New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Cravens Railway Carriage and Wagon Company Limited was a railway rolling stock builder in the Darnall district of Sheffield, England. Founded by brothers named Craven and known as Craven Brothers Cravens Limited, it remained a family business until John Brown & Company acquired a controlling shareholding in 1919, its name was changed back to Cravens Limited in 1954 when it became a wholly owned subsidiary of John Brown. Two Sheffield-raised Craven brothers, sons of a Wakefield mason and builders themselves began to make railway wagons in 1866 when railway companies pulled wagons purpose-built wagons, for other owners. A third brother an architect and timber merchant, soon joined them. John Brown & Company acquired a substantial interest in Craven's in 1919 "not only as in itself a sound investment but as a means of ensuring a friendly customer for much of the company's product in railway material". By 1965 John Brown found that Craven's major home customer, British Rail, was its competitor both at home and in export markets and elected to withdraw.
In 1966 Metropolitan-Cammell absorbed the railway rolling stock business of Cravens. In 1967 the remaining rolling stock business switched to making shipping containers under the name Cravens Homalloy; the engineering division became Bone-Cravens and made plastic extrusion and plastic moulding machines. During the 1880s London's The Times newspaper made regular reports on the state of trade throughout England and Scotland. From taking a low place in reports on Sheffield by 1890 Cravens were near the top of those reports. Published successes were: In 1883 Great Northern Company ordered 400 sets of wheels and axles. In 1885 Messrs Craven Brothers of Darnall Carriage Works have completed and delivered to the Cheshire Lines Connittee 40 composite carriages for use in the Manchester expresses. Cravens have built several fine dining saloons for express service and other railway carriages, wagons etc. North British Railway have placed an order for 500 sets of axles; the South Eastern railway have placed an order for 100 railway carriages including 50 third class.
India, Argentine Republic and South America as well as Home railway companies are ordering tires, springs and other railway items. A new Palace Car, a sleeping and dining car for the Buenos Ayres Great Southern Railway Company... largest of it kind constructed in this country... 60 feet long 9 feet 4inches wide and 9 feet 5 inches high... contains a saloon and a ladies saloon as well as lavatories, bathrooms and an attendant's room.. Design and drawings by Mr T F Craven. Craven's built many diagrams of coaching stock for the pre-grouping Railway companies of Great Britain, the grouped companies and for British Railways itself, they constructed coaches for many railway companies around the world. As well as surface running stock they built vehicles for underground railways and noted are the London Underground A60 Stock. With modernisation the company adapted to build diesel multiple units and electric multiple units for British Railways. One of its last orders, in 1963, was of 55 mainline carriages, broadly similar to the British Railways Mark 1 design, for the Irish railway company Córas Iompair Éireann.
Another of the orders received and completed before the absorption by Metro Cammell was a royal train for Peru. Craven's made airframe components and maintained supply of road and rail vehicles for the Admiralty and Ministry of Supply including: limbers, gun shields, gun mountings, gun turrets, rocket ammunition racks, ammunition boxes, components for armoured vehicles. Many employees in the railway industry in general developed diseases related to asbestos, used during the locomotive and carriage building process; these diseases include peritoneal mesothelioma, lung cancer, diffuse pleural thickening and other pleural abnormalities. Some ex Cravens employees have been awarded significant compensation in such cases but some families received small amounts of compensation. One of the methods of working employed at Craven's was shooting a wet slurry of asbestos from a pressure gun; the operators would stand under a railway car supported on large trestles and spray the asbestos slurry in a 2-inch-thick layer onto the underside of the railway car.
This was done to provide sound insulation to the floor of the railway car prior to final assembly. Problems with asbestos in Craven's stock continued for many years. Craven's standard stock cars 4906 to 4909 were withdrawn from service in 1975 and 1976, the schedule for their replacement suffered severe delays due to the discovery of asbestos in some of the Driving Motor cars; because of this, it was 1983. In Spring 1961 CIÉ sought tenders for the supply of 40 new Standard Class coaches, 10 to be delivered complete, the rest "part-finished" for assembly in Inchicore, with technical assistance from the suppliers; the £500,000 contract was awarded to Cravens of Sheffield. It was reported that these new vehicles "would set a pattern for future construction of CIÉ carriage stock." The first of the Sheffield-built coaches was unloaded at the North Wall, Dublin on 3 May 1963 and taken to Inchicore for acceptance. These saw long service, the last not being withdrawn from main line service until 2006 and some are preserved by the Railway Preservation Society of Ireland.
Craven's trains are preserved by the Craven Heritage Train group. One carriage built by Cravens for the Metropolitan Railway in 1892 is preserved by the London Transport Museum. Another built in 1900 is preserved on the Bluebell Railway in Sussex. Ex-Iarnród Éireann Craven
Kelham Island Brewery
The Kelham Island Brewery is a small independent brewery based in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. In 1990 the brewery was opened on purpose-built premises on Alma Street by the owner of the Fat Cat public house, Dave Wickett; as well as the Fat Cat, the brewery owns a British-styled pub in Rochester, New York, named the Old Toad. Its beer Pale Rider won the "Champion Beer of Britain" award at the 2004 Campaign for Real Ale organised Great British Beer Festival; the brewery is situated next to the Kelham Island Industrial Museum. List of breweries in England Kelham Island Brewery The Fat Cat The Devonshire Cat
A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes and functions, have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, land prices, ground conditions, specific uses, aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures. Buildings serve several societal needs – as shelter from weather, living space, privacy, to store belongings, to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical division of the outside. Since the first cave paintings, buildings have become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in sustainable planning and building practices has become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings; the word building is the act of making it. As a noun, a building is'a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place'.
In the broadest interpretation a fence or wall is a building. However, the word structure is used more broadly than building including natural and man-made formations and does not have walls. Structure is more to be used for a fence. Sturgis' Dictionary included that " differs from architecture in excluding all idea of artistic treatment; as a verb, building is the act of construction. Structural height in technical usage is the height to the highest architectural detail on building from street-level. Depending on how they are classified and masts may or may not be included in this height. Spires and masts used as antennas are not included; the definition of a low-rise vs. a high-rise building is a matter of debate, but three storeys or less is considered low-rise. A report by Shinichi Fujimura of a shelter built 500 000 years ago is doubtful since Fujimura was found to have faked many of his findings. Supposed remains of huts found at the Terra Amata site in Nice purportedly dating from 200 000 to 400 000 years ago have been called into question.
There is clear evidence of homebuilding from around 18 000 BC. Buildings became common during the Neolithic. Single-family residential buildings are most called houses or homes. Multi-family residential buildings containing more than one dwelling unit are called a duplex or an apartment building. A condominium is an apartment rather than rents. Houses may be built in pairs, in terraces where all but two of the houses have others either side. Houses which were built as a single dwelling may be divided into apartments or bedsitters. Building types may range from huts to multimillion-dollar high-rise apartment blocks able to house thousands of people. Increasing settlement density in buildings is a response to high ground prices resulting from many people wanting to live close to work or similar attractors. Other common building materials are concrete or combinations of either of these with stone. Residential buildings have different names for their use depending if they are seasonal include holiday cottage or timeshare.
If the residents are in need of special care such as a nursing home, orphanage or prison. Many people lived in communal buildings called longhouses, smaller dwellings called pit-houses and houses combined with barns sometimes called housebarns. Buildings are defined to be substantial, permanent structures so other dwelling forms such as houseboats and motorhomes are dwellings but not buildings. Sometimes a group of inter-related builds are referred to as a complex – for example a housing complex, educational complex, hospital complex, etc; the practice of designing and operating buildings is most a collective effort of different groups of professionals and trades. Depending on the size and purpose of a particular building project, the project team may include: A real estate developer who secures funding for the project. Other possible design Engineer specialists may be involved such as Fire, facade engineers, building physics, Telecomms, AV (Audio V
Sheffield Hallam University
Sheffield Hallam University is a public university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It is based on two sites; the university is the 11th largest university in the UK with 30,815 students, 4,494 staff and 708 courses. In 1843 as the industrial revolution gathered pace and Sheffield was on the verge of becoming the steel and cutlery making capital of the world, the Sheffield School of Design was founded following lobbying by artist Benjamin Haydon; the day-to-day running was controlled by the local council, whilst the Board of Trade in London appointed the head. Tuition began in a 60x40ft rented room off Glossop Road. In 1850 the School of Design was renamed Sheffield School of Art. In 1905 the City of Sheffield Training College on Collegiate Crescent admitted its first 90 students. In 1967 the Owen Building was constructed. Built in a functional 1960s design, it has since been modernised and comprehensively renovated with an atrium linking it to four adjacent buildings. In 1969 the Sheffield School of Design merged with the city's College of Technology to form Sheffield Polytechnic.
In 1976 Sheffield Polytechnic merged with the city's two teacher training colleges and was renamed Sheffield City Polytechnic. In 1987 Sheffield City Polytechnic became a founding member of the Northern Consortium. In 1992 Sheffield City Polytechnic became Sheffield Hallam University, with the right to award its own degrees. In 2005 SHU was reorganised into four faculties; the new Faculty of Development and Society, with an emphasis on'people and spaces', brought together education, humanities and social sciences. At the same time, with the intention of further developing research and teaching in the new Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, a new Clinical Academic Group was launched; the building, designed and constructed to house the National Centre for Popular Music became the university's students' union building. The Nelson Mandela Building, the former students' union building, was sold and has since been demolished. In 2007 SHU took over the teaching of midwifery from the University of Sheffield.
These activities are now based at the Collegiate Crescent Campus. The following year the Psalter Lane campus was closed, the activities transferred to the City Campus; the £ 26 million energy-efficient. The building, which includes teaching spaces and an art gallery has been described as "the impressive new entry point to the campus". SHU is divided into four faculties: Faculty of Science and Arts Formally known as the Faculty of Arts, Computing and Sciences: Art & Design. Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Formally known as the Faculty of Development and Society: Architecture. Faculty of Health and Wellbeing Biosciences. Sheffield Business School Formerly known as the Faculty of Organisation and Management: Business & Management. SHU has 30 research centres, including: Art & Design Research Centre Biomedical Research Centre Centre for Education and Inclusion Research Centre for Health and Social Care Research Centre for Professional and Organisational Development Centre for Regional Economic & Social Research Centre for Science Education Centre for Sport and Exercise Science Centre for Sports Engineering Research Centre for Sustainable Consumption Centre for Tourism and Environmental Change Culture and Computing Research Institute Facilities Management Graduate Centre National Centre of Excellence for Food Engineering Materials and Engineering Research Institute Sport Industry Research CentreThrough the research centres a number of spin-off companies have been formed, including: Sheaf Solutions – automotive and aerospace organisation Hallam Biotech – biotech analysis and synthesis Materials Analysis & Research Services – materials analysis and solutions Bodycote – materials coating Design Futures – product design, packaging design, research & strategy British barrister and life peer of the House of Lords Helena Kennedy was installed as Chancellor in a ceremony at Cutlers' Hall on Thursday 26 July 2018.
Bryan Nicholson 1992-2001 Robert Winston 2001-2018 Helena Kennedy 2018-present SHU is the lead partner for Higher Futures, the Lifelong Learning Network for South Yorkshire, North Derbyshire and North Nottinghamshire. In the National Student Survey, several subject areas at SHU have performed well in terms of overall student satisfaction with their courses: for example and geography have both been placed first, planning has been placed second. In the 2013/14 university league tables, Sheffield Hallam University was placed 73rd out of 1
University of Sheffield
The University of Sheffield is a public research university in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England. It received its royal charter in 1905 as successor to the University College of Sheffield, established in 1897 by the merger of Sheffield Medical School, Firth College and Sheffield Technical School. Sheffield is a multi-campus university predominantly over two campus areas: the Western Bank and the St George's; the university is organised into five academic faculties composed of multiple departments. It had 20,005 undergraduate and 8,710 postgraduate students in 2016/17; the annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £691.8 million of which £197.5 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £636.8 million. Sheffield ranks among the top 10 of UK universities for research grant funding. Sheffield was placed 75th worldwide and 13th in the UK according to QS World University Rankings and 106th worldwide and 12th in the UK according to Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
It was ranked 12th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework. In 2011, Sheffield was named'University of the Year' in the Times Higher Education awards; the Times Higher Education Student Experience Survey 2014 ranked the University of Sheffield 1st for student experience, social life, university facilities and accommodation, among other categories. It is one of the original red brick universities, a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive universities, the Worldwide Universities Network, the N8 Group of the eight most research intensive universities in Northern England and the White Rose University Consortium. There are eight Nobel laureates affiliated with Sheffield and six of them are the alumni or former long-term staff of the university; the University of Sheffield was formed by the merger of three colleges. The Sheffield School of Medicine was founded in 1828, followed in 1879 by the opening of Firth College, which developed out of the Cambridge University Extension Movement scheme, by Mark Firth, a steel manufacturer, to teach arts and science subjects.
Firth College helped to fund the opening of the Sheffield Technical School in 1884 to teach applied science, the only major faculty the existing colleges did not cover. The Sheffield Technical School was founded because of local concern about the need for technical training steelmaking in Sheffield, the school moved to St George's Square in 1886; the three institutions merged in 1897 to form the University College of Sheffield by Royal Charter. Sheffield was the only large city in England without a university. Steelworkers, coal miners, factory workers and the people of Sheffield donated over £50,000 in 1904 to help found the University of Sheffield, it was envisaged that the University College would join Manchester and Leeds as the fourth member of the federal Victoria University. However, the Victoria University began to split up as independent universities before this could happen and so the University College of Sheffield received its own Royal Charter on 31 May 1905 and became the University of Sheffield.
In July 1905, Firth Court on Western Bank was opened by King Edward Queen Alexandra. St George's Square remained the centre of departments of Applied Science, the departments of Arts and Science moved to Western Bank. Sheffield is one of the six red brick universities, the civic universities founded in the major industrial cities of England. In 1905, there were 114 full-time students, the first Hall of Residence and library had been established by then; the number of students increased to a short-lived peak of 1,000 in 1919. During the First World War, some of the academic subjects and courses were replaced by teaching of munitions making and medical appliances production. Rather than from a single centre, the university has expanded since the 1920s from two ends, the Firth Court on Western Bank and the Sir Frederick Mappin Building on the St George's site. In 1943, the University Grants Committee announced that universities in the UK should look forward to expansion in the years after the Second World War.
Sheffield predicted a 50% increase in student population but the university was unprepared for such growth. There was pressure on the university to expand since the student numbers had increased from around 1,000 to 3,000 by 1946; the university announced proposals for development in 1947, which emphasised the need for new departments, medical school, administration building, halls of residence, as well as the completion of the Western Bank Quadrangles and the extension of the Students’ Union. The university grew until the 1950s and 1960s when it began to expand rapidly. Many new buildings were built and older houses were brought into academic use. Student numbers increased to their present levels of just under 26,000. At the same time in the 1950s, the university was expanding at other sites, including the St Georges area. From the 1960s, many more buildings have been constructed or extended, including the Union of Students and St George's Library; the campus master plan proposed in the 1940s was completed by the 1970s, the university required a new development plan.
The 1980s saw the opening of many new buildings and centres, such as the multi-purpose Octagon Centre and the Sir Henry Stephenson Building. The university's teaching hospital, Northern General Hospital, was extended. In 1987 the University began to collaborate with its once would-be partners of the Victoria University by co-founding the Northern Consortium.
GKN plc is a British multinational automotive and aerospace components company headquartered in Redditch, Worcestershire. The company was known as Guest and Nettlefolds and can trace its origins to 1759 and the birth of the Industrial Revolution; the origins of GKN lie in the founding of the Dowlais Ironworks in the village of Dowlais, Merthyr Tydfil, Wales, by Thomas Lewis and Isaac Wilkinson. John Guest was appointed manager of the works in 1767. In 1786 Guest was succeeded by his son, Thomas Guest, who formed the Dowlais Iron Company with his son-in-law William Taitt. Guest introduced the works prospered. Under Guest's leadership, alongside his manager John Evans, after his death in 1852 that of his wife Lady Charlotte Guest, the Dowlais Ironworks gained the reputation of being "one of the World's great industrial concerns". Though the Bessemer process was licensed in 1856, nine years of detailed planning and project management were needed before the first steel was produced; the company thrived with its new cost-effective production methods, forming alliances with the Consett Iron Company and Krupp.
By 1857 G. T. Clark and William Menelaus, his manager, had constructed the "Goat Mill", the world's most powerful rolling mill. By the mid-1860s, Clark's reforms had borne fruit in renewed profitability. Clark delegated day-to-day management to Menelaus, his trusteeship terminating in 1864 when ownership passed to Sir Ivor Guest. Clark continued to direct policy, building a new plant at the docks at Cardiff and vetoing a joint-stock company, he formally retired in 1897. On 9 July 1900, the Dowlais Iron Company and Arthur Keen's Patent Nut and Bolt Company merged to form Guest, Keen & Co. Ltd. Nettlefolds Limited, a leading manufacturer of fasteners, established in Smethwick, West Midlands in 1854, was acquired in 1902 leading to the change of name to Guest and Nettlefolds -. In 1920 John Lysaght and Co. was acquired. Steel production remained under increasing profit margin pressure. In 1930 the company combined its steel production business with that of rival Baldwins to form Guest Keen Baldwins, which now held: Baldwins: Coke ovens at Margam.
Due to a resultant global shortage of pig iron, in 1937 the company fired-up the single remaining blast furnace at Dowlais. All of the sites were bombed by the Nazi Luftwaffe during the war, the required investment meant that all of these assets were nationalised as part of the 1951 Iron and Steel Act, resultantly becoming part of the Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain. GKN were still reliant on the supply of good quality steel, so in 1954 negotiated from the asset realisation company the repurchase of key assets from ISC, which were renamed Guest Keen Iron and Steel Co. In 1961 the company's name changed again to GKN Steel Company; these mergers heralded half a century in which GKN became a major manufacturer of screws, nuts and other fasteners. The company reflected the vertical integration fashionable at the time embracing activities from coal and ore extraction, iron and steel making to manufacturing finished goods. After the First World War it became apparent that Britain was to follow France and more the United States in developing a large scale auto-industry.
GKN acquired another fastener manufacturer, F. W. Cotterill Ltd. in 1919. Cotterill owned; the forgings produced at the Garrington Darlaston plant supplemented by a large plant at Bromsgrove, enabled GKN to become a major supplier of crankshafts, connecting rods, half-shafts and numerous smaller forged components to the UK auto-industry during and beyond the period of massive expansion between the two world wars. In 1920, GKN purchased their subsidiary, Joseph Sankey and Sons Ltd.. After training as an engineer, Sankey founded a major tea tray producer. A pioneer motorist, he became friends with Herbert Austin, becoming a supplier of sheet steel components to the industry. By 1914, the company's customers for sheet steel bodies included Austin, Humber, Rover and Argyll. Due to complaints from motor manufacturers about the propensity of the then-wooden wheels on early cars to disintegrate on the slightest encounter with any roadside kerb, using his experience from tea trays Sankey developed an alternate pressed-steel wheel.
Production started in 1908, with customers including Herbert Austin and William Morris. In addition to his original factory at Bilston a new plant was established near Wellington, devoted to wheel production. By the time the business was acquired by GKN, the plant was supplying wheels to many UK manufacturers. By 1969 the highly-automated Wellington plant was producing over 5½ million wheels a year at a maximum rate of 30,000 per day; the business undertook other automotive related works, including supplying the chassis for the Triumph Herald and its derivatives. They were at this time building the versatile GKN developed GKN FV432 armoured personnel carrier; the postwar government nationalised the steel industry under Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain. The act of parliament of 1949 took effect in February 1951. In 1951, a new subsidiary Blade Research & Development was formed at Aldridge, Staffordshire, to produce aero