Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a late 14th-century Middle English chivalric romance. It is one of the best known Arthurian stories, with its plot combining two types of folklore motifs, the beheading game and the exchange of winnings. Written in stanzas of alliterative verse, each of which ends in a rhyming bob and wheel, it draws on Welsh and English stories, as well as the French chivalric tradition, it is an important example of a chivalric romance, which involves a hero who goes on a quest which tests his prowess, it remains popular to this day in modern English renderings from J. R. R. Tolkien, Simon Armitage, others, as well as through film and stage adaptations, it describes how Sir Gawain, a knight of King Arthur's Round Table, accepts a challenge from a mysterious "Green Knight" who challenges any knight to strike him with his axe if he will take a return blow in a year and a day. Gawain accepts and beheads him with his blow, at which the Green Knight stands up, picks up his head and reminds Gawain of the appointed time.
In his struggles to keep his bargain, Gawain demonstrates chivalry and loyalty until his honour is called into question by a test involving Lady Bertilak, the lady of the Green Knight's castle. The poem survives in a single manuscript, Cotton Nero A.x. which includes three religious narrative poems: Pearl and Patience. All are thought to have been written by the same unknown author, dubbed the "Pearl Poet" or "Gawain Poet", since all four are written in a North West Midland dialect of Middle English. In Camelot on New Year's Day, King Arthur's court is exchanging gifts and waiting for the feasting to start when the king asks first to see or hear of an exciting adventure. A gigantic figure green in appearance and riding a green horse, rides unexpectedly into the hall, he bears an axe in one hand and a holly bough in the other. Refusing to fight anyone there on the grounds that they are all too weak to take him on, he insists he has come for a friendly "Christmas game": someone is to strike him once with his axe on condition that the Green Knight may return the blow in a year and a day.
The splendid axe will belong to. Arthur himself is prepared to accept the challenge when it appears no other knight will dare, but Sir Gawain, youngest of Arthur's knights and his nephew, begs for the honour instead; the giant bends and bares his neck before him and Gawain neatly beheads him in one stroke. However, the Green Knight neither falls nor falters, but instead reaches out, picks up his severed head and remounts, holding up his bleeding head to Queen Guinevere while its writhing lips remind Gawain that the two must meet again at the Green Chapel, he rides away. Gawain and Arthur admire the axe, hang it up as a trophy and encourage Guinevere to treat the whole matter lightly; as the date approaches, Sir Gawain sets off to find the Green Chapel and keep his side of the bargain. Many adventures and battles are alluded to until Gawain comes across a splendid castle where he meets Bertilak de Hautdesert, the lord of the castle, his beautiful wife, who are pleased to have such a renowned guest.
Present is an old and ugly lady, unnamed but treated with great honour by all. Gawain tells them of his New Year's appointment at the Green Chapel and that he only has a few days remaining. Bertilak laughs, explains that the start of the path that will take him to the Green Chapel is less than two miles away and proposes that Gawain rest at the castle till then. Relieved and grateful, Gawain agrees. Before going hunting the next day Bertilak proposes a bargain: he will give Gawain whatever he catches on the condition that Gawain give him whatever he might gain during the day. Gawain accepts. After Bertilak leaves, Lady Bertilak visits Gawain's bedroom and behaves seductively, but despite her best efforts he yields nothing but a single kiss in his unwillingness to offend her; when Bertilak returns and gives Gawain the deer he has killed, his guest gives a kiss to Bertilak without divulging its source. The next day the lady comes again, Gawain again courteously foils her advances, that day there is a similar exchange of a hunted boar for two kisses.
She comes once more on this time offering Gawain a gold ring as a keepsake. He but steadfastly refuses but she pleads that he at least take her belt, a girdle of green and gold silk which, the lady assures him, is charmed and will keep him from all physical harm. Tempted, as he may otherwise die the next day, Gawain accepts it, they exchange three kisses; that evening, Bertilak returns with a fox, which he exchanges with Gawain for the three kisses – but Gawain says nothing of the girdle. The next day, Gawain binds the belt twice around his waist, he finds the Green Knight sharpening an axe and, as promised, Gawain bends his bared neck to receive his blow. At the first swing Gawain flinches and the Green Knight belittles him for it. Ashamed of himself, Gawain doesn't flinch with the second swing; the knight explains. Angrily Gawain tells him to deliver his blow and so the knight does, causing only a slight wound on Gawain's neck; the game is over. Gawain seizes his sword and shield, but the Green Knight, reveals himself to be the lord of the castle, Bertilak de Hautdesert, transformed by magic.
He explains that the entire adventure was a trick of the'elderly lady' Gawain saw at the castle, the sorceress Morgan le Fay, Arthur's sister, who intended to test Arthur's knights and frighten Guinevere to death. Gawain is ashamed to have behaved deceitfully but the Green Knight laughs and professes him t
Beren and Lúthien
The tale of Beren and Lúthien, told in several works by J. R. R. Tolkien, is the story of the love and adventures of the mortal Man Beren and the immortal Elf-maiden Lúthien. Tolkien wrote several versions of their story, the latest in The Silmarillion, the tale is mentioned in The Lord of the Rings; the story takes place during the First Age of Middle-earth, about 6,500 years before the events of The Lord of the Rings. Beren, son of Barahir, cut a Silmaril from Morgoth's crown as the bride price for Lúthien, daughter of the elf-king Thingol and Melian the Maia, he was slain by Carcharoth, the wolf of Angband. He lived with Lúthien on Tol Galen in Ossiriand, fought the Dwarves at Sarn Athard, he was the great-grandfather of Elrond and Elros, thus the ancestor of the Númenórean kings. After the fulfilment of the quest of the Silmaril and Beren's death, Lúthien chose to become mortal and to share Beren's fate; the first version of the story is the Tale of Tinúviel, written in 1917 and published in The Book of Lost Tales.
During the 1920s Tolkien started to reshape the tale and to transform it into an epic poem which he called The Lay of Leithian. He never finished it. After his death The Lay of Leithian was published in The Lays of Beleriand, together with The Lay of the Children of Húrin and several other unfinished poems; the latest version of the tale is told in prose form in one chapter of The Silmarillion and is recounted by Aragorn in The Fellowship of the Ring. The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen, told in the appendices of The Lord of the Rings, served as a sequel to this story. Indeed, both Aragorn and Arwen were descendants of Lúthien; as told in The Silmarillion, the version of the tale: Beren was the last survivor of a group of Men in Dorthonion led by his father Barahir that had still resisted Morgoth, the Dark Enemy, after the Battle of Sudden Flame, in which Morgoth had conquered much of northern Middle-earth. After the defeat of his companions he fled from peril into the elvish realm Doriath. There he met Lúthien, the only daughter of King Thingol and Melian the Maia, as she was dancing and singing in a glade.
Upon seeing her Beren fell in love. She fell in love with him as well, when he, moved by her beauty and enchanting voice, gave her the nickname "Tinúviel" As Thingol disliked Beren and regarded him as being unworthy of his daughter, he set a impossible task on Beren that he had to achieve before he could marry Lúthien. Thingol asked Beren to bring him one of the Silmarils, the three hallowed jewels made by Fëanor, which Morgoth had stolen from the elves. Beren set out on his quest to Angband, the enemy's fortress. Although Thingol tried to prevent it, Lúthien followed him. On his journey to the enemy's land Beren reached Nargothrond, an Elvish stronghold, was joined by ten warriors under the lead of King Finrod, who had sworn an oath of friendship to Beren's father. Although Fëanor's sons and Curufin, warned them not to take the Silmaril that they considered their own, the company was determined to accompany Beren. On their way to Angband they were seized by the servants of Sauron, despite the best efforts of Finrod to maintain their guise as Orcs, imprisoned in Tol-in-Gaurhoth.
One by one they were killed by a werewolf until only Beren and Finrod remained. When the wolf went for Beren, Finrod broke his chains and wrestled it with such fierceness that they both died; when she was following Beren, Lúthien was captured and brought to Nargothrond by Celegorm and Curufin. Aided by Huan, Celegorm's hound, she was able to flee. With his aid she came to Sauron's fortress where Huan defeated the werewolves of the Enemy, Draugluin the sire of werewolves, Sauron himself in wolf-form. Lúthien forced Sauron to give ownership of the tower to her, she freed the prisoners, among them Beren. Meanwhile, Sauron fled to Taur-nu-Fuin. Beren wanted to try his task once more alone; however they were attacked by Celegorm and Curufin, exiled from Nargothrond. Beren was wounded by Curufin. Through magic they took the shapes of the bat Thuringwethil and the wolf Draugluin that Huan had killed. Thereby they were able to enter the enemy's land and at last came to Angband and before Morgoth's throne.
There Lúthien sang a magical song which made his court fall asleep. As he tried to cut out the others, his knife broke and a shard glanced off Morgoth's face, awakening him; as they attempted to leave, the gate was barred by Carcharoth, a giant werewolf, bred as an opponent to Huan. He swallowed Beren's hand, in which Beren was holding the Silmaril. Carcharoth ran off madly. Eagles helped Beren and Lúthien escape. Beren and Lúthien returned to Doriath, where they told of their deeds and thereby softened Thingol's heart, he accepted the marriage of his daughter and the mortal Man, although Beren's task had not been fulfilled. Beren and Huan participated in the hunt for Carcharoth, who in his madness had come into Doriath and caused much destruction there. Both of them were killed by the wolf, but Carcharoth was slain. Before he d
The History of The Lord of the Rings
The History of The Lord of the Rings is a four-volume work by Christopher Tolkien published between 1988 and 1992 that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkien's writing of The Lord of the Rings; the History is numbered as volumes six to nine of The History of Middle-earth. Some information concerning the appendices and a soon-abandoned sequel to the novel can be found in volume twelve, The Peoples of Middle-earth; the volumes include: The Return of the Shadow The Treason of Isengard The War of the Ring Sauron Defeated The first volume of The History encompasses three initial stages of composition or, as Christopher Tolkien calls them, "phases", finishes with the Fellowship of the Ring entering the Mines of Moria. The second volume continues to the meeting with Théoden king of Rohan, includes discussions of the original map of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, of the evolution of Cirth; the third volume, The War of the Ring continues to the opening of the Black Gate. The last volume finishes the story and features the rejected Epilogue, in which Sam answers his children's questions.
It includes The Notion Club Papers, a draft of the Drowning of Anadûnê, the only extant account of Tolkien's fictional language Adûnaic. Some paperback editions of the fourth volume, retitled The End of the Third Age, include only the materials for The Lord of the Rings; the original idea was to release The History of The Lord of the Rings in not four. When The Treason of Isengard was first published in paperback Volume 8 was to be called Sauron Defeated and was to be the last volume; the titles of the volumes derive from discarded titles for the separate books of The Lord of the Rings. J. R. R. Tolkien conceived the latter as a single volume comprising six "books" plus extensive appendices, but the original publisher split the work into three, publishing two books per volume with the appendices included in the third; the titles proposed by Tolkien for the six books were: Book I, The First Journey or The Ring Sets Out. The title The Return of the Shadow was a discarded title for Volume I. Three of the titles of the volumes of The History of The Lord of the Rings were used as book titles for the seven-volume edition of The Lord of the Rings: The Treason of Isengard for Book III, The War of the Ring for Book V, The End of the Third Age for Book VI.
There is an inscription in Fëanorian characters on the title pages of every History of Middle-earth volume, written by Christopher Tolkien and describing the contents of the book. The inscription in Volume VI reads: In the Return of the Shadow are traced the first forms of the story of the Lord of the Rings; the inscription in Volume VII reads: In the Treason of Isengard the story of the Fellowship of the Ring is traced from Rivendell through Moria and the Land of Lothlorien to the time of its ending at Salembel beside Anduin the Great river is told of the return of Gandalf Mithrandir, of the meeting of the hobbits with Fangorn and of the war upon the Riders of Rohan by the traitor Saruman. The inscription in Volume VIII reads: In the War of the Ring is traced the story of the history at Helm's Deep and the drowning of Isengard by the Ents is told of the journey of Frodo with Samwise and Gollum to the Morannon, of the meeting with Faramir and the stairs of Cirith Ungol, of the Battle of the Pelennor Fields and of the coming of Aragorn in the fleet of Umbar.
The inscription in Volume IX reads: In this book is traced first the story of the destruction of the One Ring and the Downfall of Sauron at the End of the Third Age. Follows an account of the intrusion of the Cataclysm of the West into the deliberations of certain scholars of Oxford and the Fall of Sauron named Zigûr in the Drowning of Anadûne; the History of The Lord of the Rings reveals much of the slow, aggregative nature of Tolkien’s creativity. As Christopher Tolkien noted of the first two volumes, Tolkien had brought the story up to Rivendell, but still “without any clear conception of what lay before him”, he noted how, on the way, his father could get caught up in a “spider’s web of argumentation” - what Tom Shippey described as getting “bogged down in sometimes strikingly unnecessary webs of minor causation”. Thus the character known as Peregrin Took was, in a series of rewriting and of deleted adventures, variously known as Odo, Folco, Peregrin, Hamilcar and Olo – the figures being Boffins and Bolgers, as well as Tooks.
Only with the Breaking of the Fellowship did fluency arrive for Tolkien, his son recording how chapters were “achieved with far greater facility than any previous part of the story”. Thereafter Tolkien’s problem was rather one of selecting between alternative accounts, so as to produce the best effect – two episodes in Sauron Defeated that were deleted being the pardoning of Saruman, an awards ceremony at the book’s close. More in-depth information on the individual books in The History of The Lord of the Rings by JRR Tolkien
Smith of Wootton Major
Smith of Wootton Major, first published in 1967, is a novella by J. R. R. Tolkien; the book began as an attempt to explain the meaning of Faery by means of a story about a cook and his cake. This was intended to be part of a preface by Tolkien to George MacDonald's famous fairy story "The Golden Key", but Tolkien's story grew to become a tale in its own right. The most recent edition, edited by Verlyn Flieger, includes a unpublished essay by Tolkien, explaining the background and just why the elf-king spent so long in Wootton Major, it explains how the story grew from this first idea into the published version. The book was called The Great Cake, but the title was changed to Smith of Wootton Major; the story was first published on 9 November 1967. It was first published in the United States on 23 November 1967 in the Christmas edition of Redbook magazine, but without the illustrations by Pauline Baynes that appeared in the published book, it is not connected to the Middle-earth legendarium, except by the thematic "Faery" motif of the traveller who journeys to a land which lies beyond the normal world and is beyond the reach of mortals.
It is sometimes published in an omnibus edition with Farmer Giles of Ham, another Tolkien novella with illustrations by Pauline Baynes. The two stories are not linked, other than by their common authorship; these two, together with The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Leaf by Niggle, have appeared as Tales from the Perilous Realm. The village of Wootton Major was well-known around the countryside for its annual festivals, which were famous for their culinary delights; the biggest festival of all was the Feast of Good Children. This festival was celebrated only once every twenty-four years: twenty-four children of the village were invited to a party, the highlight of the party was the Great Cake, a career milestone by which Master Cooks were judged. In the year the story begins, the Master Cook was Nokes, who had landed the position more or less by default. Nokes crowned his Great Cake with a little doll jokingly representing the Queen of Faery. Various trinkets were hidden in the cake for the children to find.
The star was swallowed by a blacksmith's son. The boy did not feel its magical properties at once, but on the morning of his tenth birthday the star fixed itself on his forehead, became his passport to Faery; the boy grew up to be a blacksmith like his father, but in his free time he roamed the Land of Faery. The star on his forehead protected him from many of the dangers threatening mortals in that land, the Folk of Faery called him "Starbrow"; the book describes his many travels in Faery. The identity of the King is revealed; the time came for another Feast of Good Children. Smith had possessed his gift for most of his life, the time had come to pass it on to some other child. So he regretfully surrendered the star to Alf, with it his adventures into Faery. Alf, who had become Master Cook long before, baked it into the festive cake once again for another child to find. After the feast, Alf left the village. T. A. Shippey, in The Road to Middle-earth says. Tolkien called it "an old man's book", with presage of bereavement.
Renunciation is a major theme, but so is an appreciation of imaginative vision, as against the philistine outlook represented by the old cook Nokes, a shallow and lazy man. Nokes is foremost among the non-believers, dismisses all things magical as mere dreams and fancies. In the end he has a frightening encounter with the King of Faery, but this leaves him unchanged in outlook. Shippey suggests that, while Tolkien discouraged reading this story as allegory, a good case can be made that Nokes represents the literary, critical approach to studying English, belittling the contributions of the philological approach represented by the previous Master Cook. On this reading, the little star trinket turns into the talisman that cuts through Nokes's sweet, sticky nonsense and raises the smith's life from the ordinary to something meaningful. Introduction and overview of Smith of Wootten Major Smith of Wootten Major book
Farmer Giles of Ham
Farmer Giles of Ham is a comic Medieval fable written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1937 and published in 1949; the story describes the encounters between Farmer Giles and a wily dragon named Chrysophylax, how Giles manages to use these to rise from humble beginnings to rival the king of the land. It is cheerfully anachronistic and light-hearted, set in Britain in an imaginary period of the Dark Ages, featuring mythical creatures, medieval knights, primitive firearms, it is only tangentially connected with the author's Middle-earth legendarium: both were intended as essays in "English mythology". The book was illustrated by Pauline Baynes; the story has appeared with other works by Tolkien in omnibus editions, including The Tolkien Reader and Tales from the Perilous Realm. Tolkien dedicated Farmer Giles of Ham to Cyril Hackett Wilkinson, a don he knew at Oxford University. Farmer Giles is not a hero, he enjoys a slow, comfortable life. But a rather deaf and short-sighted giant blunders on to his land, Giles manages to ward him away with a blunderbuss shot in his general direction.
The people of the village cheer: Farmer Giles has become a hero. His reputation spreads across the kingdom, he is rewarded by the King with a sword named Caudimordax —which turns out to be a powerful weapon against dragons; the giant, on returning home, relates to his friends that there are no more knights in the Middle Kingdom, just stinging flies—actually the scrap metal shot from the blunderbuss—and this entices a dragon, Chrysophylax Dives, to investigate the area. The terrified neighbours all expect the accidental hero Farmer Giles to deal with him; the story parodies the great dragon-slaying traditions. The knights sent by the King to pursue the dragon are useless fops, more intent on "precedence and etiquette" than on the huge dragon footprints littering the landscape; the only part of a'dragon' they know is the annual celebratory dragon-tail cake. Giles by contrast recognises the danger, resents being sent with them to face it, but hapless farmers can be forced to become heroes, Giles shrewdly makes the best of the situation.
It has been suggested that the Middle Kingdom is based on early Mercia, that Giles's break-away realm is based on Frithuwald's Surrey. Tolkien, by profession a philologist, sprinkled several philological jokes into the tale, including a variety of ingeniously fake etymologies. All the place-names are supposed to occur close to Oxford, along the Thames, or along the route to London. At the end of the story, Giles is made Lord of Tame, Count of Worminghall; the village of Oakley, burnt to the ground by the dragon early in the story, may be named after Oakley, near to Thame. Tolkien insists, tongue in cheek, that the village of Thame referred to the Tame Dragon housed in it, that "tame with an h is a folly without warrant." Another joke puts a question concerning the definition of blunderbuss to "the four wise clerks of Oxenford": A short gun with a large bore firing many balls or slugs, capable of doing execution within a limited range without exact aim. and satirises it with application to the situation at hand: However, Farmer Giles's blunderbuss had a wide mouth that opened like a horn, it did not fire balls or slugs, but anything that he could spare to stuff in.
And it did not do execution, because he loaded it, never let it off. The sight of it was enough for his purpose, and this country was not yet civilised, for the blunderbuss was not superseded: it was indeed the only kind of gun that there was, rare at that. As Tom Shippey points out: "Giles's blunderbuss... defies the definition and works just the same.". Chrysophylax Dives is a comically villainous dragon, he stands midway between Smaug and greedy, The Reluctant Dragon and timid. Chrysophylax is Greek for "gold-guard" and dīves is Latin for "rich".. Chrysophylax comes across as a pompous aristocrat—rich and arrogant, but capable of compromise if handled correctly. Farmer Giles is smart enough not to push him to desperation. Caudimordax is the sword of Farmer Giles; the sword can not be sheathed. Four generations earlier, the sword belonged to Bellomarius, "the greatest of all the dragon-slayers" in the Middle Kingdom. Farmer Giles is granted this antiquated sword—by become unfashionable—as a reward for driving off a giant from his fields with his blunderbuss.
He uses the sword to capture and control the dragon. Garm is the talking dog; the dog is both vain of his cowardly. The name is derived from the Norse mythological dog of Garm. Pauline Baynes drew Garm as a Greyhound; this 2008 reprint: includes a new Introduction by Tom Shippey. This special edition was published in 1999 to celebrate the Golden Anniversary of this classic; the publisher in the United States is Houghton Mifflin. The edition includes: Tolkien's original Latin title.
The Book of Lost Tales
The Book of Lost Tales is a collection of early stories by English writer J. R. R. Tolkien, published as the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkien's 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth, in which he presents and analyzes the manuscripts of those stories, which were the earliest form of the complex fictional myths that would comprise The Silmarillion; each of the Tales is followed by a detailed commentary by Christopher Tolkien. For publication the book was split into two volumes: The Book of Lost Tales 1 and The Book of Lost Tales 2, but this is an editorial division. Both volumes are separated into several "Lost Tales". Though they cover a broadly similar history, the Tales are different from The Silmarillion. Firstly the Tales are more complex and detailed than The Silmarillion: they are written in a less formal but more archaic style and include many obsolete words and phrases. Secondly the interaction between the different elf-races is profoundly different: the exiled Noldoli suffer decisive defeat much earlier and become slaves of the enemy they had sought to punish.
Thus when Thingol feels disdain for Beren it is because the latter is a gnome and therefore a thrall of Melko. While many of the names in the book are identical or close to those in the versions, some of them bear no resemblance to their final forms. Tolkien changed names rather sometimes with several new variants written in a single manuscript. Confusingly, sometimes the name applied to one thing is used to refer to something quite different, the original use abandoned. For example, the house of Elves called "Teleri" in The Book of Lost Tales is not the same as that of The Silmarillion; the original usage of "Teleri" would change until the name became "Vanyar", while the house of Elves called "Solosimpi" would inherit the name "Teleri". In the frame story of the book, a mortal Man visits the Elvish Isle of Tol Eressëa where he learns the history of its inhabitants. In the earlier versions this man is of some vague north European origin. In versions he becomes Ælfwine, an Englishman of the Middle-ages.
There are more changes visible within the book, it is not internally consistent because while still writing it Tolkien began rewriting earlier parts as his ideas about the world changed. The Tales were abandoned, but they were resurrected in part as the "Sketch of the Mythology" which would become the Silmarillion. "The Cottage of Lost Play" —the "framework" story "The Music of the Ainur" —the first version of what would become the Ainulindalë "The Coming of the Valar and the Building of Valinor" —later Valaquenta and first chapters of Quenta Silmarillion "The Chaining of Melko"—Melko is an earlier name of Melkor "The Coming of the Elves and the Making of Kôr" —Kôr is the Tirion and its hill Túna "The Theft of Melko and the Darkening of Valinor" "The Flight of the Noldoli" —"Noldoli" are the Elves called Noldor "The Tale of the Sun and Moon" "The Hiding of Valinor" "Gilfanon's Tale: The Travail of the Noldoli and the Coming of Mankind" "The Tale of Tinúviel" —first version of the tale of Beren and Lúthien "Turambar and the Foalókë" —first version of the Túrin saga "The Fall of Gondolin" —the only full narrative of the Fall of Gondolin "The Nauglafring" — tale of the Dwarven necklace known as the Nauglamír "The Tale of Eärendel" —the only full narrative of Eärendil's travels "The History of Eriol or Ælfwine and the End of the Tales"—an essay about the changes in the framework, the "unwritten" tales.
There is an inscription in the Fëanorian characters in the first pages of every History of Middle-earth volume, written by Christopher Tolkien and describing the contents of the book. The inscription in Book I reads: This is the first part of the Book of the Lost Tales of Elfinesse which Eriol the Mariner learned from the Elves of Tol Eressëa, the Lonely Isle in the western ocean, afterwards wrote in the Golden Book of Tavrobel. Herein are told the Tales of Valinor, from the Music of the Ainur to the Exile of the Noldoli and the Hiding of Valinor; the inscription in Book II reads: This is the second part of the Book of the Lost Tales of Elfinesse which Eriol the Mariner learned from the Elves of Tol Eressëa, the Lonely Isle in the western ocean, afterwards wrote in the Golden Book of Tavrobel. Herein are told the Tales of Beren and Tinúviel, of the Fall of Gondolin and the Necklace of the Dwarves; the Fall of Gondolin Beren and Lúthien The Children of Húrin Unfinished Tales The Silmarillion