A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
Jīlū was a district located in the Hakkari region of upper Mesopotamia in modern-day Turkey. Before 1915 Jīlū was home to Assyrians and as well as a minority of Kurds. There were 20 Assyrian villages in this district; the area was traditionally divided into Greater and Lesser Jīlū, Ishtāzin - each with its own Malik, consisting of a number of Assyrian villages. In the summer of 1915, during the Assyrian Genocide, Jīlū was surrounded and attacked by Turkish troops and neighboring Kurdish tribes under the leadership of Agha Sūtū of Oramar, it is now located in around Yüksekova. After a brief struggle to maintain their positions, the Assyrian citizens of Jīlū were forced to flee to Salmas in Iran along with other refugees from the Hakkari highlands. Today their descendants live all over the world including Iraq, Iran, Russia, the United States, Canada and Europe. In Syria's al-Hasakah Governorate there are two villages, Tel-Gorān and Abū-Tīnā, established in 1935 by Jīlū refugees from Iraq on the banks of the Khabur River.
The Jīlū district is home to the second highest mountain range in Turkey, the Cilo-Sat range, which are an eastern extension of the Taurus Mountains. The highest peak in the Cilo-Sat range is Ţūrā Shinnā d-Jīlū, from the summit of which one can see as far as the city of Mosul in Iraq; the southern slopes of the massif are covered with broad-leaved forests, the northern slopes are covered with steppes and shrub thickets where the inhabitants of Jīlū and Dīz would graze their herds during the summer. Among the animals which abound in these mountains are bears, wolves, chamois, wild goats, ovis, of which there are three varieties. There are many birds the large yellow partridge, the red-legged variety. Different types of flowers can be found. Not much is known about Jīlū's pre-Christian history due to its inaccessibility and instability, restricting any form of fieldwork, though prehistoric rock carvings have been found in the Gevaruk valley near Sāţ and on the Tirisin Plateau; these have been dated to 10,000 years ago.
According to the Acts of Saint Mari, it was his disciple St. Ţomīs, the first to bring Christianity to the region of Gawar and Zozān in the 1st century AD. The text mentions that he was martyred somewhere in the Gawar plain, not far from Jīlū, that on a church was established on his burial site. Indeed, the ancient church in the Jīlū village of Sāţ is dedicated to St. Mārī, is the only church in the Hakkari region or northern Iraq known to have had been. Mārī was the name of one of the area's earliest bishops, he was among the signatories of the acts of the synod of Catholicos Mār Dādīshoʿ in 424 AD. A hitherto unpublished text of the Acts of St. Mammes of Caesarea, who lived in the 3rd century AD credits him with having traveled to the village of Oramar where he built a church, known today as El Ahmar Kilisesi. A church in Oramar dedicated to his disciple St. Daniel is now the village mosque. Afterwards, St.'Azīzā - reputedly a disciple of Mar Awgin - is credited with having arrived in Jīlū during the 4th century AD, establishing a monastery in the village of Zêrīnī.
The earliest surviving manuscript from the Jīlū district was copied in this monastery and dates back to 1212/3. The Jīlū district is home to one of the region's oldest churches, founded by St. Zayʿā and his disciple St. Tāwor in 427 AD. According to the Saint's vita, Jīlū at that time was the center of a kingdom named Jīlām-Jīlū and the church construction project was led by its king Bālaq son of King Zūraq; this church for many centuries was the cathedral of the Mār Sargīs Metropolitan Bishops of Jīlū. Most Jīlū's ancient churches are still standing, despite having been abandoned and in a state of decay for nearly a century; the Jīlū district was important in the history of the Church of the East from an early period. At the synod of Catholicos Mār Isaac in 410 AD Beth-Bghāsh, located in the Jīlū village of Bé-Baghshé, was confirmed as a suffragan diocese of the ecclesiastical province of Adiabene; the future Catholicos-Patriarch Timothy I, an influential figure in the Church of the East’s missionary movement, became bishop of Beth-Bghāsh c.770 AD, upon the retirement of his elderly uncle Gīwargīs, remained in the diocese until his election as Catholicos-Patriarch in 780 AD.
Although a native of Hazzah near Arbil, his family is traditionally held to have originated from Jīlū. The last historical mention of the diocese of Beth-Bghāsh is at the consecration of the Catholicos-Patriarch Denha I at Baghdad in 1265, attended by its bishop Ishoʿ-Zkhā. In 1448 the Jīlū district was ravaged by the Qara Qoyunlu and many of its villages lay abandoned for over a century; this is the reason why the colophon of a manuscript copied in 1490 at Bé-Silim in the Baz district mentions only the metropolitan of Mosul. Baz would have been included in either the diocese of Beth-Bghāsh or Jīlū. Most of the refugees from Jīlū fled to Assyrian districts in neighboring Iran. Evidence for this appears in the inclusion of Jīlū in the title of the metropolitan of Salamas around 1552, the copying of a manuscript in the village of Naze north of Urmia in 1563 by the priest Paul of Oramar. Additionally, many Chaldean families in the Urmia region trace their ancestry to settlers from Jīlū. Among the most well known are the Malek-Yonan family of Geogtapa, who are descended from a Jīlū chieftain who founded the village in the 16th century.
He built a church there dedicated to St. Zayʿā which he set with stones brought from the original church in Jīlū. In the 16th century, many inha
Community health center
A healthcare center, health center, or community health center is one of a network of clinics staffed by a group of general practitioners and nurses providing healthcare services to people in a certain area. Typical services covered are family practice and dental care, but some clinics have expanded and can include internal medicine, women’s care, family planning, optometry, laboratory testing, more. In countries with universal healthcare, most people use the healthcare centers. In countries without universal healthcare, the clients include the uninsured, low-income or those living in areas where little access to primary health care is available. In the Central and East Europe, bigger health centres are called policlinics. Community Health Centers have existed in Ontario for more than 40 years; the first established CHC in Canada was Mount Carmel Clinic in 1926. Most CHC's consist of an interdisciplinary team of health care providers using electronic health records. In Quebec, local community services centres known by their French acronym, CLSC, offer routine health and social services, including consultations with general practitioners with and without an appointment.
In China there are, as of 2011, 37,374 township health centers. The health center was the basic community primary healthcare unit of the National Health Service of Portugal, as well as acting as the local public health authority; each health center covered the area of one of the Portuguese municipalities, but municipalities with over 15 000 habitants could be covered by more than one of these centers. Health centers were staffed with general practitioners, public health physicians, social workers and administrative personnel. In 2008, the more than 300 health centers were aggregated into around 70 health center groups or ACES; each ACES includes several family and personalized healthcare units, these being now the basic primary health care providers of the Portuguese National Health Service. Besides family health care services, the ACES include public health, community health and other specialized units, as well as basic medical emergency services; some of the ACES were grouped with hospital units into experimental local health units or ULS.
The ULS are intended to increase the coordination between the primary and the secondary healthcare, through both of these services being provided by the same health unit. Lord Dawson of Penn was commissioned by Lord Addison to produce a report on "schemes requisite for the systematised provision of such forms of medical and allied services as should... be available for the inhabitants of a given area". The Interim Report on the Future Provision of Medical and Allied Services was produced in 1920, though no further report appeared; the report laid down detailed plans for a network of Primary and Secondary Health Centres, together with detailed architectural drawings of different sorts of centres. By 1939 the term health centre was used to refer to new buildings housing local health authority services; the Dawson report was influential in debates about the National Health Service when it was set up in 1948, but few centres were built because "it was not practicable for local authorities to establish health centres without the full compliance of general practitioners" -, not forthcoming.
Far more attention and resources were devoted to hospital services than to primary care. From 1948 to 1974 local authorities were responsible for the building of health centres. A well known centre was opened at Woodberry Down in October 1952, it had provision for 2 dentists, a pharmacist and two nurses. It cost about £ 163,000, which included the cost of a day child guidance clinic; this was used as an excuse by critics for not building more. Harlow, where 4 centres were built by the new town corporation, was the only community in Britain served by doctors working from health centres; the few centres that were built "functioned as isolated islands in a sea of General Practitioners indifferent to their success". There were calls to establish a network of centres to include not only GPs but dentists and diagnostic facilities. In 1965 there were only 30 health centres in England and Wales, 3 in Scotland. By 1974 there were 29 in Wales and 59 in Scotland. After the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973, responsibility for promoting health centres was transferred to Area Health Authorities and there were renewed calls to establish more Health Centres.
It was suggested that these centres could arrange alternative medical care for patients "when their doctor is off duty, or for emergency calls when he is engaged elsewhere". Lord Darzi set up a network of Polyclinics in England when he was a minister in 2008; these clinics had some features in common with earlier proposals for health centres, but shared with them considerable resistance from GPs. A community health center is a not-for-profit, consumer directed healthcare organization that provides access to high quality and comprehensive primary and preventive medical and mental health care. Community health centers have a unique mission of ensuring access for underserved and uninsured patients. In the U. S. Community Health Centers are neighborhood health centers serving Medically Underserved Areas which includes persons who are uninsured, low-income or those living in areas where little access to primary health care is available. Federally and locally funded, some health clinics are modernized with
Southeastern Anatolia Region
The Southeastern Anatolia Region is a geographical region of Turkey. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Region to the west, the Eastern Anatolia Region to the north, Syria to the south, Iraq to the southeast. Middle Euphrates Section Gaziantep Area Şanlıurfa Area Tigris Section Diyarbakır Area Mardin - Midyat Area Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests Zagros Mountains forest steppe Eastern Anatolian montane steppe Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests Provinces that are in the Southeastern Anatolia Region: Mardin ŞanlıurfaProvinces that are in the Southeastern Anatolia Region: Adıyaman Batman Diyarbakır Gaziantep SiirtProvinces that are in the Southeastern Anatolia Region: Bitlis Bingöl Kahramanmaraş Kilis Malatya Southeastern Anatolia Region has an area of 59,176 km2 and is the second smallest region of Turkey. Southeastern Anatolia Region has a semi-arid continental climate with hot and dry summers and cold and snowy winters. Tourism information is available in English at the Southeastern Anatolian Promotion Project site.
Provinces of Turkey Southeastern Anatolia travel guide from Wikivoyage
Hakkari was a mountainous Assyrian region lying to the south of Lake Van which encompassed parts of the modern provinces of Hakkâri and Şırnak in southeastern Turkey, the northern fringes of Iraq, contained dozens of historical Assyrian villages that were centred in the modern-day towns of Yuksekova, Hakkâri, Çukurca and Uludere. Most of the historical Assyrian tribes were situated in Hakkari, with many Assyrians having lived there prior to 1924, or before Seyfo; the name Hakkâri is derived from the Syriac word ܐܲܟܵܪܹ̈ܐ meaning cultivators. Hakkari was purely made up of Assyrian settlements from around 2nd millennium BC as far back as 3rd millennium BC, to the early 20th century AD – When Assyrians resettled in Northern Iraq after they were displaced and driven out by Ottoman Turks in 1915; the Assyrians of Hakkari are Nestorian Christians adhering to the Assyrian Church of the East and they speak Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, a modern Aramaic language. Before Christianisation, the native population spoke colloquial dialects of Akkadian infused and influenced Mesopotamian Eastern Aramaic, descended from the Imperial Aramaic introduced by Tiglath-pileser III as the lingua franca of Assyria and the Neo Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BC.
Hakkari was one of the most northernmost Assyrian settlement in the Akkadian empire, the Neo-Assyrian empire, Achaemenid Assyria, Asōristān and Roman Assyria. The region was dissolved as a geo-political entity following the Arab Islamic conquest of Iraq in the late 7th century AD. Asōristān was devolved by 639 AD, bringing an end to over 3000 years of Assyria as a geopolitical entity. A century the area became the capital province of the Abbasid Caliphate and the centre of Islamic Golden Age for five hundred years, from the 8th to the 13th centuries. After the Muslim conquest, Asōristān saw a large influx of Muslim peoples. Hakkari formed the Nairi lands which served as the northern Assyrian frontier and border with their Urartian rivals. During the late Ottoman Empire it was a sanjak within the old Vilayet of Van. Prehistoric rock carvings have been found in the Gevaruk valley near Sāţ, Jilu and on the Tirisin Plateau, which have been dated to 10,000 years ago; the Halaf culture, which lasted between about 6100 BC and 5100 BC, was located in south-eastern Turkey and northern Iraq, having developed out of the earlier Pottery Neolithic.
Although the Assyrian people have been continuously indigenous, or native, to the region for over 3000 years, the Hurrians/Gutians were early invaders of the region and may as well have been natives to the area before the Assyrians. Furthermore, Medes, the Persians, the Romans, the Sassanids, Babylonians, Greeks, Parthians, Byzantium, Seljuks and Ottomans have conquered the region as well in its long history. Anatolia remained in the prehistoric period until it entered the sphere of influence of the Akkadian Empire in the 24th century BCE under Sargon I; the interest of Akkad in the region as far as it is known was for exporting various materials for manufacturing. After the fall of the Akkadian Empire in the mid-21st century BC, the Assyrians, who were the northern branch of the Akkadian people and settled in parts of southeastern Anatolia between the 21st and mid-18th centuries BC, or as early as 1950 BC, claimed its resources, notably silver. In the 21st century BC Naram-Sin of Akkad defeated various northern hill tribes in the Zagros and Amanus Mountains, expanding his empire up to Armenia.
From the 21st century BCE to the late 18th century BCE, Assyria controlled colonies in Anatolia, the Hurrians, like the Hattians, adopted the Assyrian Akkadian cuneiform script for their own language about 2000 BCE. In the continuous power struggles over Mesopotamia, another Amorite dynasty had usurped the throne of the Old Assyrian Empire, which had controlled colonies in Hurrian and Hittite regions of eastern Anatolia since the 21st century BCE. Amadiya, which sits right on the southern border of Hakkari, was an Assyrian city known as Amedi from the 25th century BC until the end of the 7th century BC with the fall of the Guti Empire; the city goes back as far as ancient Assyria and it has existed prior to that due to its strategic place on the flat top of a mountain. By the 13th century BCE all of the Hurrian states had been vanquished by other peoples, with the Mitanni kingdom destroyed by Assyria; the heartlands of the Hurrians, the Little Khabur valley and south eastern Anatolia, became provinces of the Middle Assyrian Empire which came to rule much of the Near East and Asia Minor.
It is not clear. Scholars have suggested that Hurrians lived on in the country of Nairi north of Assyria during the early Iron Age, before this too was conquered by Assyria. During the 11th and 10th centuries BCE, the kingdom of Urartu encompassed a region stretching from the Caucasus Mountains in the north, to the borders of northern Assyria and northern Ancient Iran in the south, controlled much of eastern Anatolia, it was to survive until the 7th century BCE, by which time it was conquered into the Neo Assyrian Empire. The Assyrian king Shalmaneser III may have passed through Hakkari on his expeditions, as he has proven capable of expanding the northern frontiers of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, stabilising its hold over the Little Khabur and mountainous front
Dohuk Governorate is a governorate in Iraqi Kurdistan. Its capital is the city of Dohuk, it includes the city that meets Ibrahim Khalil border between Turkey and Iraqi Kurdistan. It borders the Al-Hasakah Governorate of Syria. Prior to 1976 it was part of Nineveh Governorate, called Mosul Governorate. Dohuk Governorate is inhabited by Kurds and Assyrians, with a small number of Yazidis and Armenians; the estimated population in 2017 was 1,011,585. Governor: Farhad Ameen Saleem Atrushi Deputy Governor: Behzad Ali Adam Governorate Council Chairman: Fehim Abdullah 41 total seats 33 seats for the Kurdistan Democratic Party 4 seats for the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan 4 seats for the Kurdistan Islamic Union Dohuk Governorate is divided into seven districts, four of which are part of Kurdistan Region, while three others are under de facto control of the Kurdistan Regional Government: Amedi District Dohuk District Semel District Zakho District Akre District Shekhan District Bardarash District Bamerni Araden Avzrog Badarash Bebadeyy Bakhetme Dehi Dawodiya Dohuk Gir-e Kumar Harmash Hezany Sarsink Sumail Zawita Sharya Khanke 2011 Dohuk riots Assyrian homeland Proposals for Assyrian autonomy in Iraq Duhok international airport
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately