The Washington Papers
The Washington Papers known as The Papers of George Washington, is a project dedicated to the publication of comprehensive letterpress and digital editions of George and Martha Washington’s papers. Founded at the University of Virginia in 1968 as the Papers of George Washington, the Washington Papers is an expansive project that includes the papers and documents of George Washington as well as of individuals close to him; the Washington Papers aims to place Washington in a larger context and to bring individuals, such as Martha Washington and Washington family members, into sharper focus. The project is headed by editor in chief and director Jennifer E. Steenshorne, is the largest collection of its type; the project is funded in part by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, the Packard Humanities Institute, the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, the University of Virginia, the Florence Gould Foundation, other private donors. The project should be distinguished from the archives of George Washington, part of which resides at the Library of Virginia, the George Washington Papers American Memory database at the Library of Congress.
Both of the aforementioned archives hold some of Washington's original correspondence, whereas the Washington Papers holds copies of these documents, along with copies of related documents, that are accompanied by transcriptions and annotations. The Washington Papers are used to provide researchers with a different form of access than the ones offered by the Library of Virginia and American Memory by way of increased ease of reading, both in legibility and in context; the project had its start in 1966 when the state archivist of Virginia proposed that the university launch a documentary editing project for the Washington papers. Two years the Washington Papers was launched with the help of the Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association, its first editor-in-chief, Donald Jackson, was appointed and the project sought to "be the most comprehensive compilation yet and include not just letters Washington wrote, but those he received". To this end the project procured copies of 140,000 documents; this caused the project to differ from other collections that only collected material written by Washington and the idea behind the move was to provide a more comprehensive overview of Washington that would make for more thorough research.
Starting in 1976 the Washington Papers project began releasing sets of its collection via the University Press of Virginia. Sets are separated into different collections depending on the type of the time period. In 2004 the project digitized the collection with the help of the Ladies' Association and the University of Virginia Press’s digital database; the digitized collection was called the Papers of George Washington Digital Edition and is updated. The following year the project presented the White House with a full set of the Papers of George Washington. In 2010 the National Historical Publications and Records Commissiona and the University of Virginia Press announced a new project, Founders Online, which would provide users with free access to papers relating to the Founding Fathers. Since its inception the project has expanded to include several projects that are intended to help increase the availability and understanding of the collection; some of the expansions have been done as part of larger projects with other organizations such as NARA.
In October 2010 NARA and the University of Virginia Press announced their intention to create Founders Online, a web site that would provide free access to the papers of the Founding Fathers. Work on the project began in October 2011 and went online in October 2013, includes content from the Washington Papers's print volumes. Prior to this the Papers of George Washington were made available online through the Papers of George Washington Digital Edition. Founders Online project includes content taken from the John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison documentary editing projects and is updated to include any new material published through the Washington Papers; the Financial Papers Project was launched in 2011 with grant funding from NARA. It is a digital-only documentary edition of the Papers of George Washington and is intended to create a free-access Internet database containing accurate transcriptions of Washington’s financial documents, including ledgers, account books and other items.
The Bibliography Project is an ongoing project, started in 2012 and is intended to create a comprehensive database that catalogues and describes the numerous resources, including children’s books, written about George Washington. Once completed, the project will provide users with access to material that will describe the context and meaning of each text that portrays George Washington; the Martha Washington Papers project was launched in July 2015 and will collect correspondence sent to and from the First Lady, a task made difficult by the fact that she burned much of her correspondence with Washington following his death. The Washington Papers intend to publish her correspondence in a two-volume print edition. Work on the Barbados Diary project began in the summer of 2015; the project will transcribe George Washington’s ship log and diary from his journey to Barbados with his brother Lawrence in 1751. Once completed, the material and its annotations will be available in both digital and letterpress editions The Washington Papers has organized several outreach projects, several of which are aimed at educating primary and secondary students.
Two examples of these programs include the Day by Day project, which shows users what George Washington was doing on a particular day, the Teacher Internship p
An ahnentafel or ahnenreihe is a genealogical numbering system for listing a person's direct ancestors in a fixed sequence of ascent. The subject of the ahnentafel is listed as No. 1, the subject's father as No. 2 and the mother as No. 3, the paternal grandparents as No. 4 and No. 5 and the maternal grandparents as No. 6 and No. 7, so on, back through the generations. Apart from No. 1, who can be male or female, all even-numbered persons are male, all odd-numbered persons are female. In this schema, the number of any person's father is double the person's number, a person's mother is double the person's number plus one. Using this definition of numeration, one can derive some basic information about individuals who are listed without additional research; this construct displays a person's genealogy compactly, without the need for a diagram such as a family tree. It is useful in situations where one may be restricted to presenting a genealogy in plain text, for example, in e-mails or newsgroup articles.
In effect, an ahnentafel is a method for storing a binary tree in an array by listing the nodes in level-order. The ahnentafel system of numeration is known as: the Eytzinger Method, for Michaël Eytzinger, the Austrian-born historian who first published the principles of the system in 1590. An ahnentafel list is sometimes called a "Kekulé" after Stephan Kekulé von Stradonitz. To find out what someone's number would be without compiling a list, one must first trace how they relate back to the subject or person of interest, meaning one records that someone is the subject's father's mother's mother's father's father's... Once one has done that, one can use two methods. Use the definition that a father's number will be twice that individual's number, or a mother's will be twice plus one, just multiply and add 1 accordingly. For instance, someone can find out what number Sophia of Hanover would be on an ahnentafel of Peter Phillips, she is Phillips's mother's mother's father's father's father's mother's father's father's father's father's father's mother.
So, we multiply and add: 1×2 + 1 = 3 3×2 + 1 = 7 7×2 = 14 14×2 = 28 28×2 = 56 56×2 + 1 = 113 113×2 = 226 226×2 = 452 452×2 = 904 904×2 = 1808 1808×2 = 3616 3616×2 + 1 = 7233Thus, if we were to make an ahnentafel for Peter Phillips, Electress Sophia would be #7233. This is an elegant and concise way to visualize the genealogical chain between the subject and the ancestor. 1. Write down the digit "1", which represents the subject, writing from left to right, write "0" for each "father" and "1" for each "mother" in the relation, ending with the ancestor of interest; the result will be the binary representation of the ancestor's ahnentafel number. Using the Sophia example, there is a translation of the chain of relations into a chain of digits. Sophia = Peter's mother's mother's father's father's father's mother's father's father's father's father's father's mother Sophia = 11100010000012. If needed, convert the ahnentafel number from its binary to its decimal form. Sophia = 1110001000001 Sophia = 7233 We can work backwards and find what the relation is from the number.
One starts out by seeing. If it is odd, the last part of the relation is "mother," so subtract 1 and divide by 2. If it is the last part is "father," and one divides by 2. Repeat steps 2–3, build back from the last word. Once one gets to 1, one is done. On an ahnentafel of Prince William, John Wark is number 116. We follow the steps: We reverse that, we get that #116, John Wark, is Prince William's mother's mother's father's mother's father's father. 1. Convert the ahnentafel number from decimal to binary. John Wark = 116 John Wark = 11101002. Replace the leftmost "1" with the subject's name and replace each following "0" and "1" with "father" and "mother" respectively. John Wark = 1110100 John Wark = Prince William's mother's mother's father's mother's father's father The generation number can be calculated as the logarithm to base 2 of the ahnentafel number, rounding down to a full integer by truncating decimal digits. For example, the number 38 is between 25=32 and 26=64, so log2 is between 5 and 6.
This means that ancestor no.38 belongs to generation five, was a great-great-great-grandparent of the reference person, no.1. The example, shown below, is an ahnentafel of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, listing all of his ancestors up to his fourth great-grandparents. Prince William, Duke of Cambridge Charles, Prince of Wales Diana, Princess of Wales Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom et al. Edward Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer Frances Roche Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark Princess Alice of Battenberg George VI, King of the United Kingdom et al. Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother Albert Spencer, 7th Earl Spencer Cynthia Hamilton (16
George Washington was an American political leader, military general and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. He led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War of Independence, he presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the new federal government, he has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation. Washington received his initial military training and command with the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War, he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and was named a delegate to the Continental Congress, where he was appointed Commanding General of the nation's Continental Army. Washington allied with France, in the defeat of the British at Yorktown. Once victory for the United States was in hand in 1783, Washington resigned his commission. Washington played a key role in the adoption and ratification of the Constitution and was elected president by the Electoral College in the first two elections.
He implemented a strong, well-financed national government while remaining impartial in a fierce rivalry between cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. During the French Revolution, he proclaimed a policy of neutrality while sanctioning the Jay Treaty, he set enduring precedents for the office of president, including the title "President of the United States", his Farewell Address is regarded as a pre-eminent statement on republicanism. Washington utilized slave labor and trading African American slaves, but he became troubled with the institution of slavery and freed them in his 1799 will, he was a member of the Anglican Church and the Freemasons, he urged tolerance for all religions in his roles as general and president. Upon his death, he was eulogized as "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen." He has been memorialized by monuments, geographical locations and currency, many scholars and polls rank him among the top American presidents. Washington's great-grandfather John Washington immigrated in 1656 from Sulgrave, England to the British Colony of Virginia where he accumulated 5,000 acres of land, including Little Hunting Creek on the Potomac River.
George Washington was born February 22, 1732 at Popes Creek in Westmoreland County and was the first of six children of Augustine and Mary Ball Washington. His father was a justice of the peace and a prominent public figure who had three additional children from his first marriage to Jane Butler; the family moved to Little Hunting Creek to Ferry Farm near Fredericksburg, Virginia. When Augustine died in 1743, Washington inherited ten slaves. Washington did not have the formal education that his older brothers received at Appleby Grammar School in England, but he did learn mathematics and surveying, he was talented in draftsmanship and map-making. By early adulthood, he was writing with "considerable force" and "precision."Washington visited Mount Vernon and Belvoir, the plantation that belonged to Lawrence's father-in-law William Fairfax, which fueled ambition for the lifestyle of the planter aristocracy. Fairfax became Washington's patron and surrogate father, Washington spent a month in 1748 with a team surveying Fairfax's Shenandoah Valley property.
He received a surveyor's license the following year from the College of Mary. He resigned from the job in 1750 and had bought 1,500 acres in the Valley, he owned 2,315 acres by 1752. In 1751, Washington made his only trip abroad when he accompanied Lawrence to Barbados, hoping that the climate would cure his brother's tuberculosis. Washington contracted smallpox during that trip, which immunized him but left his face scarred. Lawrence died in 1752, Washington leased Mount Vernon from his widow. Lawrence's service as adjutant general of the Virginia militia inspired Washington to seek a commission, Virginia's Lieutenant Governor Robert Dinwiddie appointed him as a major in December 1752 and as commander of one of the four militia districts; the British and French were competing for control of the Ohio Valley at the time, the British building forts along the Ohio River and the French doing between Lake Erie and the Ohio River. In October 1753, Dinwiddie appointed Washington as a special envoy to demand that the French vacate territory which the British had claimed.
Dinwiddie appointed him to make peace with the Iroquois Confederacy and to gather intelligence about the French forces. Washington met with Half-King Tanacharison and other Iroquois chiefs at Logstown to secure their promise of support against the French, his party reached the Ohio River in November, they were intercepted by a French patrol and escorted to Fort Le Boeuf where Washington was received in a friendly manner. He delivered the British demand to vacate to French commander Saint-Pierre, but the French refused to leave. Saint-Pierre gave Washington his official answer in a sealed envelope after a few days' delay, he gave Washington's party food and extra winter clothing for the trip back to Virginia. Washington completed the precarious mission in 77 days in difficult winter conditions and achieved a measure of distinction when his report was published in Virginia and London. In February 1754, Dinwiddie promoted Washington to lieutenant colonel and second-in-command of the 300-strong Virginia R
Mount Vernon Conference
The Mount Vernon Conference was a meeting of delegates from Virginia and Maryland held March 21–28, 1785, to discuss navigational rights in the states' common waterways. On March 28, 1785, the group drew up a thirteen-point proposal to govern the two states' rights on the Potomac River, Pocomoke River, Chesapeake Bay. Known as the Mount Vernon Compact, formally titled as the Compact of 1785, this agreement not only covered tidewater navigation but extended to issues such as toll duties, commerce regulations, fishing rights, debt collection. Ratified by the legislature of both states, the compact helped set a precedent for meetings between states for discussions into areas of mutual concern; the circumstances that led to the conference began as the country emerged victorious from the Revolutionary War. Lacking an effective central government under the Articles of Confederation, the states quarreled among themselves, some established proprietary regulations and currency. To ensure mutually profitable commerce on their shared waterways, the Virginia and Maryland legislatures recognized the need for an agreement between the two states regarding the jurisdiction of the waters.
This awareness led to the chartering of the Potomac Company to make improvements to the Potomac River and improve its navigability beyond its fall line for commerce. The company's goal was the linking of the East Coast with the trans-Appalachian northwest; the conference was scheduled to begin March 21, 1785, in Alexandria, Virginia. Maryland delegates included Samuel Chase, Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer, Thomas Stone. From Virginia, Alexander Henderson and George Mason attended. None of Virginia's delegates were present. George Washington, corresponding with Thomas Stone about the conference, offered them the hospitality of his Mount Vernon estate in Fairfax County, while they waited, offered to host the gathering itself. Although not an official participant, Washington—with his authoritative knowledge of the issues and active interest in Potomac navigation—inspired the delegates and lent considerable prestige to the proceedings; the conference reconvened at Mount Vernon on March 1785, with Washington presiding.
Maryland's representatives were empowered to discuss with Virginia shared concerns involving the Potomac and Pocomoke Rivers, the Chesapeake Bay. However, the Virginia legislature's instructions to its appointees focused on the Potomac. Nonetheless, common ground was found, on March 28, a final report was prepared for the two state legislatures; the report was ratified by both Maryland and Virginia. It declared the Potomac, under Maryland's sole jurisdiction, to be a common waterway for use by Virginia as well, it provided for reciprocal fishing rights, dividing the costs of constructing navigation aids, cooperation on defense and cases of piracy. It called for commissioners to deal with any future problems that might arise. Political leaders in Pennsylvania and Delaware were invited to join the agreement as well; the Mount Vernon Conference became a model of interstate cooperation outside the framework of the Articles of Confederation. Its success encouraged James Madison to advocate for further discussions on constitutional issues facing the states.
He had little to show for efforts to get Virginia's delegates in the Continental Congress to seek expanded powers to deal with trade issues. Instead, he introduced a proposal in the Virginia General Assembly to act on the suggestion of the Compact commissioners for further debate of interstate issues. With Maryland's agreement, on January 21, 1786, Virginia invited all the states to attend another meeting on commercial issues, the ground-breaking Annapolis Convention; this second interstate political convention, formally titled "A Meeting of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government", convened at George Mann's Tavern held in Annapolis, Maryland, on September 11, 1786. Delegates from five states gathered to discuss ways to facilitate commerce between the states and establish standard rules and regulations; as a result of the gathering, commissioners called for there to be another constitutional convention at which possible improvements to the Articles could be discussed. The desired convention took place in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787.
The meetings at Annapolis and Mount Vernon together paved the way for the Philadelphia convention, which further strengthened the concept of interstate cooperation and resulted in a new federal Constitution. There, Gouverneur Morris of Pennsylvania made oblique reference to the success of the Mount Vernon Conference. In 1908, a government commission associated these related events more closely; the earliest movement toward developing the inland waterways of the country began when, under the influence of George Washington and Maryland appointed commissioners to consider the navigation and improvement of the Potomac. There the deliberations resulted in the framing of the Constitution, whereby the thirteen original States were united on a commercial basis — the commerce of the times being chiefly by water
Valley Forge functioned as the third of eight military encampments for the Continental Army's main body, commanded by General George Washington. In September 1777, British forces had captured the American capital of Philadelphia. After failing to retake the city, Washington led his 12,000-man army into winter quarters at Valley Forge, located 18 miles northwest of Philadelphia, they remained there for six months, from December 19, 1777 to June 19, 1778. At Valley Forge, the Continentals struggled to manage a disastrous supply crisis while retraining and reorganizing their units. About 1,700 to 2,000 soldiers died due to disease exacerbated by malnutrition. Today, Valley Forge National Historical Park preserves and protects over 3,500 acres of the original encampment site. In 1777, Valley Forge consisted of a small proto-industrial community located at the juncture of the Valley Creek and the Schuylkill River. In 1742, Quaker industrialists established the Mount Joy Iron Forge. Thanks to capital improvements made by John Potts and his family over the following decades, the small community expanded the ironworks, established mills, constructed new dwellings for residents.
Surrounding the valley was a rich farmland, where Welsh-Quaker farmers grew wheat, hay, Indian corn, among other crops, raised livestock including cattle, sheep and barnyard fowl. Settlers of German and Swedish descent lived nearby. In the summer of 1777 the Continental Army's quartermaster general, Thomas Mifflin, decided to station a portion of his army's supplies in outbuildings around the forges, due to its variety of structures and secluded location between two prominent hills. Fearing such a concentration of military supplies would undoubtedly attract the British, the forge-ironmaster, William Dewees Jr. expressed concerns about the army's proposal. Mifflin established a magazine at Valley Forge anyway. After the British landing at Head of Elk, Maryland on August 25, 1777, the British Army maneuvered out of the Chesapeake basin and towards Valley Forge. Following the Battle of Brandywine and the abortive Battle of the Clouds, on September 18 several hundred soldiers under General Wilhelm von Knyphausen raided the supply magazine at Valley Forge.
Despite the best efforts of Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Hamilton and Captain Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee, the two Continental army officers selected to evacuate the supplies from Valley Forge, Crown soldiers captured supplies, destroyed others, burned down the forges and other buildings. Political and environmental factors all influenced the Continental Army's decision to establish their encampment near Valley Forge, Pennsylvania in the winter of 1777-1778. Washington conferred with his officers to select the site that would be most advantageous to his army. Washington first asked his generals where to quarter the Continental Army in the winter of 1777–1778 on October 29, 1777. In addition to suggestions from his officers, Washington had to contend with the recommendations of politicians. Pennsylvania state legislators and the Continental Congress expected the Continental Army to select an encampment site that could protect the countryside around Philadelphia; some members of the Continental Congress believed that the army might be able to launch a winter campaign.
Interested parties suggested other sites for an encampment, including Lancaster and Wilmington, Delaware. However, following the inconclusive Battle of Whitemarsh from December 5–8, increasing numbers of officers and politicians began to appreciate the need to defend the greater Philadelphia region from British incursions. Considering these questions, an encampment at Valley Forge had notable advantages. Valley Forge's high terrain meant, its location allowed for soldiers to be detached to protect the countryside. Proximity to the Schuylkill River could facilitate supply movements down the river. Wide, open areas provided space for training. On December 19, Washington conducted his 12,000-man army to Valley Forge to establish the encampment; the encampment was situated along the high, flat ground east of Mount Joy and south of the Schuylkill River. In addition to a concentration of soldiers at Valley Forge, Washington ordered nearly 2,000 soldiers to encamp at Wilmington, Delaware, he posted the army's mounted troops at Trenton, New Jersey, additional outposts at Downingtown and Radnor, among other places.
In the two winter encampments prior to Valley Forge, the Continental army had sheltered themselves in a combination of tents, constructed huts, civilian barns and other buildings. Valley Forge would mark the first time Washington ordered the army concentrated into a more permanent post where they constructed their own shelters; this strategic shift encouraged a whole new host of problems for the American Patriots. The Valley Forge encampment became the Continental Army's first large-scale construction of living quarters. While no accurate account exists for the exact number of log huts built, experts estimate a range between 1,300-1,600 structures. Brigadier General Louis Lebègue de Presle Duportail selected grounds for the brigade encampments and planned the defenses. Afterwards, brigadier generals appointed officers from each regiment to mark out the precise spot for every officer and all enlisted men's huts. Despite commanders' attempts at standardization, the huts varied in terms of size and construction techniques.
Military historian John B. B. Trussell Jr. writes that many squads "dug their floors two feet below ground level," to reduce
1788–89 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1788–89 was the first quadrennial presidential election. It was held, from December 15, 1788 to January 10, 1789, under the new Constitution ratified in 1788. George Washington was unanimously elected for the first of his two terms as president, John Adams became the first vice president. Under the Articles of Confederation, ratified in 1781, the United States had no head of state. Separation of the executive function of government from the legislative was incomplete, as in countries that use a parliamentary system. Federal power limited, was reserved to the Congress of the Confederation, whose "President of the United States in Congress Assembled" was chair of the Committee of the States, which aimed to fulfill a function similar to that of the modern Cabinet; the Constitution created the offices of President and Vice President separating these offices from Congress. The Constitution established an Electoral College, based on each state's Congressional representation, in which each elector would cast two votes for two different candidates, a procedure modified in 1804 by ratification of the Twelfth Amendment.
Different states had varying methods for choosing presidential electors. In five states, the state legislature chose electors; the other six chose electors through some form involving a popular vote, though in only two states did the choice depend directly on a statewide vote in a way roughly resembling the modern method in all states. The enormously popular Washington was distinguished as the former Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. After he agreed to exit retirement, it was known. Washington did not select a running mate. No formal political parties existed, though an informally organized consistent difference of opinion manifested between Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Thus, the contest for the Vice-Presidency was open. Thomas Jefferson predicted that a popular Northern leader like Governor John Hancock of Massachusetts or John Adams, a former minister to Great Britain who had represented Massachusetts in Congress, would be elected vice president. Anti-Federalist leaders like Patrick Henry, who did not run, George Clinton, who had opposed ratification of the Constitution represented potential choices.
All 69 electors cast one vote for Washington. Adams won the vice presidency; the remaining 35 electoral votes split among 10 different candidates, including John Jay, who finished next with nine electoral votes. Washington was inaugurated in New York City in April 1789 about two months after the First Congress convened. Though no organized political parties yet existed, political opinion loosely divided between those who had more stridently and enthusiastically endorsed ratification of the Constitution, called Federalists or Cosmopolitans, Anti-Federalists or Localists who had only more reluctantly, skeptically, or conditionally supported, or who had outright opposed, ratification. Both factions supported Washington for President. Limited, primitive political campaigning occurred in states and localities where swaying public opinion might matter. For example in Maryland, a state with a statewide popular vote, unofficial parties campaigned locally, advertising platforms in German to appeal and drive turnout by a German-speaking rural population.
Organizers elsewhere lobbied through public forums and banquets. John Adams, former Minister to Great Britain from Massachusetts John Jay, United States Secretary of Foreign Affairs from New York John Rutledge, former Governor of South Carolina John Hancock, Governor of Massachusetts Samuel Huntington, Governor of Connecticut Benjamin Lincoln, former U. S. Secretary of War from Massachusetts George Washington, former Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army from Virginia George Clinton, Governor of New York No nomination process existed; the framers of the Constitution presumed that Washington would be elected unopposed. For example, Alexander Hamilton spoke for national opinion when in a letter to Washington attempting to persuade him to leave retirement on his farm in Mount Vernon to serve as the first President, he wrote that "...the point of light in which you stand at home and abroad will make an infinite difference in the respectability in which the government will begin its operations in the alternative of your being or not being the head of state."
Uncertain was the choice for the vice presidency, which contained no definite job description beyond being the President's designated successor while presiding over the Senate. The Constitution stipulated that the position would be awarded to the runner-up in the Presidential election; because Washington was from Virginia the largest state, many assumed that electors would choose a vice president from a northern state. However, the stipulation that the President and Vice-President must be from different states dates only to the Twelfth Amendment of 1804. In an August 1788 letter, U. S. Minister to France Thomas Jefferson wrote that he considered John Adams and John Hancock, both from Massachusetts, to be the top contenders. Jefferson suggested John Jay, John Rutledge, Virginian James Madison as other possible candidates. Voter turnout comprised a low single-digit percentage of the adult population. Though all states allowed some rudimentary form of popular vote, only six ratifying states allowed any form of popular vote for Presidential electors.
In most states only white men, in many only those who owned property, could vote. Free black men could vote in four Northern states, women could vote in New Jersey until 1807. In some states, there was a nominal religious test fo
Île de Ré
Île de Ré is an island off the west coast of France near La Rochelle, on the northern side of the Pertuis d'Antioche strait. Its highest point has an elevation of 20 metres, it is five kilometres wide. The 2.9 km Île de Ré bridge, completed in 1988, connects it to La Rochelle on the mainland. Administratively, the island is part of the Charente-Maritime département, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine région; the island is a part of the Charente-Maritime's 1st constituency. Located in the arrondissement of La Rochelle, Île de Ré includes two cantons: Saint-Martin-de-Ré eastwards and Ars-en-Ré westwards; the island is divided into 10 communes, from East to West: Rivedoux-Plage, La Flotte, Sainte-Marie-de-Ré, Saint-Martin-de-Ré, Le Bois-Plage-en-Ré, La Couarde-sur-Mer, Ars-en-Ré, Saint-Clément-des-Baleines, Les Portes-en-Ré. During Roman times, Île de Ré was an archipelago consisting of three small islands; the space between the islands was progressively filled by a combination of human activity and silting.
In the seventh and eighth centuries the island, along with Oléron, formed the Vacetae Insulae or Vacetian Islands, according to the Cosmographia. Since Vaceti is another name for the Vascones, this reference is evidence of Basque settlement or control of the islands by that date. In 745, the Duke of Aquitaine, retired to a monastery on the island. In the mid-twelfth century, a Cistercian monastery was founded on the isle, where the Abbot Isaac of Stella sojourned amid the Becket controversy; the island became English in 1154, when Eleanor of Aquitaine became queen of England through her marriage with Henry Plantagenet. The island reverted to France in 1243, when Henry III of England returned it to Saint Louis through a treaty. In 1360, with the Treaty of Bretigny, Île de Ré became English again, until the 1370s. In February 1625, the Protestant Duke of Soubise led a Huguenot revolt against the French king Louis XIII, after publishing a manifesto and occupied the island of Ré, he seized Ré with 100 sailors.
From there he sailed up to Brittany, where he led his successful attack on the royal fleet in Blavet, although he could not take the fort after a three-week siege. Soubise returned to Ré with 15 ships and soon occupied the Ile d'Oléron as well, thus giving him command of the Atlantic coast from Nantes to Bordeaux. Through these actions, he was recognized as the head of the reform, named himself "Admiral of the Protestant Church." A few months in September 1625, Duke of Guise organized a landing in order to recapture the islands, with the support of the Dutch and English navies. The fleet of La Rochelle was defeated, as was Soubise with 3,000 men, when he led a counter-attack against the royal troops who had landed on the island; the island was invested forcing Soubise to flee to England. In 1627, an English invasion force under the command of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham attacked the island in order to relieve the Siege of La Rochelle. After three months of combat in the Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré against the French under Marshal Toiras, the Duke was forced to withdraw.
The English lost 5,000 out of 7,000 troops during the campaign. The main port, Saint-Martin, was fortified by Vauban in 1681 as a component of the belt of forts and citadels built to protect the military harbour of Rochefort, it was used as a depot for convicts on their way to the penal settlements of New Caledonia and French Guiana. Prisoners included Alfred Dreyfus, en route to the penal colony of Devil's Island after his conviction for treason; the old city of Saint-Martin, within the walls of the citadel, was added in 2008 to the World Heritage Site list, along with 11 others Fortifications of Vauban across France. During World War II, the beaches of the Île de Ré were fortified by German forces with bunkers, in order to block a possible seaward invasion. Many of the bunkers are still visible, in a less derelict state. Several scenes of the 1962 movie The Longest Day were filmed on the beaches of the island. In 1987, a three-kilometre bridge was built to connect the island to the mainland.
The island was connected through roll-on roll-off ferries, which could accommodate vehicles and passengers. In peak summer time periods, the waiting time to board a ship could reach several hours; the bridge was built by Bouygues. Since tourism on the island has developed with real estate prices reaching high levels; the easier transportation system has stimulated the purchase of holiday homes by people from as far as Paris, who can visit for week-ends in spring and summer. Using the bridge requires the payment of a toll and makes it the most expensive road to use per kilometre in France; the Paris-La Rochelle high-speed train trip takes just three hours, taxis or buses can be taken to the island. Île de Ré can be reached from Paris by plane. It takes only 45 minutes to fly from Paris to La Rochelle airport, five minutes from the bridge, assuming no traffic delay; the area is a popular tourist destination. It has the same number of hours of sunshine as the southern coast of France; the island has a constant light breeze, the water temperature is cool.
The island is surrounded with sloping, sandy beaches. The island has a winter resident population of 20,000 residents and a summer resident population of about 220,000. Since the local population is distributed all over the island, it gets crowded; the island has a network o