Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
The Clarion-Ledger is an American daily newspaper in Jackson, Mississippi. It is the second oldest company in the state of Mississippi and is one of only a few newspapers in the nation that continues to circulate statewide, it is an operating division of Gannett River States Publishing Corporation, owned by Gannett Company. The paper traces its roots to The Eastern Clarion, founded in Jasper County, Mississippi, in 1837; that year, it was sold and moved to Meridian, Mississippi. After the American Civil War, it was merged with The Standard, it soon became known as The Clarion. Four employees who were displaced by the merger founded their own newspaper, The Jackson Evening Post, in 1882. In 1888, The Clarion became known as the Daily Clarion-Ledger. In 1907, Fred Sullens purchased an interest in the competing The Jackson Evening Post, shortly after changed the name to the Jackson Daily News, it still remained an evening newspaper. Thomas and Robert Hederman bought the Daily Clarion-Ledger in 1920 and dropped "Daily" from its masthead.
On August 24, 1937, The Clarion-Ledger and Jackson Daily News incorporated under a charter issued to Mississippi Publishers Corporation for the purpose of selling joint advertising. On August 7, 1954, the Jackson Daily News sold out to its rival, The Clarion-Ledger, for $2,250,000 despite a recent court ruling that blocked The Clarion-Ledger owners from controlling both papers; the Hederman family now consolidated the two newspaper plants. In 1982, the Hedermans sold the Clarion-Ledger and Daily News to Gannett, ending 60 years of family ownership. Gannett merged the two papers into a single morning paper under the Clarion-Ledger masthead, with the Clarion-Ledger incorporating the best features of the Daily News; the purchase of both papers by Gannett created a daily newspaper monopoly in Central Mississippi, which still exists. Both newspapers—The Clarion-Ledger and the Jackson Daily News—were and unashamedly racist by Deep South standards. In 1890, after Mississippi Democrats adopted a new state constitution to disenfranchise black voters, The Clarion-Ledger applauded the move, stating: "Do not object to negroes voting on account of ignorance, but on account of color....
If every negro in Mississippi was a class graduate of Harvard, had been elected class orator... he would not be as well fitted to exercise the rights of suffrage as the Anglo-Saxon farm laborer."When 200,000 people marched on Washington in 1963 to urge "jobs and freedom" for black people and Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his famous "I Have A Dream" speech, The Clarion-Ledger made short note of the rally but reported the litter-clearance effort the next day under the headline, "Washington is Clean Again with Negro Trash Removed". Earlier that year, when the Mississippi State University basketball team was scheduled to play the Loyola University Chicago Ramblers, whose starting lineup featured four African-American players, in the NCAA tournament, the Jackson Daily News prominently featured pictures of the four black players in an effort to scare the Bulldogs from playing the Ramblers. At the time, longstanding state policy forbade state collegiate athletic teams from playing in integrated events.
The ploy backfired, as the Bulldogs ignored the threat and defied an order from Governor Ross Barnett to face the eventual national champion Ramblers in an important, but overlooked, milestone of progress in race relations in sports. The paper referred to civil rights activists as "communists" and "chimpanzees." The paper's racism was so virulent that it prompted some in the African-American community to call it "The Klan-Ledger". When violence, aided by such rabble rousing, took place in Mississippi, the paper sought to put the blame somewhere else; when Byron De La Beckwith was arrested for killing NAACP leader Medgar Evers, the headline read, "Californian Arrested in Evers Murder", overlooking the fact that Beckwith had lived in Mississippi his whole life. In the mid-1970s, Rea S. Hederman, the third generation of his family to run the paper, made a concerted effort to atone for its terrible civil rights record. Hederman expanded the news budget. Editors began to pursue promising young reporters from other states.
To help rehabilitate the paper's image among blacks, who became a majority of Jackson's population, the paper increased coverage of blacks and increased its black staff. When Gannett bought the newspaper, the new leadership ramped up efforts to purge the paper's segregationist legacy. Gannett has long been well known for promoting diversity in the newsroom and covering events in communities of racial and ethnic minorities. By 1991, the Clarion-Ledger's number of newsroom black professionals was three times the national average and the paper had one of the few black managing editors in the U. S. Ronnie Agnew became the Managing Editor in February 2001. In October 2002, he became. In 1983, The Clarion-Ledger won the coveted Pulitzer Prize for Public Service for a package of stories on Mississippi's education system. Erle Johnston The Clarion-Ledger The Clarion-Ledger mobile website News Wars: The Rise and Fall of The Clarion-Ledger
Robert Bruce "Bob" Atwood was the long-time editor and publisher of the Anchorage Times, a proponent of Alaska statehood. Robert Bruce Atwood, known as Bob Atwood or Robert Atwood, was born March 31, 1907 in Chicago, Illinois, he graduated from Clark University, in 1932, married social worker Evangeline Rasmuson. They had two daughters and Elaine. Atwood moved to Anchorage, Alaska in 1935. With the help of his father-in-law, he purchased the struggling Anchorage Daily Times. Under his guidance, it became Alaska's largest daily newspaper. In 1949, the Alaska Territorial Legislature formed the Alaska Statehood Committee, appointing Atwood as Chairman, his pro-statehood lobbying efforts included visits to Washington, D. C. and a steady stream of articles in his newspaper, such as a 1955 editorial where he argued that whereas commonwealth status was "wonderful" for Puerto Rico, "it wouldn't give Alaskans self-government, control of resources, tax exemptions or any of a number of benefits claimed by its supporters here."
In 1954, Atwood partnered with brother-in-law Elmer E. Rasmuson to invest in the lease of potential oil fields on the Kenai Peninsula; the investment was to yield a fortune after Richfield Oil discovered oil in 1957 near the Swanson River. On June 30, 1958, the United States Senate passed the bill admitting Alaska into the Union. Atwood's Anchorage Daily Times celebrated with a headline in six-inch type: “WE’RE IN.” On January 3, 1959, Atwood was present in the White House Cabinet Room when President Dwight Eisenhower signed the proclamation that made Alaska the 49th state admitted into the United States. In 1962, Atwood endowed the Atwood Foundation to promote the arts. In 1979, he established the Atwood Chair of Journalism at the University of Alaska Anchorage. In 1987, Atwood's wife, Evangeline Rasmuson Atwood, died; the Alaska Center for the Performing Arts was constructed in 1989, with the largest performance space designated as the Evangeline Atwood Concert Hall. In 1990, Robert Atwood stepped down as editor and sold the Anchorage Times to Bill Allen of petroleum services giant VECO.
Atwood's daughter Marilyn died in 1994. Robert B. Atwood died on January 10, 1997. At the time of his death, Robert Atwood was collaborating with journalist John Strohmeyer on a biography. After Atwood's death, Strohmeyer completed the work under the title Alaska Titan, but before it could be published, Atwood's daughter, sued to prevent it from being distributed. In 1999, Strohmeyer and Elaine Atwood entered into an agreement giving Elaine Atwood two years to produce her own biography, to be entitled Bob Atwood's Alaska. Bob Atwood's Alaska did not appear until after Elaine Atwood's death in 2003. In 1998, the Robert B. Atwood Building at 550 W. Seventh Avenue in Anchorage was named by the Alaska State Legislature; the Atwood name appears in the Atwood Center at Alaska Pacific University. "Atwood family papers and Special Collections, Consortium Library, University of Alaska Anchorage." Profile from the Anchorage Daily News' "Alaska Scrapbook" Profile at "Alaskans for Statehood" "Commonwealth Not For Alaska" Atwood, Robert B.
Bob Atwood's Alaska: The Memoirs of a Legendary Newspaper Man 2003 Atwood Foundation
Marshall Field was an American entrepreneur and the founder of Marshall Field and Company, the Chicago-based department stores. His business was renowned for its then-exceptional level of customer service. Field is known for some of his philanthropic donations, providing funding for the Field Museum of Natural History and donating land for the campus of the University of Chicago. Marshall Field was born on a farm in Conway, Franklin County, the son of John Field IV and wife Fidelia Nash, his family was descended from Puritans who had come to America as early as 1650. At the age of 17, he moved to Pittsfield, Berkshire County, where he first worked in a dry goods store, he left Massachusetts at the age of 18 for new opportunities in the expanding West. In 1856, at age 21, he went to live with his brother in Chicago and obtained employment at leading dry goods merchant Cooley, Wadsworth & Co., to become Cooley, Farwell & Co. in 1857. Field rose through the ranks of Cooley, Farwell & Co. In 1862 for financial reasons Cooley left the firm.
That same year Field purchased the firm reorganized as Farwell, Field & Co.. John V. Farwell appreciated Field's keen business acumen. Field's stuffy efficiency rode on Farwell's more cheery demeanor. At a time when business collaboration entailed extensive personal interaction, this partnership wouldn't last long. In January 1865, Field and a partner, Levi Leiter, accepted an offer to become senior partners at the dry goods establishment of Potter Palmer; the new firm became known as "Field, Leiter & Co." In 1867, after Field and Leiter could afford to buy him out, Palmer withdrew from the firm, it was renamed "Field, Leiter & Company." In 1867 Field, Leiter & Company reported revenues of $12 million. Like many Chicago businessman, Field's company was badly affected by the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, but reopened quickly; the company survived the Panic of 1873 because of their low levels of debt. By 1881 Field had forced Leiter to sell his share of the business, changed the store's name to "Marshall Field and Company".
Field took an early 19th-century consumer landscape, centered around the principle of caveat emptor, or "buyer beware", transformed it into a plush shopping experience fit for the Gilded Age. Unconditional refunds, consistent pricing and international imports are among the Field innovations that became standards in quality retailing. Field's employees were instructed not to push products on uninterested customers as was common practice in stores of the period; the quotes "Give the lady what she wants" and "The customer is always right" are attributed to Field. Though most famous today for his retail business, during his lifetime his wholesale business made far more money. During the 1880s, Field's wholesale business generated 5 times more revenue than retail annually; the wholesale business had its own landmark building, the Marshall Field's Wholesale Store, erected in 1887. Revenue from the Marshall Field's retail business did not surpass the company's wholesale business until after Field's death.
Field was suspicious of organized labor throughout his career, prohibited unionization among his employees. During the time of the Haymarket Riot, the wives of the defendants initiated an appeal, to which all of the local businessmen agreed except for Field. Journalist and reformer Henry Demarest Lloyd led a national campaign to grant clemency. Bankers like Lyman J. Gage favored clemency, believing that moderation would lead to improved relations between capital and labor. Potter Palmer and Charles Hutchinson were inclined to agree. A number of other men confided to Gage that they were not willing to publicly disagree with Field, the wealthiest and most powerful businessman in Chicago. Field would oppose organized labor during the Teamster's Strike in 1905. Field avoided political and social intrigue, instead focusing on his work and on supporting his family and his favorite philanthropies. Field was a active member of The Commercial Club of Chicago and the Jekyll Island Club aka The Millionaires Club on Jekyll Island, Georgia.
Field married twice. In 1863, he married Nannie Douglas Scott of Ohio, they had two sons and a daughter, but one son, died in 1866 as an infant. The surviving children were Ethel Field, their son, Marshall Jr. married Albertine Huck, they were the parents of Gwendolyn Mary Field, who married Sir Archibald Charles Edmonstone, 6th Baronet. Field's Ethel was married twice: first to Arthur Magie Tree, to whom she bore one son, Ronald Tree, in 1901 to David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty, to whom she bore two sons, David Beatty, 2nd Earl Beatty and Peter. After the death of his first wife Nannie in 1896, Field married longtime friend Delia Spencer, widow Caton, they had no children together. Field died in New York City, New York, on January 16, 1906 at age 71 from a case of pneumonia contracted after playing golf on New Year's Day with his nephew, his secretary and Abraham Lincoln's oldest son Robert Todd Lincoln. Field was buried on January 19, he was interred in the Graceland Cemetery in Chicago. After his death, Field's estate was to be held in trust for 40 years for his two grandsons, Henry Field and Marshall Field III.
In 1905, Field's fortune was valued at $125 million. Henry Field died in 1917 and was thus unable to collect his inheritance, leaving the Field fortune in the hands of Marshall Field III; the Field Museum of Natural History was named after him in 1894 after he gave it an endowment of one million dollars. Field was
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information. It is the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver and display the content for the same; the word "publisher" can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, blogs, video game publishers, the like. Publishing includes the following stages of development: acquisition, copy editing, printing and distribution. Publication is important as a legal concept: As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy As the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation.
Self-publishing: The author has to meet the total expense to get the book published. The author should retain full rights known as vanity publishing. Publishing became possible with the invention of writing, became more practical upon the introduction of printing. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. Due to printing, publishing progressed hand-in-hand with the development of books; the Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his printing. Around 1450, in what is regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould; this invention made books less expensive to produce, more available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before 1501 in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. "A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.
D. 330."Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in 1609, with publishing of magazines following in 1663. Publishing has been handled by publishers, with the history of self-publishing progressing until the advent of computers brought us electronic publishing, made evermore ubiquitous from the moment the world went online with the Internet; the establishment of the World Wide Web in 1989 soon propelled the website into a dominant medium of publishing, as websites are created by anyone with Internet access. The history of wikis started shortly thereafter, followed by the history of blogging. Commercial publishing progressed, as printed forms developed into online forms of publishing, distributing online books, online newspapers, online magazines. Since its start, the World Wide Web has been facilitating the technological convergence of commercial and self-published content, as well as the convergence of publishing and producing into online production through the development of multimedia content.
Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of commissioning copy. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying on commissioned material, but as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the majority come from unpublished authors. If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscripts the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review; the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process are dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication.
Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent; this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and n
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro
The Newseum is an interactive museum that promotes free expression and the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, while tracing the evolution of communication. The seven-level, 250,000-square-foot museum is located in Washington, D. C. and features fifteen theaters and fifteen galleries. Its Berlin Wall Gallery includes the largest display of sections of the wall outside Germany; the Today's Front Pages Gallery presents daily front pages from more than 80 international newspapers. Other galleries present topics including the First Amendment, world press freedom, news history, the September 11 attacks, the history of the Internet, TV, radio, it opened at its first location in Rosslyn, Virginia, on April 18, 1997, on April 11, 2008, it opened in its current location. The Newseum is a popular destination, attracting more than 815,000 visitors a year, its television studios host news broadcasts; the adult admission fee in 2017 was $26.38. Despite such high admission fees, it has seen years of financial losses.
In February 2018, these losses led to an exploration of selling its building or moving to another location. In January 2019, the Freedom Forum announced that The Johns Hopkins University would purchase the building for $372.5 million in order to use the space for several graduate programs. Freedom Forum is a non-profit organization founded in 1991 by Al Neuharth, based on the previous Gannett Foundation. Freedom Forum opened the Newseum in Arlington, Virginia, in 1997. Prior to opening in Virginia, it maintained exhibition galleries in Nashville and Manhattan, the latter in the lobby of the former IBM Building at 580 Madison Avenue. In 2000, Freedom Forum decided to move the museum across the Potomac River to downtown Washington, D. C; the original site was closed on March 3, 2002, to allow its staff to concentrate on building the new, larger museum. The new museum, built at a cost of $450 million, opened its doors to the public on April 11, 2008. Tim Russert, a Newseum trustee, said, "The Newseum made a pretty good impression in Arlington, but at your new location on Pennsylvania Avenue, you will make an indelible mark."
The Newseum on Pennsylvania Avenue shares a block adjacent to the Canadian Embassy. After obtaining a landmark location at Pennsylvania Avenue and Sixth Street NW, the former site of National Hotel, the Newseum board selected noted exhibit designer Ralph Appelbaum, who had designed the original site in Arlington and architect James Stewart Polshek, who designed the Rose Center for Earth and Space with Todd Schliemann at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, to work on the new project; this design team had the following goals: To design a building that would be an architectural icon recognized and remembered by visitors from around the world. Highlights of the building design unveiled October 2002 include a façade featuring a "window on the world", 57 ft × 78 ft, which looks out on Pennsylvania Avenue and the National Mall while letting the public see inside to the visitors and displays, it features the 45 words of the First Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, etched into a four story tall stone panel facing Pennsylvania Avenue.
One feature carried over from the prior Arlington site was the Journalists Memorial, a glass sculpture that lists the names of 2,291 journalists from around the world killed in the line of duty. It is rededicated annually; the museum website is updated daily with images and PDF versions of newspaper front pages from around the world. Images are replaced daily, but an archive of front pages from notable events since 2001 is available. Hard copies of selected front pages, including one from every U. S. state and Washington, D. C. are displayed outside the front entrance. Jerry Frieheim, a 1956 graduate of the University of Missouri School of Journalism, was the first executive director of the Newseum and claims to have coined the name; the 643,000-square-foot Newseum includes a 90-foot high atrium, seven levels of displays, 15 theaters, a dozen major galleries, many more smaller exhibits, two broadcast studios, an expanded interactive newsroom. The structural engineer for this project was Leslie E. Robertson Associates.
The building features an 500-seat theater. The building is known for the largest and tallest hydraulic passenger elevators in the world, with a capacity of 18,000 pounds capable of carrying up to 72 passengers when loaded, a travel distance of 100 feet that covers 7 floors. A curving glass memorial to slain journalists is located above the ground floor. Showcase environments throughout the museum are climate controlled by four microclimate control devices; these units provide a flow of humidified air to the cases through a system of distribution pipes. ABC's This Week began broadcasting from a new studio in the Newseum on April 20, 2008, with George Stephanopoulos as host. ABC moved This Week back to its Washington, D. C. bureau in June 2013 citing the network's infrequent use of the Newseum studio compared to the cost of operating and maintaining a studio there. The studio was home to Al Jazeera America's Washington, D. C. bureau whic