Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C; the first issue was published in 1970. The history of Smithsonian began when Edward K. Thompson, the retired editor of Life magazine, was asked by the then-Secretary of the Smithsonian, S. Dillon Ripley, to produce a magazine "about things in which the Smithsonian is interested, might be interested or ought to be interested."Thompson would recall that his philosophy for the new magazine was that it "would stir curiosity in receptive minds. It would deal with history, it would present art. It would peer of science and technology. Technical matters would be digested and made intelligible by skilled writers who would stimulate readers to reach upward while not turning them off with jargon. We would find the best writers and the best photographers—not unlike the best of the old Life."In 1973, the magazine turned a profit for the first time. By 1974, circulation had nearly quadrupled, to 635,000, it reached the one million milestone in 1975—one of the most successful launches of its time.
In 1980, Thompson was replaced by Don Moser, who had worked at Life, circulation reached upwards of two million, in turn, by Carey Winfrey upon his retirement in 2001. Smithsonian magazine provides in-depth analysis of varied topics within a diverse range of scientific areas, adds photography to supplement its comprehensive features; the monthly magazine looks at the topics and subject matters researched and exhibited by the Smithsonian Institution - science, art, popular culture and innovation - and chronicles them for its diverse readership. Every year since 2012, the Magazine has sponsored the American Ingenuity Awards, a recognition of innovation in the arts and technology. Winners have included Elon Musk, Lin-Manuel Miranda, OK Go, Dave Eggers, Aziz Ansari, Rosanne Cash, Jeff Bezos, Fred Armisen, Bill Hader and David Lynch. Presenters have included Stephen Hawking, Stephen Colbert, David Byrne, Herbie Hancock, Erin Brockovich, Ruben Blades, Bill Nye, Art Spiegelman and Senator Al Franken.
The American Ingenuity Award. Every year since 2003, Smithsonian magazine has run an international photography contest. Tens of thousands of images are submitted from over a hundred countries. 2017 Winners: Thong Huu, Sara Jacoby, Oreon Strusinski, Dan Fenstermacher, Tran Tuan Viet, SEYED MOHAMMAD SADEGH HOSSEINI, Adam Żądło and Mohammad Mohsenifar. 2016 Winners: Pradeep Raja Kannaiah, Milan Sachs, Prelena Soma Owen, Stephanie Foden, Peter Nutkins, Greta Rybus, João Borges, Jim Mneymneh and Alina Rudya. 2015 Winners: Albert Ivan Damanik, Alice Van Kempen, Hidetoshi Ogata, Lauren Pond, Tamina-Florentine Zuch, Tihomir Trichkov, Benedetta Ristori, Radim Schreiber, Jian Wang. 2014 Winners: Pham Ty, Nicolas Reusens, Lorenzo Mittiga, Olivier Douliery, David Martín Huamaní Bedoya, Joydeep Mukherjee, Jefflin Ling, Yilang Peng. 2013 Winners: Sergio Carbajo Rodriguez, Candy Feng, Graham McGeorge, Willie Huang, Nidal Adnan Kibria, Simon Morris, Shamma Esoof, Cesar Rodriguez. Notable past and current contributors to Smithsonian have included: Official website
Last Glacial Maximum
The Last Glacial Maximum was the most recent time during the Last Glacial Period when ice sheets were at their greatest extent. Vast ice sheets covered much of North America, northern Europe, Asia; the ice sheets profoundly affected Earth's climate by causing drought, a large drop in sea levels. The ice sheets reached their maximum coverage about 26,500 years ago. Deglaciation commenced in the Northern Hemisphere at 20 ka and in Antarctica at 14.5 ka, consistent with evidence for an abrupt rise in the sea level at about 14.5 ka. The LGM is referred to in Britain as the Dimlington Stadial, dated by Nick Ashton to between 31 and 16 ka. In the archaeology of Paleolithic Europe, the LGM spans the Gravettian, Magdalenian and Périgordian; the LGM was followed by the Late Glacial. According to Blue Marble 3000, the average global temperature around 19,000 BC was 9.0 °C. This is about 6.0 °C colder than the 2013-2017 average. The figures given by the Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change estimate a lower global temperature than the figures given by the Zurich University of Applied Sciences.
However, these figures are open more to interpretation. According to the IPCC, average global temperatures increased by 5.5 ± 1.5 °C since the last glacial maximum, the rate of warming was about 10 times slower than that of the 20th Century. It appears that they are defining the present as sometime in the 19th Century for this case, but they don’t specify exact years, or give a temperature for the present. Berkeley Earth puts out a list of average global temperatures by year. If you average all of the years from 1850 to 1899, the average temperature comes out to 13.8 °C. When subtracting 5.5 ± 1.5 °C from the 1850-1899 average, the average temperature for the last glacial maximum comes out to 8.3 ± 1.5 °C. This is about 6.7 ± 1.5 °C colder than the 2013-2017 average. This figure is open to interpretation because the IPCC does not specify 1850-1899 as being the present, or give any exact set of years as being the present, it does not state whether or not they agree with the figures given by Berkeley Earth.
According to the United States Geological Survey, permanent summer ice covered about 8% of Earth's surface and 25% of the land area during the last glacial maximum. The USGS states that sea level was about 125 meters lower than in present times; when comparing to the present, the average global temperature was 15.0 °C for the 2013-2017 period. About 3.1% of Earth's surface and 10.7% of the land area is covered in year-round ice. The formation of an ice sheet or ice cap requires both prolonged precipitation. Hence, despite having temperatures similar to those of glaciated areas in North America and Europe, East Asia remained unglaciated except at higher elevations; this difference was. These anticyclones generated air masses that were so dry on reaching Siberia and Manchuria that precipitation sufficient for the formation of glaciers could never occur; the relative warmth of the Pacific Ocean due to the shutting down of the Oyashio Current and the presence of large'east-west' mountain ranges were secondary factors preventing continental glaciation in Asia.
All over the world, climates at the Last Glacial Maximum were cooler and everywhere drier. In extreme cases, such as South Australia and the Sahel, rainfall could be diminished by up to 90% from present, with florae diminished to the same degree as in glaciated areas of Europe and North America. In less affected regions, rainforest cover was diminished in West Africa where a few refugia were surrounded by tropical grasslands; the Amazon rainforest was split into two large blocks by extensive savanna, the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia were affected, with deciduous forests expanding in their place except on the east and west extremities of the Sundaland shelf. Only in Central America and the Chocó region of Colombia did tropical rainforests remain intact – due to the extraordinarily heavy rainfall of these regions. Most of the world's deserts expanded. Exceptions were in what is now the western United States, where changes in the jet stream brought heavy rain to areas that are now desert and large pluvial lakes formed, the best known being Lake Bonneville in Utah.
This occurred in Afghanistan and Iran, where a major lake formed in the Dasht-e Kavir. In Australia, shifting sand dunes covered half the continent, whilst the Chaco and Pampas in South America became dry. Present-day subtropical regions lost most of their forest cover, notably in eastern Australia, the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, southern China, where open woodland became dominant due to drier conditions. In northern China – unglaciated despite its cold climate – a mixture of grassland and tundra prevailed, here, the northern limit of tree growth was at least 20° farther south than today. In the period before the Last Glacial Maximum, many areas that became barren desert were wetter than they are today, notably in southern Australia, where Aboriginal occupation is believed to coincide with a wet period between 40,000 and 60,000 years Before Present. During the Last Glacial Maximum, much of the world was cold and inhospitable
In archaeogenetics Proto-Mongoloid refers to early representatives of the Mongoloid phenotype. Notable examples of fossils exhibiting proto-Mongoloid phenotypes are found in Late Pleistocene fossils, notably the Minatogawa skeletons and the Liujiang crania; the modern Mongoloid phenotype develops only in the Neolithic. The term Southern Mongoloid is used to refer to the indigenous populations of Maritime Southeast Asia, they have been assumed as deriving from an early admixture of Mongoloid and Australoid types. Based on the morphological criteria of Sinodonty and Sundadonty for the dental morphology of northeast and southeast Asians it is now thought more that Sundadonty is the ancestral type, inherited by Proto-Mongoloids from their Proto-Australoid ancestry, Sinodonty is a morphological innovation limited to modern northeastern Asian Mongoloids. Proto-Mongoloid is short, has finely chiseled features, double eyelids, much body hair and wavy hair; the Jōmon people were considered to be some of the descendants of the Proto-Mongoloids, while the Ainu people were considered to be some of the descendants of the Jōmon people.
Ainu people, belonging to Proto-Mongoloid, were considered to be Caucasoid at one time, because of their different characters from Yamato people such as finely chiseled features and thickly haired faces and bodies. However, these characters may be symplesiomorphies rather than synapomorphies. Recent genetic researches have revealed that the closest relatives of Proto-Mongoloids are Neo-Mongoloids, their ancestors split tens of thousands of years ago."Neo-Mongoloid" migration to Japan is associated with the Yayoi people. The Yayoi interbreeding with the indigenous populations formed the stock of the modern Japanese people. Mongoloid Australoid Sinodonty and Sundadonty Archaeogenetics Ancient North Eurasian European early modern humans Recent human evolution
Natural History Museum of Denmark
The Natural History Museum of Denmark is a natural history museum located in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was created as a 1 January 2004 merger of Copenhagen's Zoological Museum, Geological Museum, Botanical Museum and Central Library, Botanical Gardens, it is affiliated with the University of Copenhagen. The Natural History Museum of Denmark was established on 1 January 2004 by the merging of four long-standing institutions: the Botanical Garden, the Botanical Museum & Central Library, the Geological Museum, the Zoological Museum; the history of the individual departments, which now are part of the united Natural History Museum of Denmark, can be traced back to the 17th century. One historical figure in particular played a crucial role in the creation of our national heritage, namely Ole Worm, his cabinet of natural curiosities, the Museum Wormianum, formed together with the Royal Danish Cabinet of Curiosities the nucleus of what would become the Geological Museum and the Zoological Museum. In 1621 Ole Worm became the director of the Botanical Garden, which at that time had been quite neglected.
Here he introduced a large variety of rare species from abroad. Today the Natural History Museum of Denmark is organized under the Faculty of Science at the University of Copenhagen; the collections are collected over four centuries. The 14 million objects include skins and hides, animals in jars with alcohol, insects on pins, plants on herbarium sheets, minerals and more, from all over the world. Additionally, the living collections of the Botanical Garden number some 10,000 plant species such as orchids, carnivorous plants and exotic trees; the collections form the foundations of the museum’s research and outreach efforts, for a wide range of international research. As well as being a research tool and outreach resource, the collections are a link to our cultural heritage: many objects exemplify a preservation technique of a specific era, have inspired classic works of art or tell a story of the era in which they were collected. Today, all exhibitions and public engagement programs at the Natural History Museum of Denmark are located at the Geological Museum, the Zoological Museum and in the Botanical Garden.
In 2022, all of the Zoological Museum’s collections and research will have relocated to a new natural history museum in the Botanical Garden. The Botanical Garden, as well as the current premises of the Geological Museum, will be part of the new natural history museum. In 2022, the Botanical Garden in Copenhagen will house a new national museum of natural history. 2004–2007: Henrik Enghoff 2007–2014: Morten Meldgaard 2015: Kurt H. Kjær 2015: Peter C. Kjærgaard The Natural History Museum of Denmark Official website The Zoological Museum in Copenhagen; the Geological Museum in Copenhagen. The Botanical Garden in Copenhagen. University of Copenhagen
Last Glacial Period
The Last Glacial Period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period c. 115,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. This most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation extending from c. 2,588,000 years ago to present. The definition of the Quaternary as beginning 2.58 Ma is based on the formation of the Arctic ice cap. The Antarctic ice sheet began to form earlier, in the mid-Cenozoic; the term Late Cenozoic Ice Age is used to include this early phase. During this last glacial period there were alternating episodes of glacier retreat. Within the last glacial period the Last Glacial Maximum was 22,000 years ago. While the general pattern of global cooling and glacier advance was similar, local differences in the development of glacier advance and retreat make it difficult to compare the details from continent to continent. 13,000 years ago, the Late Glacial Maximum began.
The end of the Younger Dryas about 11,700 years ago marked the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch, which includes the Holocene glacial retreat. From the point of view of human archaeology, the last glacial period falls in the Paleolithic and early Mesolithic periods; when the glaciation event started, Homo sapiens were confined to lower latitudes and used tools comparable to those used by Neanderthals in western and central Eurasia and by Homo erectus in Asia. Near the end of the event, Homo sapiens migrated into Australia. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived the last glacial period in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover; the last glacial period is sometimes colloquially referred to as the "last ice age", though this use is incorrect because an ice age is a longer period of cold temperature in which year-round ice sheets are present near one or both poles.
Glacials are colder phases within an ice age. Thus, the end of the last glacial period, about 11,700 years ago, is not the end of the last ice age since extensive year-round ice persists in Antarctica and Greenland. Over the past few million years the glacial-interglacial cycles have been "paced" by periodic variations in the Earth's orbit via Milankovitch cycles; the last glacial period is the best-known part of the current ice age, has been intensively studied in North America, northern Eurasia, the Himalaya and other glaciated regions around the world. The glaciations that occurred during this glacial period covered many areas in the Northern Hemisphere and to a lesser extent in the Southern Hemisphere, they have different names developed and depending on their geographic distributions: Fraser, Wisconsinan or Wisconsin, Midlandian, Würm, Mérida, Weichselian or Vistulian, Valdai in Russia and Zyryanka in Siberia, Llanquihue in Chile, Otira in New Zealand. The geochronological Late Pleistocene includes the late glacial and the preceding penultimate interglacial period.
Canada was nearly covered by ice, as well as the northern part of the United States, both blanketed by the huge Laurentide Ice Sheet. Alaska remained ice free due to arid climate conditions. Local glaciations existed in the Rocky Mountains and the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and as ice fields and ice caps in the Sierra Nevada in northern California. In Britain, mainland Europe, northwestern Asia, the Scandinavian ice sheet once again reached the northern parts of the British Isles, Germany and Russia, extending as far east as the Taymyr Peninsula in western Siberia; the maximum extent of western Siberian glaciation was reached by 16,000–15,000 BC and thus than in Europe. Northeastern Siberia was not covered by a continental-scale ice sheet. Instead, but restricted, icefield complexes covered mountain ranges within northeast Siberia, including the Kamchatka-Koryak Mountains; the Arctic Ocean between the huge ice sheets of America and Eurasia was not frozen throughout, but like today was only covered by shallow ice, subject to seasonal changes and riddled with icebergs calving from the surrounding ice sheets.
According to the sediment composition retrieved from deep-sea cores there must have been times of seasonally open waters. Outside the main ice sheets, widespread glaciation occurred on the highest mountains of the Alps−Himalaya mountain chain. In contrast to the earlier glacial stages, the Würm glaciation was composed of smaller ice caps and confined to valley glaciers, sending glacial lobes into the Alpine foreland; the [, the highest massifs of the Carpathian Mountains and the Balkanic peninsula mountains and to the east the Caucasus and the mountains of Turkey and Iran were capped by local ice fields or small ice sheets. In the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau, glaciers advanced particularly between 45,000 and 25,000 BC, but these datings are controversial; the formation of a contiguous ice sheet on the Tibetan Plateau is controversial. Other areas of the Northern Hemisphere did not bear extensive ice sheets, but local glaciers in high areas. Parts of Taiwan, for example, were glaciated between 42,250 and 8,680 BCE as well as the Japanese Alps