Ancien Régime

The Ancien Régime was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages until the French Revolution of 1789, which led to the abolition of hereditary monarchy and of the feudal system of the French nobility. The late Valois and Bourbon dynasties ruled during the Ancien Régime; the term is used to refer to the similar feudal systems of the time elsewhere in Europe - for example, in Switzerland. The administrative and social structures of the Ancien Régime resulted from years of state-building, legislative acts, internal conflicts, civil wars, but they remained and the Valois Dynasty's attempts at re-establishing control over the scattered political centres of the country were hindered by the Huguenot Wars. Much of the reigns of Henry IV and Louis XIII and the early years of Louis XIV focused on administrative centralization. Despite, the notion of absolute monarchy and the efforts by the kings to develop a centralized state, the Kingdom of France retained administrative irregularities: authority overlapped and nobles struggled to retain autonomy.

The drive for centralization in this period related directly to questions of royal finances and the ability to wage war. The internal conflicts and dynastic crises of the 16th and 17th centuries and the territorial expansion of France in the 17th century demanded great sums which needed to be raised through taxes, such as the land tax and the tax on salt and by contributions of men and service from the nobility. One key to this centralization was the replacing of personal patronage systems organized around the king and other nobles by institutional systems constructed around the state; the appointments of intendants—representatives of royal power in the provinces—did much to undermine local control by regional nobles. The same was true of the greater reliance shown by the royal court on the noblesse de robe as judges and royal counselors; the creation of regional parlements had the same goal of facilitating the introduction of royal power into newly-assimilated territories, but as the parlements gained in self-assurance, they began to become sources of disunity.

The term Ancien Régime first appeared in print in English in 1794, was pejorative in nature. It conjured up a society so encrusted with anachronisms that only a shock of great violence could free the living organism within. Institutionally torpid, economically immobile, culturally atrophied and stratified, this'old regime' was incapable of self-modernization." The Nine Years' War was a major conflict between France and a European-wide coalition of Austria and the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain and Savoy. It was fought on the European continent and the surrounding seas, in Ireland, North America, India, it was the first global war. Louis XIV had emerged from the Franco-Dutch War in 1678 as the most powerful monarch in Europe, an absolute ruler who had won numerous military victories. Using a combination of aggression and quasilegal means, Louis XIV set about extending his gains to stabilize and strengthen France's frontiers, culminating in the brief War of the Reunions; the resulting Truce of Ratisbon guaranteed France's new borders for 20 years, but Louis XIV's subsequent actions – notably his revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 – led to the deterioration of his military and political dominance.

Louis XIV's decision to cross the Rhine in September 1688 was designed to extend his influence and pressure the Holy Roman Empire into accepting his territorial and dynastic claims, but when Leopold I and the German princes resolved to resist, when the States General and William III brought the Dutch and the English into the war against France, the French King at last faced a powerful coalition aimed at curtailing his ambitions. The main fighting took place around France's borders, in the Spanish Netherlands, the Rhineland, Duchy of Savoy, Catalonia; the fighting favoured Louis XIV's armies, but by 1696, his country was in the grip of an economic crisis. The Maritime Powers were financially exhausted, when Savoy defected from the alliance, all parties were keen for a negotiated settlement. By the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick, Louis XIV retained the whole of Alsace, but he was forced to return Lorraine to its ruler and give up any gains on the right bank of the Rhine. Louis XIV accepted William III as the rightful King of England, while the Dutch acquired their barrier fortress system in the Spanish Netherlands to help secure their own borders.

However, with the ailing and childless Charles II of Spain approaching his end, a new conflict over the inheritance of the Spanish Empire would soon embroil Louis XIV and the Grand Alliance in a final war – the War of the Spanish Succession. Spain had a number of major assets, apart from its homeland itself, it controlled important territory in the New World. Spain's American colonies produced enormous quantities of silver, which were brought to Spain every few years in convoys. Spain had many weaknesses as well, its domestic economy, possessing little business, industry, or advanced craftsmanship, was poor. It had to import all its weapons. Spa

Rhythmic (chart)

The Rhythmic chart is an airplay chart published weekly by Billboard magazine. The chart tracks and measures the airplay of songs played on rhythmic radio stations, whose playlist includes hit-driven R&B/hip-hop, rhythmic pop, some dance tracks. Nielsen Audio sometimes refers to the format as rhythmic contemporary hit radio. Billboard magazine first took notice of the newly emerged genre on February 28, 1987, when it launched the first crossover chart, Hot Crossover 30, it consisted of thirty titles and was based on reporting by eighteen stations, five of which were considered as pure rhythmic. The chart featured a mix of urban top 40 and dance hits. In September 1989, Billboard split the Hot Crossover 30 chart in two: Top 40/Dance and Top 40/Rock, the latter of which focused on rock titles which crossed over. By December 1990, Billboard eliminated the chart because more top 40 and R&B stations were becoming identical with the rhythmic-heavy playlist being played at the crossover stations at the time.

Billboard revived the chart in October 1992 as Top 40/Rhythm-Crossover, with the first number one being "End of the Road" by Boyz II Men. On June 25, 1997, it was renamed to Rhythmic Top 40 as a way to distinguish stations that continued to play a broad based rhythmic mix from those whose mix leaned toward R&B and hip-hop, it was changed to Rhythmic Airplay in the February 7, 2004, issue and shortened to Rhythmic on July 12, 2008. There are forty positions on this chart and it is based on radio airplay. 66 rhythmic radio stations are electronically monitored 24 hours a day, seven days a week by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems. Songs are ranked based on the number of plays. Songs receiving the greatest growth will receive a "bullet", although there are tracks that will get bullets if the loss in detections doesn't exceed the percentage of downtime from a monitored station. "Airpower" awards are issued to songs that appear on the top 20 of both the airplay and audience chart for the first time, while the "greatest gainer" award is given to song with the largest increase in detections.

A song with six or more spins in its first week is awarded an "airplay add". If a song is tied for the most spins in the same week, the one with the biggest increase that previous week will rank higher, but if both songs show the same amount of spins regardless of detection the song, being played at more stations is ranked higher. Songs that fall below the top 15 and have been on the chart after 20 weeks are removed. 15 weeks "No Scrubs" — TLC 14 weeks "Twisted" — Keith Sweat 13 weeks "Freak Me" — SilK "You Make Me Wanna..." — Usher 12 weeks "I'll Make Love to You" — Boyz II Men "Fantasy" — Mariah Carey "Lollipop" — Lil Wayne featuring Static Major 11 weeks "Shoop" — Salt-n-Pepa "Dilemma" — Nelly featuring Kelly Rowland Dance/Mix Show Airplay Mainstream Top 40 List of artists who reached number one on the U. S. Rhythmic chart Current Billboard Rhythmic Songs chart

Major General Nathanael Greene (Brown)

Major General Nathanael Greene is a bronze equestrian statue, by Henry Kirke Brown. It is located in Stanton Park, Washington, D. C. in the Capitol Hill neighborhood. The inscription reads: SCULP H. K. BROWN R. WOOD AND CO. SACRED TO THE MEMORY OF NATHANAEL GREENE, ESQUIREA NATIVE OF THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND WHO DIED ON THE 19TH OF JUNE 1786 LATE MAJOR GENERAL IN THE SERVICE OF THE U. S. AND COMMANDER OF THEIR ARMY IN THE SOUTHERN DEPARTMENT THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS ASSEMBLEDIN HONOR OF HIS PATRIOTISM, VALOR, AND ABILITY HAVE ERECTED THIS MONUMENT On June 6, 1930, the statue fell from its pedestal after the bolts gave out in summer heat; as part of American Revolution Statuary in Washington, D. C. the statue is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. List of public art in Washington, D. C. Ward 6 Media related to Nathanael Greene sculpture at Wikimedia Commons