between 418 and 416. Democracy was first established after a disastrous defeat by the Spartans at the Battle of Sepeia in 494. So many Argives were killed in the battle that a revolution ensued, in which disenfranchised outsiders were included in the state for the first time. Argive democracy included an Assembly, a Council, another body called'The Eighty,' whose precise responsibilities are obscure. Magistrates served six-month terms of office, with few exceptions, were audited at the end of their terms.
There is some evidence that ostracis
A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey. The two types of vultures are the New World vultures, including the Californian and Andean condors, the Old World vultures, including the birds that are seen scavenging on carcasses of dead animals on African plains; some traditional Old World vultures are not related to the others, why the vultures are to be subdivided into three taxa rather than two. New World vultures are found in South America. A particular characteristic of many vultures is a bald head, devoid of normal feathers. Although it has been believed to help keep the head clean when feeding, the bare skin may play an important role in thermoregulation. Vultures have been observed to hunch their bodies and tuck in their heads in the cold, open their wings and stretch their necks in the heat. Vultures use urine as a way to keep themselves cool by urinating on themselves. A group of vultures is called a committee or wake; the term kettle refers to vultures in flight, while committee refers to vultures resting on the ground or in trees.
Wake is reserved for a group of vultures. The word Geier does not have a precise meaning in ornithology; the Old World vultures found in Africa and Europe belong to the family Accipitridae, which includes eagles, kites and hawks. Old World vultures find carcasses by sight; the 16 species in 9 genera are: Cinereous vulture, Aegypius monachus Griffon vulture, Gyps fulvus White-rumped vulture, Gyps bengalensis Rüppell's vulture, Gyps rueppelli Indian vulture, Gyps indicus Slender-billed vulture, Gyps tenuirostris Himalayan vulture, Gyps himalayensis White-backed vulture, Gyps africanus Cape vulture, Gyps coprotheres Hooded vulture, Necrosyrtes monachus Red-headed vulture, Sarcogyps calvus Lappet-faced vulture, Torgos tracheliotos White-headed vulture, Trigonoceps occipitalis Bearded vulture, Gypaetus barbatus Egyptian vulture, Neophron percnopterus Palm-nut vulture, Gypohierax angolensis The New World vultures and condors found in warm and temperate areas of the Americas are not related to the similar Accipitridae, but belong in the family Cathartidae, once considered to be related to the storks.
However, recent DNA evidence suggests that they should be included among the Accipitriformes, along with other birds of prey. However, they are still not related to the other vultures. Several species have a good sense of smell, unusual for raptors, are able to smell dead animals from great heights, up to a mile away; the seven species are: Black vulture Coragyps atratus in South America and north to the US Turkey vulture Cathartes aura throughout the Americas to southern Canada Lesser yellow-headed vulture Cathartes burrovianus in South America and north to Mexico Greater yellow-headed vulture Cathartes melambrotus in the Amazon Basin of tropical South America California condor Gymnogyps californianus in California widespread in the mountains of western North America Andean condor Vultur gryphus in the Andes King vulture Sarcoramphus papa from southern Mexico to northern Argentina Vultures are scavengers, meaning they eat dead animals. They attack healthy animals, but may kill the wounded or sick.
When a carcass has too thick a hide for its beak to open, it waits for a larger scavenger to eat first. Vast numbers have been seen upon battlefields, they gorge themselves when prey is abundant, until their crops bulge, sit, sleepy or half torpid, to digest their food. These birds disgorge it from their crops; the mountain-dwelling bearded vulture is the only vertebrate to specialize in eating bones, does carry bones to the nest for the young, it hunts some live prey. Vultures are of great value as scavengers in hot regions. Vulture stomach acid is exceptionally corrosive, allowing them to safely digest putrid carcasses infected with botulinum toxin, hog cholera bacteria, anthrax bacteria that would be lethal to other scavengers and remove these bacteria from the environment. New World vultures vomit when threatened or approached. Contrary to some accounts, they do not "projectile vomit" on their attacker as a deliberate defense, but it does lighten their stomach load to make take-off easier, the vomited meal residue may distract a predator, allowing the bird to escape.
New World vultures urinate straight down their legs. Vultures in south Asia in India and Nepal, have declined since the early 1990s, it has been found that this decline was caused by residues of the veterinary drug Diclofenac in animal carcasses. The government of India has taken late cognizance of this fact and has banned the drug for animals. However, it may take decades for vultures to come back to their earlier population level, if they do: without vultures to pick corpses clean, rabies-carrying dogs have multiplied, feeding on the carrion, age-old practices like the sky burials of the Parsees are coming to an end, permanently reducing the supply of corpses; the same problem is seen in Nepal where government has taken some late steps to conserve remaining vultures. In Central Africa there has been efforts to conserve the remaining vultures and bring their population numbers back up; this is due to