Assessors of Maat
The Assessors of Maat were 42 minor ancient Egyptian deities of the Maat charged with judging the souls of the dead in the afterlife by joining the judgment of Osiris in the Weighing of the Heart. The long Chapter 125 of the Book of the Dead lists names and provenances of the Assessors of Maat. A declaration of innocence corresponds to each deity: it is pronounced by the dead himself, in order to avoid being damned for specific "sins" that each of the 42 Judges is in charge of punishing; the deceased was accompanied in the presence of Osiris by the psychopomp god Anubis — where he would have declared that he was guilty of none of the "42 sins" against justice and truth by reciting a text known as "Negative confessions". The heart of the deceased was weighed on a two-plate scale: a plate for the heart, the other for the feather of Maat. Maat, in whose name the 42 judges who flanked Osiris acted, was the deification of truth, justice and order of the cosmos and was symbolized by an ostrich feather.
If the heart and the feather were equal the deities were convinced of the rectitude of the deceased, who could therefore access eternal life becoming mꜣꜥ-ḫrw, which means "vindicated / justified" "true of voice". But, if the heart was heavier than Maat's feather a terrifying monster named ꜥmmt "the Devourer" devoured it by destroying the soul of the deceased; the psychostasia episode is remarkable not only for its symbolic and dramatic vivacity, but because it is one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with moral connotations. The judgment by Osiris and by the other 42 judicial deities, the "Negative Confessions" themselves, depict the ethics and morality of the Egyptians; these 42 declarations of innocence were interpreted by some as possible historical precedents of the Ten Commandments: but, while the Ten Commandments of Judeo-Christian ethics consist of norms attributed to a divine revelation, the "Negative confessions" seem rather as divine transpositions of daily morality. The American egyptologist Richard Herbert Wilkinson thus inventoried, in his The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, the 42 Assessors of Maat: Budge, Ernest Alfred Wallis, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, New York, Penguin Books, 2008, ISBN 978-0140455502.
Faulkner, Raymond O. von Dassow, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Book of Going forth by Day. The First Authentic Presentation of the Complete Papyrus of Ani, San Francisco, Chronicle Books, 1994. Hart, George, A Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses, Routledge, 1986, ISBN 0-415-05909-7. Taylor, John H. Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead: Journey through the afterlife, British Museum Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0-7141-1993-9. Wilkinson, Richard H; the Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 2003, ISBN 0-500-05120-8
Atum, sometimes rendered as Atem or Tem, is an important deity in Egyptian mythology. Atum's name is thought to be derived from the verb tm which means to finish, thus he has been interpreted as being the "complete one" and the finisher of the world, which he returns to watery chaos at the end of the creative cycle. As creator he was seen as the underlying substance of the world, the deities and all things being made of his flesh or alternatively being his ka. Atum is one of the most important and mentioned deities from earliest times, as evidenced by his prominence in the Pyramid Texts, where he is portrayed as both a creator and father to the king. In the Heliopolitan creation myth, Atum was considered to be the first God, having created himself, sitting on a mound, from the primordial waters. Early myths state that Atum created the god Shu and goddess Tefnut by spitting them out of his mouth. To explain how Atum did this, the myth uses the metaphor of masturbation, with the hand he used in this act representing the female principle inherent within him.
Other interpretations state. In the Old Kingdom the Egyptians believed that Atum lifted the dead king's soul from his pyramid to the starry heavens, he was a solar deity, associated with the primary sun god Ra. Atum was linked with the evening sun, while Ra or the linked god Khepri were connected with the sun at morning and midday. In the Book of the Dead, still current in the Graeco-Roman period, the sun god Atum is said to have ascended from chaos-waters with the appearance of a snake, the animal renewing itself every morning. Atum is the god of post-existence. In the binary solar cycle, the serpentine Atum is contrasted with the ram-headed scarab Khepri—the young sun god, whose name is derived from the Egyptian hpr "to come into existence". Khepri-Atum encompassed sunset, thus reflecting the entire cycle of morning and evening. Atum was a self-created deity, the first being to emerge from the darkness and endless watery abyss that existed before creation. A product of the energy and matter contained in this chaos, he created his children—the first deities, out of loneliness.
He produced from his own sneeze, or in some accounts, Shu, the god of air, Tefnut, the goddess of moisture. The brother and sister, curious about the primeval waters that surrounded them, went to explore the waters and disappeared into the darkness. Unable to bear his loss, Atum sent the Eye of Ra, to find his children; the tears of joy he shed upon their return were the first human beings. Atum is depicted as a man wearing either the royal head-cloth or the dual white and red crown of Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, reinforcing his connection with kingship. Sometimes he is shown as a serpent, the form he returns to at the end of the creative cycle, occasionally as a mongoose, bull, lizard, or ape. Atum's worship centered on the city of Heliopolis; the only surviving remnant of Heliopolis is the Temple of Re-Atum obelisk located in Al-Masalla of Al-Matariyyah, Cairo. It was erected by Senusret I of the Twelfth dynasty, still stands in its original position; the 68 ft high red granite obelisk weighs the weight of about 20 African elephants.
Myśliwiec, Karol. Studien zum Gott Atum. Band I, Die heiligen Tiere des Atum. Gerstenberg. ISBN 978-3806780338. Myśliwiec, Karol. Studien zum Gott Atum. Band II, Epitheta, Ikonographie. Gerstenberg. ISBN 978-3806780406
Bastet or Bast was a goddess of ancient Egyptian religion, worshiped as early as the Second Dynasty. Her name is rendered as B'sst, Baast and Baset. In ancient Greek religion, she was known as Ailuros. Bastet was worshipped in Bubastis in Lower Egypt as a lioness goddess, a role shared by other deities such as Sekhmet. Bastet and Sekhmet were characterized as two aspects of the same goddess, with Sekhmet representing the powerful warrior and protector aspect and Bastet, depicted as a cat, representing a gentler aspect. Bastet, the form of the name, most adopted by Egyptologists today because of its use in dynasties, is a modern convention offering one possible reconstruction. In early Egyptian, her name appears to have been bꜣstt. In Egyptian writing, the second t marks a feminine ending but was not pronounced, the aleph ꜣ may have moved to a position before the accented syllable, ꜣbst. By the first millennium bꜣstt would have been something like *Ubaste in Egyptian speech becoming Coptic Oubaste.
What the name of the goddess means remains uncertain. Names of ancient Egyptian deities were represented as references to associations or with euphemisms, being cult secrets. One recent suggestion by Stephen Quirke explains Bastet as meaning, "She of the ointment jar"; this ties in with the observation that her name was written with the hieroglyph for ointment jar and that she was associated with protective ointments, among other things. The name of the material known as alabaster might, through Greek, come from the name of the goddess; this association would have come about much than when the goddess was a protective lioness goddess, is useful only in deciphering the origin of the term, alabaster. Bastet was a fierce lioness warrior goddess of the sun worshiped throughout most of ancient Egyptian history, but she was changed into the cat goddess, familiar today, becoming Bastet, she was depicted as the daughter and consort of Atum-Ra, with whom she had a son, the lion god Maahes. As protector of Lower Egypt, she was seen as defender of the king, of the sun god, Ra.
Along with other deities such as Hathor and Isis, Bastet was associated with the Eye of Ra. She has been depicted as fighting the evil snake named Apep, an enemy of Ra. In addition to her solar connections, sometimes she was called "eye of the moon". Bastet was a goddess of pregnancy and childbirth because of the fertility of the domestic cat. Images of Bastet were created from alabaster; the goddess was sometimes depicted holding a ceremonial sistrum in one hand and an aegis in the other—the aegis resembling a collar or gorget, embellished with a lioness head. Bastet was depicted as the goddess of protection against contagious diseases and evil spirits. Bastet was a local deity whose religious sect was centered in Bubastis, it lay in the Nile Delta near. The town, known in Egyptian as pr-bꜣstt, carries her name meaning House of Bastet, it was known in Greek as Boubastis and translated into Hebrew as Pî-beset, spelled without the initial t sound of the last syllable. In the biblical Book of Ezekiel 30:17, the town appears in the Hebrew form Pibeseth.
Herodotus, an ancient Greek historian who traveled in Egypt in the fifth century BCE, describes Bastet's temple at some length: Save for the entrance, it stands on an island. The temple is in the midst of the whole circuit of which commands a view down into it. A stone wall, carven with figures, runs round it. A road, paved with stone, of about three furlongs' length leads to the entrance, running eastward through the market place, towards the temple of Hermes; this description by Herodotus and several Egyptian texts suggest that water surrounded the temple on three sides, forming a type of lake known as, not too dissimilar from that surrounding the temple of the mother goddess Mut in Karnak at Thebes. These lakes were typical components of temples devoted to a number of lioness goddesses, who are said to represent one original goddess, Mut, Tefnut and Sakhmet, came to be associated with sun gods such as Horus and Ra as well as the Eye of Ra; each of them had to be appeased by a specific set of rituals.
One myth relates that a lioness and wrathful, was once cooled down by the water of the lake, transformed into a gentle cat, settled in the temple. At the Bubastis temple, some cats were found to have been mummified and buried, many next to their owners. More than 300,000 mummified cats were discovered. Turner and Bateson suggest that the status of the cat was equivalent to that of the cow in modern India; the death of a cat might leave a family in great mourning and those who could, would have them embalmed or buried in cat cemeteries—pointing to the great prevalence of the cult of Bastet. Extensive burials of cat remains we
Bes, together with his feminine counterpart Beset, is an Ancient Egyptian deity worshipped as a protector of households and, in particular, of mothers and childbirth. Bes came to be regarded as the defender of everything good and the enemy of all, bad. While past studies identified Bes as a Middle Kingdom import from Nubia or Somalia, more recent research indicates that he was present in Egypt since the start of Old Kingdom. Mentions of Bes can be traced to pre-dynastic Nile Valley cultures. Worship of Bes spread as far north as the area of Syria, into the Roman and Achaemenid Empires. Modern scholars such as James Romano claim that in its earliest inception Bes was a representation of a lion rearing up on its hind legs. After the Third Intermediate Period, Bes is seen as just the head or the face worn as amulets. Bes was a household protector, becoming responsible – throughout ancient Egyptian history – for such varied tasks as killing snakes, fighting off evil spirits, watching after children, aiding women in labour by fighting off evil spirits, thus present with Taweret at births.
Images of the deity, quite different from those of the other gods, were kept in homes. Egyptian gods were shown in profile, but instead Bes appeared in full face portrait and sometimes in a soldier's tunic, so as to appear ready to launch an attack on any approaching evil, he scared away demons from houses, so his statue was put up as a protector. Since he drove off evil, Bes came to symbolize the good things in life – music and sexual pleasure. In the New Kingdom, tattoos of Bes could be found on the thighs of dancers and servant girls. Many instances of Bes masks and costumes from the New Kingdom and have been uncovered; these show considerable wear, thought to be too great for occasional use at festivals, are therefore thought to have been used by professional performers, or given out for rent. In the Ptolemaic period of Egyptian history, chambers were constructed, painted with images of Bes and his wife Beset, thought by Egyptologists to have been for the purpose of curing fertility problems or general healing rituals.
Like many Egyptian gods, the worship of Bes or Beset was exported overseas. While the female variant had been more popular in Minoan Crete, the male version would prove popular with the Phoenicians and the ancient Cypriots; the Balearic island of Ibiza derives its name from the god's name, brought along with the first Phoenician settlers in 654 BC. These settlers, amazed at the lack of any sort of venomous creatures on the island, thought it to be the island of Bes; the Roman name Ebusus was derived from this designation. At the end of the 6th century BC, images of Bes began to spread across the Achaemenid Empire, which Egypt belonged to at the time. Images of Bes have been found at the Persian capital of Susa, as far away as central Asia. Over time, the image of Bes became more Persian in style, as he was depicted wearing Persian clothes and headdress. Bes appears, as part of the delegation of Egyptian gods, in The Sandman: Season of Mists, by Neil Gaiman. Bes is a helper to the heroes in Pyramid Scheme by Eric Flint and Dave Freer.
Bes is an important character in the books of the saga The Kane Chronicles by Rick Riordan. Bes appears in the video game Realm of the Mad God as a boss of an Egyptian themed dungeon known as the "Tomb of the Ancients", alongside Nut and Geb; the Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt, Richard H. Wilkinson. ISBN 0-500-05120-8 The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, Ian Shaw. ISBN 0192804588 Dasen, Veronique. Dwarfs in Ancient Egypt and Greece. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-199-68086-8
Geb was the Egyptian god of the Earth and a member of the Ennead of Heliopolis. He had a viper around his head and was thus considered the father of snakes, it was believed in ancient Egypt that Geb's laughter created earthquakes and that he allowed crops to grow. The name was pronounced as such from the Greek period onward and was read as Seb or some guess as Keb; the original Egyptian was "Seb"/"Keb". It was spelled with - k-point; the latter initial root consonant occurs once in the Middle Kingdom Coffin Texts, more in 21st Dynasty mythological papyri as well as in a text from the Ptolemaic tomb of Petosiris at Tuna El-Gebel or was written with initial hard -k-, as e.g. in a 30th Dynasty papyrus text in the Brooklyn Museum dealing with descriptions of and remedies against snakes. The oldest representation in a fragmentary relief of the god, was as an anthropomorphic bearded being accompanied by his name, dating from king Djoser's reign, 3rd Dynasty, was found in Heliopolis. In times he could be depicted as a ram, a bull or a crocodile.
Geb was feared as father of snakes. In a Coffin Texts spell Geb was described as father of the snake Nehebkau. In mythology, Geb often occurs as a primeval divine king of Egypt from whom his son Osiris and his grandson Horus inherited the land after many contendings with the disruptive god Set and killer of Osiris. Geb could be regarded as personified fertile earth and barren desert, the latter containing the dead or setting them free from their tombs, metaphorically described as "Geb opening his jaws", or imprisoning those there not worthy to go to the fertile North-Eastern heavenly Field of Reeds. In the latter case, one of his otherworldly attributes was an ominous jackal-headed stave rising from the ground onto which enemies could be bound. In the Heliopolitan Ennead, Geb is the husband of Nut, the sky or visible daytime and nightly firmament, the son of the earlier primordial elements Tefnut and Shu, the father to the four lesser gods of the system – Osiris, Seth and Nephthys. In this context, Geb was believed to have been engaged with Nut and had to be separated from her by Shu, god of the air.
In mythological depictions, Geb was shown as a man reclining, sometimes with his phallus still pointed towards Nut. Geb and Nut together formed the permanent boundary between the primeval waters and the newly created world; as time progressed, the deity became more associated with the habitable land of Egypt and as one of its early rulers. As a chthonic deity he became associated with the underworld, fresh waters and with vegetation – barley being said to grow upon his ribs – and was depicted with plants and other green patches on his body, his association with vegetation and sometimes with the underworld and royalty brought Geb the occasional interpretation that he was the husband of Renenutet, a minor goddess of the harvest and mythological caretaker of the young king in the shape of a cobra, who herself could be regarded as the mother of Nehebkau, a primeval snake god associated with the underworld. He is equated by classical authors as the Greek Titan Cronus. Ptah and Ra, creator deities begin the list of divine ancestors.
There is speculation between Shu and Geb and, the first god-king of Egypt. The story of how Shu and Nut were separated in order to create the cosmos is now being interpreted in more human terms. Between the father son jealously and Shu rebelling against the divine order, Geb challenges Shu’s leadership. Geb takes Tefnut, as his chief queen, separating Shu from his sister-wife. Just as Shu had done to him. In the book of the Heavenly Cow, it is implied. After Geb passed on the throne to Osiris, his youngest son, he took on a role of a judge in the Divine Tribunal of the gods; some Egyptologists have stated that Geb was associated with a mythological divine creator goose who had laid a world egg from which the sun and/or the world had sprung. This theory is assumed to be incorrect and to be a result of confusing the divine name "Geb" with that of a Whitefronted Goose called gb: "lame one, stumbler"; this bird-sign is used only as a phonogram. An alternative ancient name for this goose species was trp meaning similarly'walk like a drunk','stumbler'.
The Whitefronted Goose is never found as a cultic symbol or holy bird of Geb. The mythological creator'goose' referred to above, was called Ngg wr "Great Honker" and always depicted as a Nilegoose/Foxgoose who ornithologically belongs to a separate genus and whose Egyptian name was smn, Coptic smon. A coloured vignet irrefutably depicts a Nile Goose with an opened beak in a context of solar creation on a mythological papyrus dating from the 21st Dynasty. Similar images of this divine bird are to be found on temple walls, showing a scene of the king standing on a papyrus raft and ritually plucking papyrus for the Theban god Amun-Re-Kamutef; the latter Theban creator god could never in a Whitefronted Goose. In Underworld Books a diacri
Egyptian temples were built for the official worship of the gods and in commemoration of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt and regions under Egyptian control. Temples were seen as houses for the kings to whom they were dedicated. Within them, the Egyptians performed a variety of rituals, the central functions of Egyptian religion: giving offerings to the gods, reenacting their mythological interactions through festivals, warding off the forces of chaos; these rituals were seen as necessary for the gods to continue to uphold maat, the divine order of the universe. Housing and caring for the gods were the obligations of pharaohs, who therefore dedicated prodigious resources to temple construction and maintenance. Out of necessity, pharaohs delegated most of their ritual duties to a host of priests, but most of the populace was excluded from direct participation in ceremonies and forbidden to enter a temple's most sacred areas. A temple was an important religious site for all classes of Egyptians, who went there to pray, give offerings, seek oracular guidance from the god dwelling within.
The most important part of the temple was the sanctuary, which contained a cult image, a statue of its god. The rooms outside the sanctuary grew larger and more elaborate over time, so that temples evolved from small shrines in late Prehistoric Egypt to large stone edifices in the New Kingdom and later; these edifices are among the largest and most enduring examples of Egyptian architecture, with their elements arranged and decorated according to complex patterns of religious symbolism. Their typical design consisted of a series of enclosed halls, open courts, entrance pylons aligned along the path used for festival processions. Beyond the temple proper was an outer wall enclosing a wide variety of secondary buildings. A large temple owned sizable tracts of land and employed thousands of laymen to supply its needs. Temples were therefore key economic as well as religious centers; the priests who managed these powerful institutions wielded considerable influence, despite their ostensible subordination to the king they may have posed significant challenges to his authority.
Temple-building in Egypt continued despite the nation's decline and ultimate loss of independence to the Roman Empire in 30 BC. With the coming of Christianity, traditional Egyptian religion faced increasing persecution, temple cults died out during the fourth through sixth centuries AD; the buildings they left behind suffered centuries of neglect. At the start of the nineteenth century, a wave of interest in ancient Egypt swept Europe, giving rise to the discipline of Egyptology and drawing increasing numbers of visitors to the civilization's remains. Dozens of temples survive today, some have become world-famous tourist attractions that contribute to the modern Egyptian economy. Egyptologists continue to study the surviving temples and the remains of destroyed ones as invaluable sources of information about ancient Egyptian society. Ancient Egyptian temples were meant as places for the gods to reside on earth. Indeed, the term the Egyptians most used to describe the temple building, ḥwt-nṯr, means "mansion of a god".
A divine presence in the temple linked the human and divine realms and allowed humans to interact with the god through ritual. These rituals, it was believed, sustained the god and allowed it to continue to play its proper role in nature, they were therefore a key part of the maintenance of maat, the ideal order of nature and of human society in Egyptian belief. Maintaining maat was the entire purpose of Egyptian religion, it was the purpose of a temple as well; because he was credited with divine power himself, the pharaoh, as a sacred king, was regarded as Egypt's representative to the gods and its most important upholder of maat. Thus, it was theoretically his duty to perform the temple rites. While it is uncertain how he participated in ceremonies, the existence of temples across Egypt made it impossible for him to do so in all cases, most of the time these duties were delegated to priests; the pharaoh was obligated to maintain, provide for, expand the temples throughout his realm. Although the pharaoh delegated his authority, the performance of temple rituals was still an official duty, restricted to high-ranking priests.
The participation of the general populace in most ceremonies was prohibited. Much of the lay religious activity in Egypt instead took place in private and community shrines, separate from the official temples; as the primary link between the human and divine realms, temples attracted considerable veneration from ordinary Egyptians. Each temple had a principal deity, most were dedicated to other gods as well. Not all deities had temples dedicated to them. Many demons and household gods were involved in magical or private religious practice, with little or no presence in temple ceremonies. There were other gods who had significant roles in the cosmos but, for uncertain reasons, were not honored with temples of their own. Of those gods who did have temples of their own, many were venerated in certain areas of Egypt, though many gods with a strong local tie were important across the nation. Deities whose worship spanned the country were associated with the cities where their chief temples were located.
In Egyptian creation myths, the first temple originated as a shelter for a god—which god it was varied according to the city—that stood on the mound of land where the process of creation began. Each temple in Egypt, was equated with this original temple and with the site of creation itself; as the primordial home of the god and the mythological location of the city's fou
Apep or Apophis was the ancient Egyptian deity who embodied chaos and was thus the opponent of light and Ma'at. He appears in art as a giant serpent, his name is reconstructed by Egyptologists as *ʻAʼpāp, as it was written ꜥꜣpp and survived in Coptic as Ⲁⲫⲱⲫ Aphōph. Apep was first mentioned in the Eighth Dynasty, he was honored in the names of the Fourteenth Dynasty king'Apepi and of the Greater Hyksos king Apophis. Ra was the solar deity, bringer of light, thus the upholder of Ma'at. Apep was viewed as the greatest enemy of Ra, thus was given the title Enemy of Ra, "the Lord of Chaos". Apep was seen as a giant snake or serpent leading to such titles as Serpent from the Nile and Evil Dragon; some elaborations said that he had a head made of flint. On a Naqada I C-ware bowl a snake was painted on the inside rim combined with other desert and aquatic animals as a possible enemy of a deity a solar deity, invisibly hunting in a big rowing vessel. While in most texts Apep is described as a giant snake, he is sometimes depicted as a crocodile.
The few descriptions of Apep's origin in myth demonstrate that it was born after Ra from his umbilical cord. Combined with its absence from Egyptian creation myths, this has been interpreted as suggesting that Apep was not a primordial force in Egyptian theology, but a consequence of Ra's birth; this suggests that evil in Egyptian theology is the consequence of an individual's own struggles against non-existence. Tales of Apep's battles against Ra were elaborated during the New Kingdom. Storytellers said; this appropriately made him a part of the underworld. In some stories Apep waited for Ra in a western mountain called Bakhu, where the sun set, in others Apep lurked just before dawn, in the Tenth region of the Night; the wide range of Apep's possible location gained him the title World Encircler. It was thought. Myths sometimes say that Apep was trapped there, because he had been the previous chief god overthrown by Ra, or because he was evil and had been imprisoned; the Coffin Texts imply that Apep used a magical gaze to overwhelm his entourage.
Ra was assisted by a number of defenders who travelled with him, including Set and the Eye of Ra. Apep's movements were thought to cause earthquakes, his battles with Set may have been meant to explain the origin of thunderstorms. In one account, Ra himself defeats Apep in the form of a cat. What few accounts there are of Apep's origin describe it as being born from Ra's Umbilical cord. Ra's victory each night was thought to be ensured by the prayers of the Egyptian priests and worshippers at temples; the Egyptians practiced a number of rituals and superstitions that were thought to ward off Apep, aid Ra to continue his journey across the sky. In an annual rite, called the Banishing of Chaos, priests would build an effigy of Apep, thought to contain all of the evil and darkness in Egypt, burn it to protect everyone from Apep's evil for another year; the Egyptian priests had a detailed guide to fighting Apep, referred to as The Books of Overthrowing Apep. The chapters described a gradual process of dismemberment and disposal, include: Spitting Upon ApepDefiling Apep with the Left FootTaking a Lance to Smite ApepFettering ApepTaking a Knife to Smite ApepPutting Fire Upon Apep In addition to stories about Ra's winnings, this guide had instructions for making wax models, or small drawings, of the serpent, which would be spat on, mutilated and burnt, whilst reciting spells that would kill Apep.
Fearing that the image of Apep could give power to the demon, any rendering would always include another deity to subdue the monster. As Apep was thought to live in the underworld, he was sometimes thought of as an Eater of Souls, thus the dead needed protection, so they were sometimes buried with spells that could destroy Apep. The Book of the Dead does not describe occasions when Ra defeated the chaos snake explicitly called Apep. Only BD Spells 7 and 39 can be explained as such. Apep, triple star system, a gamma-ray burst progenitor in the Milky Way 99942 Apophis, near Earth asteroid Egyptian influence in popular culture Ethnoherpetology Jörmungandr Mehen Ouroboros Unut Wadjet Vritra Apep, Water Snake-Demon of Chaos, Enemy of Ra... ancient Egypt: The Mythology - Apep