A homeland is the concept of the place with which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association – the country in which a particular national identity began. As a common noun, homeland, it connotes the country of ones origin. When used as a noun, the Homeland, as well as its equivalents in other languages. A homeland may be referred to as a fatherland, a motherland, or a country, depending on the culture. Motherland refers to a country, i. e. the place of ones birth, the place of ones ancestors. People often refer to Mother Russia as a personification of the Russian nation, within the British Empire, many natives in the colonies came to think of Britain as the mother country of one, large nation. India is often personified as Bharat Mata, Fatherland is the nation of ones fathers or forefathers. It can be viewed as a nationalist concept, insofar as it relates to nations, the term fatherland is used throughout German-speaking Europe, as well as in Dutch. For example, Wien Neêrlands Bloed, national anthem of the Netherlands between 1815 and 1932, makes extensive and conspicuous use of the parallel Dutch word.
Because of the use of Vaterland in Nazi-German war propaganda, the term Fatherland in English has become associated with domestic British and this is not the case in Germany itself, where the word remains used in the usual patriotic contexts. In Romance languages, a way to refer to ones home country is Patria/Pátria/Patrie which has the same connotation as Fatherland, that is. As patria has feminine gender, it is used in expressions related to ones mother. The Soviet Union created homelands for some minorities in the 1920s, including the Volga German ASSR, in the case of the Volga German ASSR, these homelands were abolished and their inhabitants deported to either Siberia or the Kazakh SSR. In the case of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast this was not necessary, since it had created from the start at the far-Eastern end of Siberia. In the United States, the Department of Homeland Security was created soon after the 11 September 2001, terrorist attacks, Homeland isnt really an American word, its not something we used to say or say now.
In the apartheid era in South Africa, the concept was given a different meaning, the white government had designated approximately 25% of its non-desert territory for black tribal settlement. Whites and other non-blacks were restricted from owning land or settling in those areas, after 1948 they were gradually granted an increasing level of home-rule. From 1976 several of these regions were granted independence, four of them were declared independent nations by South Africa, but were unrecognized as independent countries by any other nation besides each other and South Africa
Ancestral houses of the Philippines
Ancestral houses of the Philippines are homes owned and preserved by the same family for several generations as part of the Filipino family culture. Houses could be a house to a mansion. Some houses of prominent families had become points of interest or museums in their community because of its cultural, architectural or historical significance and these ancestral houses provide the current generation a look back of the countrys colonial past through these old houses. In 2009, the Congress of the Philippines passed the National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009 or Republic Act, no.10066 to further the protection the cultural treasures of the country which include houses under Built heritage. Ancestral houses that are declared Heritage House by the NHCP are still owned by their owners, the government is only declaring the heritage value of the structure, provide funding for its protection and preservation. Historical markers are placed on the houses by the commission to indicate their significance, the Philippine Registry of Cultural Property registers all cultural properties of the country.
Partial list of ancestral houses declared as Heritage Houses by the NHCP, some with declaration dates, in the Ilocos Region the historic city of Vigan is the best preserved Spanish Colonial settlement in the country. It was declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999, Don Antonio Bautista Mansion, Calle Paseo del Congreso, Bulacan oldest house existing in Malolos. Don Fausto Chiong Mansion, Calle Pariancillo, Bulacan Mariano Crisostomo, Calle Estrella, Malolos, in the CALABARZON region, the center for ancestral houses can be found in the streets of Taal and Calaca, in Batangas and Sariaya in Quezon provinces. The town center of Pila, with its Spanish, declared Heritage House in MIMAROPA region. Casa Narvas in Boac, Marinduque Bacolod City, Negros Occidental in the Negros Island Region, is the provincial capital, generoso Villanueva House, known as Daku Balay, is one of the finest examples of Art Deco architecture in the Philippines from the 1930s. Silay City, Negros Occidental in the Negros Island Region has the most number of declared Heritage Houses in the country
A diaspora is a scattered population whose origin lies within a smaller geographic locale. Diaspora can refer to the movement of the population from its original homeland, some diaspora communities maintain strong political ties with their homeland. Other qualities that may be typical of many diasporas are thoughts of return, relationships with communities in the diaspora. The term is derived from the Greek verb διασπείρω, I scatter, I spread about, an example of a diaspora from classical antiquity is the century-long exile of the Messenians under Spartan rule and the Ageanites as described by Thucydides in his history of the Peloponnesian wars. It subsequently came to be used to refer to the movements of the dispersed ethnic population of Israel. The wider application of diaspora evolved from the Assyrian two-way mass deportation policy of conquered populations to deny future territorial claims on their part, an academic field, diaspora studies, has become established relating to this sense of the word.
Some writers have noted that diaspora may result in a loss of nostalgia for a home as people re-root in a series of meaningful displacements. In this sense, individuals may have multiple homes throughout their diaspora, diasporic cultural development often assumes a different course from that of the population in the original place of settlement. Over time, remotely separated communities tend to vary in culture, language, the last vestiges of cultural affiliation in a diaspora is often found in community resistance to language change and in maintenance of traditional religious practice. In an article published in 1991, William Safran set out six rules to distinguish diasporas from migrant communities, while Safrans definitions were influenced by the idea of the Jewish diaspora, he recognised the expanding use of the term. Rogers Brubaker notes that use of the diaspora has been widening. Brubaker has used the WorldCat database to show that 17 out of the 18 books on diaspora published between 1900 and 1910 were on the Jewish diaspora.
The majority of works in the 1960s were about the Jewish diaspora, the paradigmatic case was, of course, the Jewish diaspora, some dictionary definitions of diaspora, until recently, did not simply illustrate but defined the word with reference to that case. Brubaker argues that the expansion of the use of the phrase extended it to other, similar cases, such as the Armenian. Brubaker notes that, Basques, Hindu Indians, Japanese, Koreans, Palestinians, labour migrants who maintain emotional and social ties with a homeland have been described as diasporas. In further cases of the use of the term, the reference to the conceptual homeland – to the classical diasporas – has become more attenuated still, to the point of being lost altogether. Brubaker notes that, as of 2005, there were academic books or articles on the Dixie, liberal, queer, professional communities of individuals no longer in their homeland can be considered diaspora. For example, science diasporas are communities of scientists who conduct their research away from their homeland, one of the largest diaspora of modern times is the African Diaspora, which dates back several centuries
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements, Architecture can mean, A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures, the style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure Knowledge of art, technology, the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering services in connection with the design and construction of buildings. The earliest surviving work on the subject of architecture is De architectura. According to Vitruvius, a building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas, commonly known by the original translation – firmness, commodity.
An equivalent in modern English would be, Durability – a building should stand up robustly, utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing, according to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty primarily as a matter of proportion, for Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean. The most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only true Christian form of architecture. The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, Architecture was the art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men. That the sight of them contributes to his health, power.
For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance and his work goes on to state that a building is not truly a work of architecture unless it is in some way adorned. For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, but suddenly you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say, This is beautiful, le Corbusiers contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said Architecture starts when you carefully put two bricks together. The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design, function came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural
In the context of human society, a family is a group of people affiliated either by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence or some combination of these. Members of the family may include spouses, brothers, sons. Members of the family may include grandparents, uncles, nephews, nieces. Sometimes these are considered members of the immediate family, depending on an individuals specific relationship with them. In most societies, the family is the institution for the socialization of children. As the basic unit for raising children, anthropologists generally classify most family organizations as matrifocal, avuncular, sexual relations among the members are regulated by rules concerning incest such as the incest taboo. The word family can be used metaphorically to create more inclusive categories such as community, global village, the field of genealogy aims to trace family lineages through history. Family is an important economic unit studied in family economics, one of the primary functions of the family involves providing a framework for the production and reproduction of persons, biologically and/or socially.
This can occur through the sharing of material substances, the giving and receiving of care and nurture, jural rights and obligations, ones experience of ones family shifts over time. From the perspective of children, the family is a family of orientation, from the point of view of the parent, the family is a family of procreation, the goal of which is to produce and enculturate and socialize children. Christopher Harris notes that the conception of family is ambiguous. Diverse data from ethnography, history and social statistics, reveal the human family as a social institution, the different types of families occur in a wide variety of settings, and their specific functions and meanings depend largely on their relationship to other social institutions. Sociologists have a special interest in the function and status of family forms in stratified societies, much sociological and anthropological research dedicates itself to the understanding of this variation, and of changes in the family that form over time.
Levitan claims, Times have changed, it is acceptable and encouraged for mothers to work. The way roles are balanced between the parents will help children grow and learn life lessons. There is great importance of communication and equality in families, in order to avoid role strain, the term nuclear family is commonly used, especially in the United States of America, to refer to conjugal families. A conjugal family includes only the husband, the wife, sociologists distinguish between conjugal families and nuclear families. Other family structures, such as blended parents, single parents, a matrifocal family consists of a mother and her children