Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
Anchor Bay High School
Anchor Bay High School is a four-year secondary school located in Fair Haven, it is part of the Anchor Bay School District. The former high school in Chesterfield Township was converted to a middle school when the new high school opened at the beginning of the 2003-04 school year; the demographic breakdown of the 1,938 students enrolled in 2014-15 was: Male - 49.6% Female - 50.4% Native American/Alaskan - 0.1% Asian/Pacific islanders - 0.9% Black - 3.4% Hispanic - 2.5% White - 89.7% Multiracial - 3.4%23.9% of the students were eligible for free or reduced lunch. The Anchor Bay Tars compete in the Macomb Area Conference; the school colors are white. The following MHSAA sanctioned sports are offered: Butch Hartman, cartoon animator Greg Janicki, professional soccer player Ken Pavés, celebrity hair stylist Kathleen Rose Perkins, actress Taiwan Jones, NFL linebacker Anchor Bay High School Official website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Macomb County, Michigan
Macomb County is a county located in the eastern portion of the U. S. is part of metro Detroit. As of the 2010 census, the population was 840,978, making it the third-most populous county in the state. Of Michigan's five largest counties, Macomb experienced the most population growth between 1950 and 1960; the county seat is Mt. Clemens. Macomb County is part of MI Metropolitan Statistical Area; the city of Detroit is located south of the county's southern border. Macomb County contains 27 cities and villages, including three of the top ten most populous municipalities in Michigan as of the 2010 census: Warren, Sterling Heights and Clinton Township. Most of this population is concentrated south of Hall one of the county's main thoroughfares; the Ojibwe lived in the area for centuries before European contact, were preceded by other cultures of ancient indigenous peoples. The first European explorers were French, they arrived in the area during the 17th century. Other early settlers were French fur trappers, who sometimes married Ojibwe women, Jesuit missionaries.
A Moravian colony was established in the county in the late 18th century. In addition to the original French and English settlers immigrants included Germans and others from Europe. In the 19th century the county received many American migrants from New York and New England, who were attracted to the area for land and booming jobs in the lumber and other resource industries. Macomb County was formally organized on January 15, 1818 as the third county in the Michigan territory; the county was named in honor of Detroit-born Alexander Macomb, Jr. a decorated veteran of the War of 1812 and hero of the Battle of Plattsburg. He was made Commanding General of the U. S. Army in 1828; as was typical in development, it first encompassed a much larger area than at present. As population increased, the legislature removed territory in 1819 and 1820 to form the counties of Oakland, Genesee, St. Clair. In May 2008, Macomb County voters approved the inclusion of a County Executive in a new charter to be submitted to the voters by 2010.
A charter commission was elected in November 2008 for the purpose of drafting a charter for submission to Governor Granholm, submitted and approved and placed on the November 2009 ballot. The Charter passed with a 60.4% to 39.6% margin. Mark Hackel was voted in as Macomb's first county executive. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 571 square miles, of which 479 square miles is land and 92 square miles is water; the county's southeastern border with Canada is located across Lake St. Clair. Lake St. Clair borders the county on the east. Far northern parts of the county, such as Richmond and Armada, are considered to be part of Michigan's Thumb region. Lambton County, Canada - southeast St. Clair County, Michigan - northeast Lapeer County, Michigan - northwest Oakland County, Michigan - west Wayne County, Michigan - south As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 840,978 people residing in the county. 85.4% were White, 8.6% Black or African American, 3.0% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% of some other race and 2.1% of two or more races.
2.3% were Hispanic or Latino. 14.8 % were of 14.3 % Polish, 11.1 % Italian, 6.5 % Irish and 5.9 % American ancestry. In 2000, 87.6% of county residents spoke only English at home. Among Asian ethnic groups, six numbered over 1,000 people in Macomb County; the most numerous were the 5,713 Southeast Asian Indians, followed by Filipinos, Koreans Vietnamese, Hmong. Pakistanis are represented in Macomb County's population. European and Mid-Eastern national and ethnic groups that have settled in Macomb County since the 20th century include Albanians, Arabs and Macedonians. Native American tribes had over 2,478 residents in Macomb County in 2000. In 2000, there were 309,203 households out of which 31.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.30% were married couples living together, 10.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.80% were non-families. 26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.09.
In 2000, the age distribution of the county was as follows: 24.10% under the age of 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 31.50% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $52,102, the median income for a family was $62,816. Males had a median income of $48,303 versus $30,215 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,446. About 4.00% of families and 5.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.00% of those under age 18 and 6.40% of those age 65 or over. According to the 2006 American Community Survey the average family size was 3.15. The population of 25 and over was 571,463. 86.9% of that population had graduated from high school, 21% of the population had a Bachelor's degree or higher. About 14.3% of that population was disabled. 12.5% of Macomb's population could speak another language at home.
Macomb County is home to more than 130 parks covering 12,000 acres managed by the state, regional and local government. There are four major public parks in the County - Freedom Hill County Park, Macomb Orchard Trail, Lake St. Clai
St. Clair County, Michigan
St. Clair County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan bordering the west bank of the St. Clair River; as of the 2010 census, the population was 163,040. It is the 13th-most populous county in the state; the county seat is Port Huron, located at the north end of the St. Clair River at Lake Huron; the county was created September 10, 1820, its government was organized in 1821. Located northeast of Detroit, St. Clair County is part of the Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI Metropolitan Statistical Area. Geographically, it lies in the Thumb area of eastern Michigan. An expedition led by the French explorer René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle named the namesake lake as Lac Sainte-Claire, because the Roman Catholic men entered the lake on August 12, 1679, the feast day of Sainte Clare of Assisi. English maps identified the lake feature on maps as early as 1710 as Saint Clare. By the Mitchell Map of 1755, the spelling was given as St. Clair, the current version. Located along the western shores of Lake Saint Clair and the St. Clair River, the county was named for them.
The name is sometimes attributed to honoring Arthur St. Clair, an American Revolutionary War General and Governor of the Northwest Territory, but it was established with the current spelling long before St. Clair was considered a notable figure; the earlier spelling of the lake's name may have been conflated with that of the general, as several political jurisdictions near the lake and the river, such as St. Clair County, St. Clair Township, the cities of St. Clair and St. Clair Shores, share this spelling. See List of Michigan county name etymologies; the name has sometimes been attributed to honoring Patrick Sinclair, a British officer who purchased land on the St. Clair River at the mouth of the Pine River. In 1764, he built Fort Sinclair there, in use for nearly 20 years before being abandoned. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 837 square miles, of which 721 square miles is land and 115 square miles is water. St. Clair County is one of five counties that form the peninsula, known as the Thumb, that projects into Lake Huron.
St. Clair County is connected in terms of economy with its neighbors, Metropolitan Detroit and Sanilac County in Michigan, Lambton County across the river in Ontario, Canada. Saint Clair County is the principal county in a sub-region of the Thumb. Sanilac County Lapeer County Macomb County Lambton County, Ontario I-69 enters the county from the west, coming from Lansing and Flint, terminating at the approach to the Blue Water Bridge in Port Huron. I-94 enters St. Clair County from the southwest, having traversed the entire Metro Detroit region, terminates at the approach to the Blue Water Bridge in Port Huron. On the Canadian side of the border, in Sarnia, the route heads easterly designated as Highway 402. BL I-69 BL I-94 M-19 M-25 follows the Lake Huron–Saginaw Bay shoreline, beginning in Bay City and ending at a junction with |I-94/|I-69, BL I-94/BL I-69 on the north side of Port Huron. M-29 M-136 M-154 serves Harsen's Island, in Lake St. Clair; the 2010 United States Census indicates St. Clair County had a 2010 population of 163,040.
This is a decrease of -1,195 people from the 2000 United States Census. Overall, the county had a -0.7% growth rate during this ten-year period. In 2010 there were 63,841 households and 44,238 families in the county; the population density was 226.1 per square mile. There were 71,822 housing units at an average density of 99.6 per square mile. 93.9% were White, 2.4% Black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.4% Native American, 0.7% of some other race and 2.0% of two or more races. 2.9% were Hispanic or Latino. 25.9% identified as of German, 10.2% Polish, 9.3% Irish, 8.5% English, 6.5% French, 6.5% American, 5.1% Italian ancestry. There were 63,841 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.9% were husband and wife families, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.7% were non-families, 25.5% were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.7% under age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 23.8% from 25 to 44, 30.1% from 45 to 64, 14.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.7 males. The 2010 American Community Survey 1-year estimate indicates the median income for a household in the county was $44,369 and the median income for a family was $53,207. Males had a median income of $30,056 versus $16,771 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,390. About 10.4% of families and 15.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.7% of those under the age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over. The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services; the county board of commissioners controls the budget but has only limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships.
Prosecuting Attorney: Michael D. Wendling Sheriff: Tim Donnellon County Clerk/Register of Deeds: Jay DeBoyer County Treasurer: Ke
Institute of Education Sciences
The Institute of Education Sciences is the independent, non-partisan statistics and evaluation arm of the U. S. Department of Education. IES' stated mission is to provide scientific evidence on which to ground education practice and policy and to share this information in formats that are useful and accessible to educators, policymakers and the public, it was created as part of the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002. The first director of IES was Grover Whitehurst, appointed in November 2002 and served for six years. Dr. Mark Schneider is the Director of IES. IES is divided into four major research and statistics centers: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance —NCEE conducts large-scale evaluations and provides research-based technical assistance and information about high-quality research to educators and policymakers in a variety of different formats. NCEE's work includes evaluations of education practices supported by federal funds. Dr. Matthew Soldner is the Commissioner of NCEE.
National Center for Education Research —NCER supports research to improve student outcomes and education quality in the United States and pursue workable solutions to the challenges faced by educators and the education community. NCER supports training programs to prepare researchers to conduct high quality, scientific education research. Dr. Elizabeth Albro is the Commissioner of NCER. National Center for Education Statistics —NCES is the primary federal entity that collects and analyzes data related to education in the United States and other nations. Among the programs and initiatives that NCES oversees is the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Dr. James Lynn Woodworth is the Commissioner of NCES. National Center for Special Education Research —NCSER sponsors and supports comprehensive research, designed to expand the knowledge and understanding of infants and children with disabilities, or those who are at risk of developing disabilities. NCSER supports training programs to prepare researchers to conduct high quality, scientific special education research.
Dr. Joan E. McLaughlin is the commissioner of NCSER; the National Board for Education Sciences serves as an advisory board for IES and has 15 voting members, who are appointed by the President of the United States. The Board includes several ex-officio, non-voting members, including the director of IES, the commissioners of the four centers, representatives of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the U. S. Census Bureau, the U. S. Department of Labor, the National Science Foundation; the Board advises and consults with the director and the commissioners to identify research and organizational priorities for IES. Dr. Larry Hedges, of Northwestern University, is the chairman of the National Board for Education Sciences. Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations Institute of Education Sciences Official Website National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance Website