Mesoamerican pyramids or pyramid-shaped structures form a prominent part of ancient Mesoamerican architecture. Although similar to each other in some ways these New World structures with their flat tops and their stairs bear only a weak architectural resemblance to Egyptian pyramids; the Mesoamerican region's largest pyramid by volume – the largest pyramid in the world by volume – is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the east-central Mexican state of Puebla. The builders of certain classic Mesoamerican pyramids have decorated them copiously with stories about the Hero Twins, the feathered serpent Quetzalcoatl, Mesoamerican creation myths, ritualistic sacrifice, etc.written in the form of hieroglyphs on the rises of the steps of the pyramids, on the walls, on the sculptures contained within. The Aztecs, a people with a rich mythology and cultural heritage, dominated central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, their capital was Tenochtitlan on the shore of Lake Texcoco – the site of modern-day Mexico City.
They were related to the preceding cultures in the basin of Mexico such as the culture of Teotihuacan whose building style they adopted and adapted. El Tepozteco Malinalco Santa Cecilia Acatitlan Templo Mayor Tenayuca Tenochtitlan The Maya are a people of southern Mexico and northern Central America with some 3,000 years of history. Archaeological evidence shows the Maya started to build ceremonial architecture 3,000 years ago; the earliest monuments consisted of simple burial mounds, the precursors to the spectacular stepped pyramids from the Terminal Pre-classic period and beyond. These pyramids relied on intricate carved stone. Many of these structures featured a top platform upon which a smaller dedicatory building was constructed, associated with a particular Maya deity. Maya pyramid-like structures were erected to serve as a place of interment for powerful rulers. Maya pyramidal structures occur in a great variety of forms and functions, bounded by regional and periodical differences. Aguateca Altun Ha Calakmul Caracol Chichen Itza Cholula Comalcalco Copan Dos Pilas Edzna El Mirador El Tigre La Danta Kaminaljuyu Lamanai La Venta Los Monos Lubaantun Moral_Reforma Nim Li Punit Palenque: Temple of the Inscriptions Tazumal Tikal: Tikal Temple I.
The region is inhabited by the modern descendants of the Purépecha. Purépechan architecture is noted for "T"-shaped step pyramids known as yácatas. Tzintzuntzan The Teotihuacan civilization, which flourished from around 300 BCE to 500 CE, at its greatest extent included most of Mesoamerica. Teotihuacano culture collapsed around 550 and was followed by several large city-states such as Xochicalco and the ceremonial site of Tula. El Castillo & High Priest's Temple in Chichen Itza Pyramids of the Sun, the Moon and Temple of the Feathered Serpent in Teotihuacan Xochicalco Tula Talud-tablero The site called Tula, the Toltec capitol, in the state of Mexico is one of the best preserved five-tier pyramids in Mesoamerican civilization; the ground plan of the site has two pyramids, Pyramid B and Pyramid C. The best known Classic Veracruz pyramid, the Pyramid of Niches in El Tajín, is smaller than those of their neighbours and successors but more intricate. El Tajín The Zapotecs were one of the earliest Mesoamerican cultures and held sway over the Valley of Oaxaca region from the early first millennium BCE to about the 14th century.
Monte Albán Mitla The following sites are from northern Mesoamerica, built by cultures whose ethnic affiliations are unknown: This astronomical and ceremonial center was the product of the Chalchihuite culture. Its occupation and development had a period of 800 years; this zone is considered an important archaeological center because of the astonishing, accurate functions of the edifications. The ones that stand out the most are: The Moon Plaza, The Votive Pyramid, the Ladder of Gamio and The labyrinth. In The Labyrinth you can appreciate with precision and accuracy, the respective equinoxes and the seasons. A great quantity of buildings were constructed on artificial terraces upon the slopes of a hill; the materials used here include stone clay. The most important structures are: The Hall of Columns, The Ball Court, The Votive Pyramid, The Palace and the Barracks. On the most elevated part of the hill is The Fortress; this is composed of a small pyramid and a platform, encircled by a wall, more than 800m long and up to six feet high.
La Quemada was occupied from 800 to 1200. Their founders and occupants have not been identified with certainty but belonged to either the Chalchihuites culture or that of the neighbouring Malpaso culture. List of Mesoamerican pyramids Egyptian pyramids Mesoamerican architecture Pyramid Platform mound South American pyramids Step pyramid Triadic pyramid Ziggurat Meso-American pyramids Photos and descriptions of Yaxha, Edzna, El Mirador and other Meso-American pyramids
Atlantis is a fictional island mentioned within an allegory on the hubris of nations in Plato's works Timaeus and Critias, where it represents the antagonist naval power that besieges "Ancient Athens", the pseudo-historic embodiment of Plato's ideal state in The Republic. In the story, Athens repels the Atlantean attack unlike any other nation of the known world giving testament to the superiority of Plato's concept of a state; the story concludes with Atlantis falling out of favor with the deities and submerging into the Atlantic Ocean. Despite its minor importance in Plato's work, the Atlantis story has had a considerable impact on literature; the allegorical aspect of Atlantis was taken up in utopian works of several Renaissance writers, such as Francis Bacon's New Atlantis and Thomas More's Utopia. On the other hand, nineteenth-century amateur scholars misinterpreted Plato's narrative as historical tradition, most notably in Ignatius L. Donnelly's Atlantis: The Antediluvian World. Plato's vague indications of the time of the events—more than 9,000 years before his time—and the alleged location of Atlantis—"beyond the Pillars of Hercules"—has led to much pseudoscientific speculation.
As a consequence, Atlantis has become a byword for any and all supposed advanced prehistoric lost civilizations and continues to inspire contemporary fiction, from comic books to films. While present-day philologists and classicists agree on the story's fictional character, there is still debate on what served as its inspiration; as for instance with the story of Gyges, Plato is known to have borrowed some of his allegories and metaphors from older traditions. This led a number of scholars to investigate possible inspiration of Atlantis from Egyptian records of the Thera eruption, the Sea Peoples invasion, or the Trojan War. Others have rejected this chain of tradition as implausible and insist that Plato created an fictional nation as his example, drawing loose inspiration from contemporary events such as the failed Athenian invasion of Sicily in 415–413 BC or the destruction of Helike in 373 BC; the only primary sources for Atlantis are Plato's dialogues Critias. The dialogues claim to quote Solon, who visited Egypt between 590 and 580 BC.
Written in 360 BC, Plato introduced Atlantis in Timaeus: For it is related in our records how once upon a time your State stayed the course of a mighty host, starting from a distant point in the Atlantic ocean, was insolently advancing to attack the whole of Europe, Asia to boot. For the ocean there was at that time navigable. For all that we have here, lying within the mouth of which we speak, is evidently a haven having a narrow entrance. Now in this island of Atlantis there existed a confederation of kings, of great and marvelous power, which held sway over all the island, over many other islands and parts of the continent; the four people appearing in those two dialogues are the politicians Critias and Hermocrates as well as the philosophers Socrates and Timaeus of Locri, although only Critias speaks of Atlantis. In his works Plato makes extensive use of the Socratic method in order to discuss contrary positions within the context of a supposition; the Timaeus begins with an introduction, followed by an account of the creations and structure of the universe and ancient civilizations.
In the introduction, Socrates muses about the perfect society, described in Plato's Republic, wonders if he and his guests might recollect a story which exemplifies such a society. Critias mentions a tale he considered to be historical, that would make the perfect example, he follows by describing Atlantis as is recorded in the Critias. In his account, ancient Athens seems to represent the "perfect society" and Atlantis its opponent, representing the antithesis of the "perfect" traits described in the Republic. According to Critias, the Hellenic deities of old divided the land so that each deity might have their own lot; the island was larger than Ancient Libya and Asia Minor combined, but it was sunk by an earthquake and became an impassable mud shoal, inhibiting travel to any part of the ocean. Plato asserted that the Egyptians described Atlantis as an island consisting of mountains in the northern portions and along the shore and encompassing a great plain in an oblong shape in the south "extending in one direction three thousand stadia, but across the center inland it was two thousand stadia."
Fifty stadia from the coast was a mountain, low on all sides... broke it off all round about... the central island itself was five stades in diameter. In Plato's metaphorical tale, Poseidon fell in love with Cleito, the daughter of Evenor and Leucippe, who bore him five pairs of male twins; the eldest of these, was made rightful king of the entire island and the ocean, was given the mountain of his birth and the surrounding area as his fiefdom. Atlas's twin Gadeirus, or Eumelus in Greek, was given the extremity of the island to
An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes. A theme park is a type of amusement park that bases its structures and attractions around a central theme featuring multiple areas with different themes. Unlike temporary and mobile funfairs and carnivals, amusement parks are stationary and built for long-lasting operation, they are more elaborate than city parks and playgrounds providing attractions that cater to a variety of age groups. While amusement parks contain themed areas, theme parks place a heavier focus with more intricately-designed themes that revolve around a particular subject or group of subjects. Amusement parks evolved from European fairs, pleasure gardens and large picnic areas, which were created for people's recreation. World's fairs and other types of international expositions influenced the emergence of the amusement park industry. Lake Compounce opened in 1846 and is considered the oldest continuously-operating amusement park in North America.
The first theme parks emerged in the mid-twentieth century with the opening of Santa Claus Land in 1946, Santa's Workshop in 1949, Disneyland in 1955. The amusement park evolved from three earlier traditions: traveling or periodic fairs, pleasure gardens and exhibitions such as world fairs; the oldest influence was the periodic fair of the Middle Ages - one of the earliest was the Bartholomew Fair in England from 1133. By the 18th and 19th centuries, they had evolved into places of entertainment for the masses, where the public could view freak shows, acrobatics and juggling, take part in competitions and walk through menageries. A wave of innovation in the 1860s and 1870s created mechanical rides, such as the steam-powered carousel, its derivatives, notably from Frederick Savage of King's Lynn, Norfolk whose fairground machinery was exported all over the world; this inaugurated the era of the modern funfair ride, as the working classes were able to spend their surplus wages on entertainment.
The second influence was the pleasure garden. An example of this is the world's oldest amusement park, opened in mainland Europe in 1583, it is located north of Copenhagen in Denmark. Another early garden was the Vauxhall Gardens, founded in 1661 in London. By the late 18th century, the site had an admission fee for its many attractions, it drew enormous crowds, with its paths noted for romantic assignations. Although the gardens were designed for the elites, they soon became places of great social diversity. Public firework displays were put on at Marylebone Gardens, Cremorne Gardens offered music and animal acrobatics displays. Prater in Vienna, began as a royal hunting ground, opened in 1766 for public enjoyment. There followed coffee-houses and cafés, which led to the beginnings of the Wurstelprater as an amusement park; the concept of a fixed park for amusement was further developed with the beginning of the world's fairs. The first World fair began in 1851 with the construction of the landmark Crystal Palace in London, England.
The purpose of the exposition was to celebrate the industrial achievement of the nations of the world and it was designed to educate and entertain the visitors. American cities and business saw the world's fair as a way of demonstrating economic and industrial success; the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago, Illinois was an early precursor to the modern amusement park. The fair was an enclosed site, that merged entertainment and education to entertain the masses, it set out to bedazzle the visitors, did so with a blaze of lights from the "White City." To make sure that the fair was a financial success, the planners included a dedicated amusement concessions area called the Midway Plaisance. Rides from this fair captured the imagination of the visitors and of amusement parks around the world, such as the first steel Ferris wheel, found in many other amusement areas, such as the Prater by 1896; the experience of the enclosed ideal city with wonder, rides and progress, was based on the creation of an illusory place.
The "midway" introduced at the Columbian Exposition would become a standard part of most amusement parks, fairs and circuses. The midway contained not only the rides, but other concessions and entertainments such as shooting galleries, penny arcades, games of chance and shows. Many modern amusement parks evolved from earlier pleasure resorts that had become popular with the public for day-trips or weekend holidays, for example, seaside areas such as Blackpool, United Kingdom and Coney Island, United States. In the United States, some amusement parks grew from picnic groves established along rivers and lakes that provided bathing and water sports, such as Lake Compounce in Connecticut, first established as a picturesque picnic park in 1846, Riverside Park in Massachusetts, founded in the 1870s along the Connecticut River; the trick was getting the public to the resort location. For Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, on the Atlantic Ocean, a horse-drawn streetcar line brought pleasure seekers to the beach beginning in 1829.
In 1875, a million passengers rode the Coney Island Railroad, in 1876 two million visited Coney Island. Hotels and amusements were built to accommodate both the upper classes and the working class at the beach; the first carousel was installed in the 1870s, the first roller coaster, the "Switchback Railway", in 1884. In England, Blackpo
Antonio Zamperla S.p. A. is an Italian design and manufacturing company founded in 1966. It is best known for creating family rides, thrill rides and roller coasters worldwide; the company makes smaller coin-operated rides found inside shopping malls. Zamperla builds roller coasters, like the powered Dragon Coaster, Mini Mouse, Zig Zag, Volare. In 2006, Zamperla announced a motorcycle-themed roller coaster. Rights to some of S. D. C.'s rides were handed to Zamperla after the company went bankrupt in 1993. In 2005 the founder of the company, Mr. Antonio Zamperla, became the first Italian to be inducted into the IAAPA Hall of Fame by virtue of his significant contribution to the entire industry, joining other pioneers such as Walt Disney, George Ferris and Walter Knott. Unlike companies such as Intamin, Vekoma, or Bolliger & Mabillard that concentrate on larger and faster roller coasters, Zamperla focuses on more family-friendly roller coasters that can be mass-produced, taken down, transported to different locations.
They are a major manufacturer of flat rides with such names as: Balloon Race, Bumper cars, Disk'O, Ferris wheel, Water Flume Ride, Galleon/Swinging Ship, Sky Drop, Windshear, Energy Storm, Z-Force, Rotoshake, Turbo Force, Power Surge, Mini Jet. The company is organized in different departments, the Art Department that works on the study and creation of different themings of the rides, the Technical Department that designs the engineering of the attractions, the Production Department that handles their realization, the Sales Department, the Customer Care and the Park Development Department that works on the design and creation of an amusement park. In 2010 Antonio Zamperla S.p. A. was selected by CAI to restore and renovate the Coney Island area in New York City. The company managed Coney Island's Luna Park and installed only Zamperla rides, representing a perfect test bed for new attractions before to launch them. In 2003, Zamperla transformed the Trump Organization's Wollman Rink, within New York City's Central Park, into Victorian Gardens, a traditional-style amusement park with rides like the "Family Swinger", "Samba Balloon", "Aeromax", "Convoy", "Rocking Tug", "Kite Flyer".
Another famous Zamperla project is Kernwasser, north of Düsseldorf, a former nuclear power station, turned into an amusement park called Wunderland Kalkar. As of 2019, Zamperla has built 342 roller coasters around the world. Official website
A roller coaster is a type of amusement ride that employs a form of elevated railroad track designed with tight turns, steep slopes, sometimes inversions. People ride along the track in open cars, the rides are found in amusement parks and theme parks around the world. LaMarcus Adna Thompson obtained one of the first known patents for a roller coaster design in 1885, related to the Switchback Railway that opened a year earlier at Coney Island; the track in a coaster design does not have to be a complete circuit, as shuttle roller coasters demonstrate. Most roller coasters have multiple cars in which passengers are restrained. Two or more cars hooked together are called a train; some roller coasters, notably wild mouse roller coasters, run with single cars. The oldest roller coasters are believed to have originated from the so-called "Russian Mountains", specially constructed hills of ice located in the area, now Saint Petersburg, Russia. Built in the 17th century, the slides were built to a height of between 21 and 24 m, had a 50-degree drop, were reinforced by wooden supports.
In 1784, Catherine the Great is said to have constructed a sledding hill in the gardens of her palace at Oranienbaum in St. Petersburg; the name Russian Mountains to designate a roller coaster is preserved in many languages, but the Russian term for roller coasters is американские горки, which means "American mountains." The first modern roller coaster, the Promenades Aeriennes, opened in Parc Beaujon in Paris on July 8, 1817. It featured wheeled cars securely locked to the track, guide rails to keep them on course, higher speeds, it spawned half a dozen imitators. However, during the Belle Epoque they returned to fashion. In 1887 French entrepreneur Joseph Oller, co-founder of the Moulin Rouge music hall, constructed the Montagnes Russes de Belleville, "Russian Mountains of Belleville" with 656 feet of track laid out in a double-eight enlarged to four figure-eight-shaped loops. In 1827, a mining company in Summit Hill, Pennsylvania constructed the Mauch Chunk Switchback Railway, a downhill gravity railroad used to deliver coal to Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania – now known as Jim Thorpe.
By the 1850s, the "Gravity Road" was selling rides to thrill seekers. Railway companies used similar tracks to provide amusement on days. Using this idea as a basis, LaMarcus Adna Thompson began work on a gravity Switchback Railway that opened at Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, in 1884. Passengers climbed to the top of a platform and rode a bench-like car down the 600-foot track up to the top of another tower where the vehicle was switched to a return track and the passengers took the return trip; this track design was soon replaced with an oval complete circuit. In 1885, Phillip Hinkle introduced the first full-circuit coaster with a lift hill, the Gravity Pleasure Road, which became the most popular attraction at Coney Island. Not to be outdone, in 1886 Thompson patented his design of roller coaster that included dark tunnels with painted scenery. "Scenic Railways" were soon found in amusement parks across the county. By 1919, the first underfriction roller coaster had been developed by John Miller.
Soon, roller coasters spread to amusement parks all around the world. The best known historical roller coaster, was opened at Coney Island in 1927; the Great Depression marked the end of the golden age of roller coasters, theme parks, in general, went into decline. This lasted until 1972 when the instant success of The Racer at Kings Island began a roller coaster renaissance which has continued to this day. In 1959, Disneyland introduced a design breakthrough with Matterhorn Bobsleds, the first roller coaster to use a tubular steel track. Unlike wooden coaster rails, tubular steel can be bent in any direction, allowing designers to incorporate loops and many other maneuvers into their designs. Most modern roller coasters are made of steel, although wooden coasters and hybrids are still being built. There are several explanations of the name roller coaster, it is said to have originated from an early American design where slides or ramps were fitted with rollers over which a sled would coast. This design was abandoned in favor of fitting the wheels to the sled or other vehicles, but the name endured.
Another explanation is that it originated from a ride located in a roller skating rink in Haverhill, Massachusetts in 1887. A toboggan-like sled was raised to the top of a track; this Roller Toboggan took off down rolling hills to the floor. The inventors of this ride, Stephen E. Jackman and Byron B. Floyd, claim that they were the first to use the term "roller coaster"; the term jet coaster is used for roller coasters in Japan, where such amusement park rides are popular. In many languages, the name refers to "Russian mountains". Contrastingly, in Russian, they are called "American mountains". In the Scandinavian languages and German, the roller coaster is referred as "mountain-and-valley railway". German knows the word "Achterbahn", stemming from "Figur-8-Bahn", like Dutch "Achtbaan", relating to the form of the number 8; the cars on a typical roller coaster are not self-powered. Instead, a standard full circuit coaster is pulled up with a chain or cable along the lift hill to the first peak of the coaster track.
The potential energy accumulated by the rise in height is transferred to kinetic energy as the cars race down the first downward slope. Kinetic energy is converted back into potential energy as the train moves up again to the second peak; this hill is necessa
Jakarta the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java, it is the centre of economics and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, known as Jabodetabek, it is the world's second largest urban agglomeration with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010. Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures. Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. Jakarta is a province with special capital region status, but is referred to as a city; the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York. Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city; as of 2017, the city is home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies. In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more than Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion and inequality, potential crimes and flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements: Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Jakarta.
Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta, derived from Sanskrit language. It was named after troops of Fatahillah defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527. Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa". In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. During Japanese occupation the city was renamed as Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi; the north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia; the area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century.
The Tugu inscription discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java; the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles; the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.
The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post; this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with
Dolphin is a common name of aquatic mammals within the order Cetacea, arbitrarily excluding whales and porpoises. The term dolphin refers to the extant families Delphinidae, Platanistidae and Pontoporiidae, the extinct Lipotidae. There are 40 extant species named as dolphins. Dolphins range in size from the 1.7 m long and 50 kg Maui's dolphin to the 9.5 m and 10 t killer whale. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism, they have two limbs that are modified into flippers. Though not quite as flexible as seals, some dolphins can travel at 55.5 km/h. Dolphins use their conical shaped teeth to capture fast moving prey, they have well-developed hearing, adapted for both air and water and is so well developed that some can survive if they are blind. Some species are well adapted for diving to great depths, they have a layer of blubber, under the skin to keep warm in the cold water. Although dolphins are widespread, most species prefer the warmer waters of the tropic zones, but some, like the right whale dolphin, prefer colder climates.
Dolphins feed on fish and squid, but a few, like the killer whale, feed on large mammals, like seals. Male dolphins mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years. Calves are born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a long period of time. Dolphins produce a variety of vocalizations in the form of clicks and whistles. Dolphins are sometimes hunted in places such as Japan, in an activity known as dolphin drive hunting. Besides drive hunting, they face threats from bycatch, habitat loss, marine pollution. Dolphins have been depicted in various cultures worldwide. Dolphins feature in literature and film, as in the film series Free Willy. Dolphins are sometimes trained to perform tricks; the most common dolphin species in captivity is the bottlenose dolphin, while there are around 60 captive killer whales. The name is from Greek δελφίς, "dolphin", related to the Greek δελφύς, "womb".
The animal's name can therefore be interpreted as meaning "a'fish' with a womb". The name was transmitted via the Latin delphinus, which in Medieval Latin became dolfinus and in Old French daulphin, which reintroduced the ph into the word; the term mereswine has historically been used. The term'dolphin' can be used to refer to, under the parvorder Odontoceti, all the species in the family Delphinidae and the river dolphin families Iniidae, Pontoporiidae and Platanistidae; this term has been misused in the US in the fishing industry, where all small cetaceans are considered porpoises, while the fish dorado is called dolphin fish. In common usage the term'whale' is used only for the larger cetacean species, while the smaller ones with a beaked or longer nose are considered'dolphins'; the name'dolphin' is used casually as a synonym for bottlenose dolphin, the most common and familiar species of dolphin. There are six species of dolphins thought of as whales, collectively known as blackfish: the killer whale, the melon-headed whale, the pygmy killer whale, the false killer whale, the two species of pilot whales, all of which are classified under the family Delphinidae and qualify as dolphins.
Though the terms'dolphin' and'porpoise' are sometimes used interchangeably, porpoises are not considered dolphins and have different physical features such as a shorter beak and spade-shaped teeth. Porpoises share a common ancestry with the Delphinidae. A group of dolphins is called a "school" or a "pod". Male dolphins are called "bulls", females "cows" and young dolphins are called "calves". Parvorder Odontoceti, toothed whales Family Platanistidae Ganges and Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica with two subspecies Ganges river dolphin, Platanista gangetica gangetica Indus river dolphin, Platanista gangetica minor Family Iniidae Amazon river dolphin, Inia geoffrensis Orinoco river dolphin, Inia geoffrensis humboldtiana Araguaian river dolphin, Inia Araguaiaensis Bolivian river dolphin, Inia boliviensis Family Lipotidae Baiji, Lipotes vexillifer Family Pontoporiidae La Plata dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei Family Delphinidae, oceanic dolphins Genus Delphinus Long-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus capensis Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis Genus Tursiops Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus Burrunan dolphin, Tursiops australis, a newly discovered species from the sea around Melbourne in September 2011.
Genus Lissodelphis Northern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis borealis Southern right whale dolphin, Lissodelphis peronii Genus Sotalia Tucuxi, Sotalia fluviatilis Costero, Sotalia guianensis Genus Sousa Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, Sousa chinensis Chinese white dolphin, Sousa chinensis chinensis Atlantic humpback dolphin, Sousa teuszii Genus Stenella Atlantic spotted dolphin, Stenella frontalis Clymene dolphin, Stenella clymene Pantropical