Germi is a city in and the capital of Germi County, Ardabil Province, Iran. Garmi is located 110 km north of Ardabil the capital of Ardabil province. Germi is located about 50 km from the Caspian Sea, It has an average altitude of 1050 m and total area of 1752 km2. Neighboring on the Caspian Sea and the Republic of Azerbaijan, this city is of great political and economical significance, it is located on an open plain 1,100 m above sea level, just east of Mount Azna. Germi county is a historical region of Iranian Azerbaijandespite Germi city is considered a new city based on Iranian standards, established in the year 900 of the Islamic calendar when Shah Ismail allowed to 5 Shia families to migrate to this region; the first documentary about this region, listed in historical books dates back to year 22 Hijri when Arab soldiers inter Aran or Alan region. As it is believed before Islam era Alan's people were living in this area. Words such as Alania, Allan-Shahr, Alan-Shahr, Alan-shah had been used firstly at the first ad century for this district where was located between Azerbaijan, Caspian sea, Armenia.
As it comes out from historical document many Alan people migrated from this area after Islamic era firstly substitute by Muslim people from different ethnic groups such as Persians, Arabs and Tatars. After that, the area between those four borders was known as Mugan or Amukan and other pronunciation of them; the most historical place in the county is Barzand Castle, the castle of Afshin who battled with Babak Khorramdin in an earlier century of Islamic history. People of this county speak the Azeri language; the largest river of the county is Dareroud. This river is the largest internal river of the Ardabil Province; when it comes to the etymology of "Germi" it seems somehow cryptic and there are several hypotheses about the meaning of word "Germi" and historical stem of this city Name. Many historians believe the word "Germi" has Alanian stems. Many others suggest. There is 2 theory that believe Germi is combination of 2 words: "Ger" and "mi" but the interpretation is different: One group believe on Sumerian stem that "Ger" means village and "Mi" means celestial.
This interpretation is more consistent with other documents and pieces of evidence about this region and its history. First Hypothesis believes; the name Germi comes from the Parthian name. The other Hypothesis link this word to Maghoi. There are some other places and cities in East-Azerbaijan province, West-Azerbaijan province, Ardabil province and Azerbaijan republic that are called Germi. Germi is the capital of Germi County. According to the 2017 census, its population was 28,967, in 6,382 families; the dominant majority of whom are ethnic Azeris. Notable for its shawl and carpet and short-napped coarse carpet" trade tradition; the ancient valuable Germi vestige and things are holds in Kashan museum, Iran National Museum, Copenhagen museum. Germi county is known as the seat of a World Heritage Site: the first piece of cloth woven in Iran and discovered in Salala Village were to be kept in Iran national museum. Germi is an ancient city in the Ardabil province of Iran, thought to have been founded in the Parthian period.
Germi is located in an area known for temperate weather. It is an important agricultural center, the county seat of Germi County, the capital of Moghan. Germi, like most parts of Iran, has a semi-arid climate with hot summers and cold winters; the climate of Germi is mild to most of the districts and cities of Ardebil province. The climate of this city in the east, is somewhat influenced by the climate of the Caspian region and its collapse, most of its settlements in the valleys are exposed by the rapid winds that are in some of the province's provinces such as Ardebil and Meshkinshahr. According to the 50 years precipitation statistics and records, The yearly average precipitation is 360 but annual precipitation varies between 200 up to 450. Germi has a lot of winds, but it's not sparse. Local people have given them different names depending on the season, humidity, wind direction and wind power. Garmij, the Gechi-Qiran and the promise is the same as the wind near the spring And Nowruz is gentle and delusional) are famous winds of the region, all of which have a mild speed.
It is said that Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, one of the army's ambassadors, was in charge of traveling to the region in 1956 and the establishment of the city of Moghan. On the trip that took place in the summer, the military commander's wife complained of hot weather in other cities of Moghan, but when Entering Germi, she was excited by the warm and elegant climate and insisted her husband that no city is more deserving of warmth than Moghan; the rumors of the local elders and the order of land and land came to the aid because, due to the order of the transactions and the unilateralism of the people, their lan
Germi County is a county in Ardabil Province in Iran. It is on the north of Ardabil city; the capital of the county is Germi. The county is divided into three districts: Anguti District, the Central District, Muran District; the county has two cities: Tazeh Kand-e Angut. Germi, the capital of county, is located at 110 km from the capital of the province; when it comes to etymology of "Germi" it seems some how cryptic. The earliest book or document which has written about this area comes back to year 22 Hijri when Arab soldiers inter Aran or Alan region; as it is believed before Islam era Alan's people were living in this area. Words such as Alania, Allan-shahr, Alan-shahr and Alan-shah had been used firstly at the first ad century for this district where was located between Azerbaijan, Caspian sea and Armenia; as it comes out from historical document many Alan people migrated from this area after Islamic era firstly substitute by Muslim people from different ethnic groups. After that the area between those four borders was known as Mugan or Amukan and other pronunciation of them.
Many historians believe the word "Germi" has Alanian stems. Many others suggest. There is 2 theory that believe Germi is combination of 2 words: Ger and mi but the interpretation is different: One group believe on Sumerian stem that "Ger" means village and "Mi" means celestial the other believe "Ger" comes from "Ager" in old persian language that changed to "Akhgar" at new Persian language, whereas "mi" comes from "mehr" or "Mitra" which both means: "Sun", so "germi" means fireplace of sun; this interpretation is more consistent with other documents and evidences about region and its history. History of county is related by history of Mugan region; the history of Mugan is divided into 4 era. There is enormous works from ancient period in this era but there is not a complete museum about the region. Most of the ancient monuments discovered from the region, irrespective of the historical period, are held in several museums such as Iran National Museum, Kashan museum and Copenhagen museum and several others.
There is several stunning works from this era such as daughter-castle in north of county, Langan Qantas, Barzand Castle. This era was not flourishing period for Mugan region and because of long period of wars there is not any sign of progress and outstanding monuments; the historical place in this county that had big value in this era is Barzand Castle, the castle of Afshin who battled with Babak Khorramdin in an earlier century of Islamic history. Ignoring the earlier 3 historical periods that are the venue, Germi city is new by Iranian standards. There were some other places and cities in Azerbaijan of I. R. Iran and Azerbaijan that are called Germi; the city's area is 1725 square kilometers. The altitude varies between 250 meters in the village of Khan Mohammad loo in the northwest up to 2200 meters in the southeast, which Salavat Mountains are located there; the Moghan region, due to its specific topographic conditions, has a different climate with other parts of Azerbaijan and its southern regions.
County has Mediterranean climate. Monsoon winds called Caspian Winds, which come from the Caspian Sea increase the cooling rate; the distance between the Moghan region and the Caspian Sea is about 80 to 90 km, but in general, considering the climatic division, this region can be considered as semi-arid because the annual rainfall is less than 500 mm. The warm summer heat It is wet and it has a moderate winter; the winters are accompanied by cold and foggy winds. Average monthly temperature is of −1 to 31 °C; the average yearly precipitation of county is 460 mm. It differs across the county: minimum precipitation is at north-west in Khan-Mohammad-loo village by 250 mm, whereas maximum rainfall is at Dash-dibi village at south-east by 700mm. There are 69 permanent fountains in the city; the county has 7 permanent river but there But their watering varies between 10 million cubic meters to 1 billion cubic meters. The largest river of the county is Dareroud. R. Iran passing through the counties of Ardabil, Meshkin-Shahr and Bilesuvar and joining several rivers along the route.
This river is the largest internal river of Ardabil province. Balhary, Bulgary or Balharood is another important river of the county that forms part of its route, the border between Iran and Azerbaijan; the range lands and forests of the city are scattered or densely populated with different types of plants and shrubs among the varieties of elm, figs, mountain plums, apple, raspberries, tamarisk, pine species and a variety of medicinal plants such as licorice, Styphnolobium japonicum, Malva sylvestris, Echium, yarrow, saffron Mountain, wilted sorrel, Rumex crispus, wild rue, Mountain tea and some other plants. Iran has 3,400,000 hectares of national forest land, of which 5,000 hectares are located in this city, of which 3,000 are in the central part of the county and 2,000 in the Angoutian region. Tulips, lily of the valley, varieties of jasmine, gladiolus and some other flowers grow up at the different seasons and in the different parts of the county. At the 2017 census, the population of the county was 76901, in 22349 families.
According to mentioned census, the popul
Meshgin Shahr is a city and capital of Meshgin Shahr County, in Ardabil Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 63,655, in 14,949 families; the city is 839 kilometres from Tehran. Being near the high Savalan Mountains it enjoys a moderate mountainous climate. Savalan's summit can be seen from the south of the city with an eye catching scenery; the antiquity of the city dates back to the early centuries of the Islamic conquest but in the Safavid age it thrived more. The city is well known for its mineral springs. Iran's first geothermal power station, Meshkinshahr Geothermal Power Plant is situated in the outskirts of this city. Meshkin Shahr It is located in the north-west of Iran and the nearest city to the Sabalan high mountain; the weather of the city and the district of Meshkin Shahr is moderate mountainous. In the past it was referred to as “Khiav”, “Orami”, or ”Varavi”; the longest suspended footbridge of the world is located above the Khiav river. The most important places for touring in the district of Meshkin Shahr are the following: - Meshgin Shahr Suspended Footbridge - Sahar Yeri historical area - Hot water springs of Moil and Qaynarja located in the suburb of the city - Qara Soo River Sides - Water spring of Qotur Suie located 42 kilometers to Meshkin shahr - Old Castle of Meshkin Shahr - Qahqaheh castle located 80 kilometers to Meshkin Shahr - Deev castle located in kavij - Petrograph of Shapour Sasani in Meshkin Shahr - Old cemetery in Oonar - Tomb of Sheykh Haydar in Meshkin Shahr - Imamzadeh Seyyed Soleyman.
Tourism Attraction: The longest Suspended footbridge of the world built in 2015 by Iranian-Canadian engineers, 365 meter long 80 meters above the Khiyav River. One of the highest and longest suspension type bridges in the world. Historical Monuments: - Old castle of Meshkin Shahr. - Ancient site of Shahar Yeri located near the village of Pirazmian, 32 Kilometers from Meshkinshahr. - Qahqaheh castle located 80 kilometers to Meshkin Shahr. - Deev castle located in kavij. - Petrograph of Shapour sasani in Meshkin Shahr. - Old cemetery in Oonar. - Tomb of Sheykh Haydar in Meshkin Shahr. - Imamzadeh Seyyed Soleyman. - Arshaq castle located 60 kilometers to Meshkin Shahr. - Qishlaq Zaakhor castle located 50 kilometers to Meshkin Shahr. Hot Mineral Waters: Moil, Ilando, Qotur suyu Promenades: Forest Park, “Shirvan Deresi”, “Qara su”, museum, “Hooshang Meydani”, the foot of “Savalan” mountain Handicrafts: Carpet, short-napped coarse carpet, coarse loosely woven, sackcloth Souvenirs: “Savalan” honey, dried fruits, domestic production, grapes Meshgin Shahr Tourism Website Meshgin Shahr Municipality Website Meshgin Shahr Government Website Meshgin Shahr Travel Guide
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
Khalkhal ، and local, Azerbaijani: هیرو, Persian: هروآباد Romanized as Khalkhāl. According to the country divisions determined by the Ministry of Interior of Iran the city of Khalkhal has 138 villages. Majority of population speak Azeri Turkish language. At the 2006 census, its population was 38,521, in 9,619 families. Azeris are the main ethnic group living in the city, along with some minorities of Talyshis and Tats and Persians. Khalkhal Khanate
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by nearly 90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word sunnah; the differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions. According to Sunni traditions, Muhammad did not designate a successor and the Muslim community acted according to his sunnah in electing his father-in-law Abu Bakr as the first caliph; this contrasts with the Shia view, which holds that Muhammad announced at the event of Ghadir Khumm his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and they have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Wahhabism; as of 2009, Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population. Sunni Islam is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism.
Its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa ahl as-sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam". However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there is no such thing as "orthodox Islam"; the Quran, together with hadith and binding juristic consensus form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Sharia rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning, consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion, using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools. In matters of creed, the Sunni tradition upholds the six pillars of iman and comprises the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of rationalistic theology as well as the textualist school known as traditionalist theology. Sunnī commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from sunnah meaning "habit", "usual practice", "custom", "tradition".
The Muslim use of this term refers to living habits of the prophet Muhammad. In Arabic, this branch of Islam is referred to as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah, "the people of the sunnah and the community", shortened to ahl as-sunnah. One common mistake is to assume that Sunni Islam represents a normative Islam that emerged during the period after Muhammad's death, that Sufism and Shi'ism developed out of Sunni Islam; this perception is due to the reliance on ideological sources that have been accepted as reliable historical works, because the vast majority of the population is Sunni. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own doctrines; the first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun or "Rightly-Guided Ones". Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar as the second, Uthman as the third, Ali as the fourth. Sunnis recognised different rulers as the caliph, though they did not include anyone in the list of the rightly guided ones or Rashidun after the murder of Ali, until the caliphate was constitutionally abolished in Turkey on 3 March 1924.
The seeds of metamorphosis of caliphate into kingship were sown, as the second caliph Umar had feared, as early as the regime of the third caliph Uthman, who appointed many of his kinsmen from his clan Banu Umayya, including Marwan and Walid bin Uqba on important government positions, becoming the main cause of turmoil resulting in his murder and the ensuing infighting during Ali's time and rebellion by Muawiya, another of Uthman's kinsman. This resulted in the establishment of firm dynastic rule of Banu Umayya after Husain, the younger son of Ali from Fatima, was killed at the Battle of Karbala; the rise to power of Banu Umayya, the Meccan tribe of elites who had vehemently opposed Muhammad under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, Muawiya's father, right up to the conquest of Mecca by Muhammad, as his successors with the accession of Uthman to caliphate, replaced the egalitarian society formed as a result of Muhammad's revolution to a society stratified between haves and have-nots as a result of nepotism, in the words of El-Hibri through "the use of religious charity revenues to subsidise family interests, which Uthman justified as "al-sila"."
Ali, during his rather brief regime after Uthman maintained austere life style and tried hard to bring back the egalitarian system and supremacy of law over the ruler idealised in Muhammad's message, but faced continued opposition, wars one after another by Aisha-Talhah-Zubair, by Muawiya and by the Kharjites. After he was murdered his followers elected Hasan ibn Ali his elder son from Fatima to succeed him. Hasan, shortly afterwards signed a treaty with Muawiaya relinquishing power in favour of the latter, with a condition inter alia, that one of the two who will outlive the other will be the caliph, that this caliph will not appoint a successor but will leave the matter of selection of the caliph to the public. Subsequently, Hasan was poisoned to death and Muawiya enjoyed unchallenged power. Not honouring his treaty with Hasan he however nominated his son Yazid to succeed him. Upon Muawiya's death, Yazid asked Husain the younger brother of Hasan, Ali's son and Muh
Kivi is a city in and the capital of Kowsar County, Ardabil Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 6,467, in 1,721 families. Earlier, Kivi was divided into upper and lower Kivi: düz kıvı and aşaği kıvı. Kivi is situated in the center of a newly established county, with an area of 1,243.8 square kilometres. It borders Ardabil to the north, Khalkhal to the south, Hashtpar in Gilan Province to the east, Mianeh to the west in East Azerbaijan Province. Kivi constitutes 7 percent of the area of the Ardabil province. Bajilar Daghlari extend between Miyaneh. Kivi is in a mountainous region, with temperate mountainous climate on the western side of the Baghru Mountains; the average annual precipitation of the region exceeds 350 millimetres. Arpa-Chay, Givi-Chay, Sangava Chay are the important rivers of the town which join to Qiziluzan river in the borders of Mianeh; the history of the Kivi and Khalkhal dates back to pre-Islam. The city was named Dord-Evlar; when Islam entered there during Umar age, they converted to Islam.
It is said that during Yazid Ibn Moavieh's reign, the king of the region was requested to send army forces to fight with Husayn ibn Ali. Since this place has been known as Qoja-Vouroushchu or Pir-e Jangi. In the passion plays of the mourning month of Muharram, people say the following: Oh, some troops have departed from Khakhal and Zanjan, etc, it is that this story is a legend. The oldest educational center of the city, Hafez School, was established in 1940, its municipality was established on April 7, 1957. Kivi has much natural scenery, green mountains, beautiful parks. Natural scenery of the city includes: Roustam dashi, Dash Hamam, Bouzlouq, Havashanaq Village, Sarmistan or Salmistan, Mashgul Manbari, Firouzabad bridge, earth dams such as Qara-Qishlaq. Havashanaq glacier is located some 5.6 km from the city, opposite a spa and close to Havashanaq village. The glacier is known as Bouzlouq; the cave is located six meters deep in the ground. During warm months, the walls of the cave start freezing, one should be careful when entering the cave, while in winter no bit of ice can be found there.
Another well-known Bouzlouq is located in the cross point of Firouz-Abad river and Qiziluzan River and is known as Atash Cottage. Atash Amou lived in Mashkoul and he always put his dairy products such as butter in it to take advantage of inner coldness of the glacier. There is another glacier in Zarajuva Village, known as Yashli Bouzli; the spas of the city have several overall biologic effects on the body. Cutaneous effects include improving skin tissues and its general effects include recovering body metabolism. Spas are a type of natural resource; the most important spa in the city is Isti Sou or Kivi-Souyu, located five kilometers from Kivi-Khalkhal Road. Of the other known spas in the city is Dash-Hamam Spa, located in the northeast of the city, among gardens. Men swim in Dash-Hamam on Fridays and Mondays, the women can use it during the rest of weekdays. However, before the incumbency of Mokhtar Jamili, men were allowed to use the spa only on Fridays. Dash-Hamam has two warm spas; the spa is located five kilometers from Kivi, on a mountain.
Water temperature measures 45 °C. Local people believe that cutaneous and particular disease such as rheumatism and articular pain can be treated by swimming in the spa, thus and unloading of the spa may last for some hours. The temperature is so high that one cannot enter in it therefore it is better to enter in the spa suddenly; this bath is located east of Kivi, among gardens, beside Kivi Chay River, close to Dalikli Dash and inside in a carved rock. Men can use the bath on Friday and nights, women during the rest of the week. After incumbency of municipality by the mayor, Mokhtar Jamili, the program changed, men can use the bath in Fridays and Mondays and women during the rest of week; the water of the bath is supplied from two hot and cold-water spa is useful for removing kidney stone. Some of the inhabitants brew tea from the water of spa. Unlike other spas, after which one may feel thirsty, after this bath people are more to feel hungry. Zinjirovpir is one example of the beautiful natural scenery of Kivi, located in the southeast, east of the city on the mountain.
The appellation refers to the legend of a devout girl, tortured by the gangs and requested God to help her disappear so she would be safe. Due to her moral tradition, God admitted her request and she vanished; because the girl was not engaged, she died unmarried. Since on April 2, in spring, early autumn, women provide some votive foo