William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the worlds pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called Englands national poet, and the Bard of Avon and his extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 38 plays,154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright, Shakespeare was born and brought up in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a career in London as an actor, writer. He appears to have retired to Stratford around 1613, at age 49, Shakespeare produced most of his known work between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were primarily comedies and histories, which are regarded as some of the best work ever produced in these genres.
He wrote mainly tragedies until about 1608, including Hamlet, King Lear, in his last phase, he wrote tragicomedies, known as romances, and collaborated with other playwrights. Many of his plays were published in editions of varying quality and it was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Shakespeare is hailed, presciently, as not of an age, but for all time. In the 20th and 21st centuries, his works have been adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship. His plays remain highly popular and are studied, performed. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover originally from Snitterfield, and Mary Arden and he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April. This date, which can be traced back to an 18th-century scholars mistake, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on 23 April 1616 and he was the third child of eight and the eldest surviving son.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway, the consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582. The next day, two of Hathaways neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed almost two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596, after the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592. The exception is the appearance of his name in the bill of a law case before the Queens Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589
The town of Rota is a Spanish municipality located in the Province of Cádiz, Andalusia. Its surface area is 84 km ² and is bordered by the towns of Chipiona, Sanlúcar de Barrameda and it is located near the city of Jerez de la Frontera and is 36 kilometers away from the provincial capital, Cadiz. In the year 2009 had 28,516 inhabitants, with a density of 339.44 inhabitants / km ². Located along the Bay of Cádiz in the Atlantic Ocean, it is halfway between Portugal and Gibraltar, is predominantly a tourist town, a destination for travelers from all over Europe. During the low season, its business activity is the fishing industry. In the municipality is located the Naval Station Rota, which is the largest source of employment to the municipality, archaeological evidence suggests that there was a Bronze Age settlement on the present site of Rota. The current town was founded by the Phoenicians at approximately the time as Cádiz. Rota is assumed to be the city known as Astaroth of the Tartesian empire.
It passed to the Romans, who knew the town as Speculum Rotae, following the arrival of the Moors in Spain, the city became known as Rabita Rutta, from which it derives its present name. From 1248 onwards, the Moors were gradually expelled from Spain, in 1297, Sancho IV awarded the town to Alonso Pérez de Guzmán in honour of his defence of Tarifa. Later, Pérez de Guzmán gave it to his daughter, Isabel, as a present when she married Fermin Ponce de León, Maestre of Alcántara. During the Middle Ages, the town was an important port for trading with North Africa, in 1780 the 11th Duke of Arcos died without issue, and the city was rendered to the Duke of Osuna. Rota is primarily a town, offering eight hotels and nearly two thousand beds. It is a destination for tourists from all over Europe. During the off-season, its commercial activity centres on the fishing industry. Rota is the location of the Rota naval base, a joint Spanish and U. S. naval base and it is the usual first and last port of call for U. S.
naval vessels after leaving the Mediterranean Sea. The surrounding area is used for agriculture, the predominant crops are cotton and sunflowers, as well as green peppers, tomatoes. A traditional dish is the arranque made with chopped bread, green peppers, salt, the local wine, known as tintilla, is made with dark, ripe grapes
Sherry is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the town of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain. Sweet dessert wines are made from Pedro Ximenez or Moscatel grapes. The word Sherry is an anglicisation of Xeres, Sherry was previously known as sack, from the Spanish saca, meaning extraction from the solera. In 1933 the Jerez Denominación de Origen was the first Spanish denominación to be recognised in this way. Jerez-Xeres-Sherry and sharing the same governing council as D. O, after fermentation is complete, the base wines are fortified with grape spirit in order to increase their final alcohol content. Wines classified as suitable for aging as Fino and Manzanilla are fortified until they reach an alcohol content of 15.5 per cent by volume. As they age in barrel, they develop a layer of flor—a yeast-like growth that helps protect the wine from excessive oxidation and those wines that are classified to undergo aging as Oloroso are fortified to reach an alcohol content of at least 17 per cent.
They do not develop flor and so oxidise slightly as they age, because the fortification takes place after fermentation, most sherries are initially dry, with any sweetness being added later. In contrast, port wine is fortified halfway through its fermentation, Sherry is regarded by many wine writers as underappreciated and a neglected wine treasure. Jerez has been a centre of viniculture since wine-making was introduced to Spain by the Phoenicians in 1100 BC, the practice was carried on by the Romans when they took control of Iberia around 200 BC. The Moors conquered the region in AD711 and introduced distillation, during the Moorish period, the town was called Sherish, from which both Sherry and Jerez are derived. Wines similar in style to Sherry have traditionally made in the city of Shiraz in mid-southern Iran. Wine production continued through five centuries of Arab Empires rule, in 1264 Alfonso X of Castile took the city. From this point on, the production of sherry and its export throughout Europe increased significantly, by the end of the 16th century, sherry had a reputation in Europe as the worlds finest wine.
Christopher Columbus brought sherry on his voyage to the New World, Sherry became very popular in Great Britain, especially after Francis Drake sacked Cadiz in 1587. At that time Cadiz was one of the most important Spanish seaports, among the spoils Drake brought back after destroying the fleet were 2,900 barrels of sherry that had been waiting to be loaded aboard Spanish ships. This helped to popularize Sherry in the British Isles, because sherry was a major wine export to the United Kingdom, many English companies and styles developed. Many of the Jerez cellars were founded by British families, in 1894 the Jerez region was devastated by the insect phylloxera
The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary. Used broadly, it may cover any of the groups with elongated bodies, in some fields, the term is used more narrowly, and may be restricted to Caridea, to smaller species of either group, or to only the marine species. Under the broader definition, shrimp may be synonymous with prawn, covering stalk-eyed swimming crustaceans with long narrow muscular tails, long whiskers, any small crustacean which resembles a shrimp tends to be called one. They swim forward by paddling with swimmerets on the underside of their abdomens and lobsters have strong walking legs, whereas shrimp have thin fragile legs which they use primarily for perching. There are thousands of species adapted to a range of habitats. They can be found feeding near the seafloor on most coasts and estuaries, as well as in rivers, to escape predators, some species flip off the seafloor and dive into the sediment. They usually live from one to seven years, Shrimp are often solitary, though they can form large schools during the spawning season.
They play important roles in the chain and are an important food source for larger animals ranging from fish to whales. The muscular tails of many shrimp are edible to humans, and they are widely caught, commercial shrimp species support an industry worth 50 billion dollars a year, and in 2010 the total commercial production of shrimp was nearly 7 million tonnes. Shrimp farming became prevalent during the 1980s, particularly in China. There are significant issues with excessive bycatch when shrimp are captured in the wild, many shrimp species are small as the term shrimp suggests, about 2 cm long, but some shrimp exceed 25 cm. Larger shrimp are likely to be targeted commercially, and are often referred to as prawns. Shrimp are swimming crustaceans with long narrow muscular abdomens and long antennae, unlike crabs and lobsters, shrimp have well developed pleopods and slender walking legs, they are more adapted for swimming than walking. Historically, it was the distinction between walking and swimming that formed the primary taxonomic division into the former suborders Natantia and Reptantia, members of the Natantia were adapted for swimming while the Reptantia were adapted for crawling or walking.
Some other groups have names that include the word shrimp. The following description refers mainly to the anatomy of the common European shrimp, Crangon crangon. The body of the shrimp is divided into two parts, the head and thorax which are fused together to form the cephalothorax. The shell which protects the cephlathorax is harder and thicker than the shell elsewhere on the shrimp, the carapace typically surrounds the gills, through which water is pumped by the action of the mouthparts
Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda, which includes squid, cuttlefish have a unique internal shell, the cuttlebone. Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs, cuttlefish have large, W-shaped pupils, eight arms, and two tentacles furnished with denticulated suckers, with which they secure their prey. They generally range in size from 15 to 25 cm, with the largest species, Sepia apama, reaching 50 cm in mantle length, cuttlefish eat small molluscs, shrimp, octopus and other cuttlefish. Their predators include dolphins, fish, seabirds, the average life expectancy of a cuttlefish is about one to two years. Recent studies indicate cuttlefish are among the most intelligent invertebrates, cuttlefish have one of the largest brain-to-body size ratios of all invertebrates. The cuttle in cuttlefish comes from the Old English name for the species, which may be cognate with the Old Norse koddi, the Greco-Roman world valued the cuttlefish as a source of the unique brown pigment the creature releases from its siphon when it is alarmed.
The word for it in both Greek and Latin, now refers to a pigment in English. The family Sepiidae, which contains all cuttlefish, inhabit tropical/temperate ocean waters and they are mostly shallow-water animals, although they are known to go to depths of about 600 m. By the time the family evolved, ostensibly in the Old World, the common cuttlefish, is found in the Mediterranean, and North and Baltic Seas, although it has been suggested populations occur as far south as South Africa. They are found in sublittoral depths, between the low line and the edge of the continental shelf, to about 180 m. The cuttlefish is listed under the Red List category of Least Concern by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, ocean acidification, caused largely by higher levels of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, is cited as a potential threat. Cuttlefish possess a structure called the cuttlebone, which is porous and is made of aragonite. The pores provide it with buoyancy, which the cuttlefish regulates by changing the ratio in the chambered cuttlebone via the ventral siphuncle.
Each species cuttlebone has a shape and pattern of ridges or texture. The cuttlebone is unique to cuttlefish, and is one of the features that distinguish them from their squid relatives, like other cephalopods, have sophisticated eyes. The organogenesis and the structure of the cephalopod eye fundamentally differ from those of vertebrates such as humans. Superficial similarities between cephalopod and vertebrate eyes are thought to be examples of convergent evolution, the cuttlefish pupil is a smoothly curving W-shape
An alfajor or alajú is a traditional confection found in Argentina, Peru, Uruguay and Southern Brazil. The archetypal alfajor entered Iberia during the period of al-Andalus and it is produced in the form of a small cylinder and is sold either individually or in boxes containing several pieces. In Spain, there are a variety of different recipes for preparing alfajores, alfajores are most commonly sold around Christmas, but in Medina Sidonia, they are available year-round. The traditional Spanish alfajor has been produced in town since ancient times. Alfajores are still made by craftsmen in Medina Sidonia using natural ingredients that include honey, hazelnuts, sugar and breadcrumbs, the manufacturing process has been respected following a recipe found by Mariano Pardo de Figueroa in 1786. In Medina Sidonia, the production of approximately 45,000 kilograms is mostly consumed in the province of Cadiz. In the province of Cuenca, where the alfajor is called alajú it is made with almond and figs, all wrapped in a wafer.
Medina Sidonia was the capital for the Arabic world of confection, in South America alfajores are found most notably in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia and Brazil. Alfajores have been popular in Argentina and Uruguay since the mid-19th century, these differ from the Spanish alfajores in that they are made with two round cookies with different sweet fillings between them. The filling is usually dulce de leche, although there are a lot of variations and they can be covered with powder sugar, glaced sugar, grated coconut or chocolate. Argentina is today the world largest consumer of alfajores, both in numbers and in per capita calculations, being the most common snack for schoolchildren. Alfajores are popular in Peru, especially the artisanal types. Other nations from South America might import some from Argentina and Uruguay and have limited consumption, some of the best known alfajor brands in South America are the Peruvian Casa del Alfajor, Argentine Juanote, Cachafaz, Guaymallén and Jorgito and the Uruguayan Punta Ballena.
In Puerto Rico, they underwent creolization, lost their almond and they can take varying amounts of sugar and spices. Its possible that Puerto Ricos most common version of this dessert reached Puerto Rico from Venezuela, depending on region some add cornstarch, citrus zest and honey, filled with chocolate, vanilla cream, dulce de leche, fruit paste, or coconut. The filling can be mixed with almonds, sesame seeds, coconut flakes, both words had been introduced into Spanish dictionaries in the 14th century. The publication of the dictionary of the Spanish language allows us to document both, alajur very broadly written as alajú and alfajor. Alajur and multiple geographic variations are made of a paste of almonds, breadcrumbs
Squid are cephalopods of the order Teuthida, which comprises around 304 species. Like all other cephalopods, squid have a head, bilateral symmetry, a mantle. Squid, like cuttlefish, have eight arms arranged in pairs, squid are strong swimmers and certain species can fly for short distances out of the water. Squid are members of the class Cephalopoda, subclass Coleoidea, order Teuthida, Teuthida is the largest cephalopod order with around 300 species classified into 29 families. The order Teuthida is a member of the superorder Decapodiformes, two other orders of decapodiform cephalopods are called squid, although they are taxonomically distinct from Teuthida and differ recognizably in their gross anatomical features. They are the bobtail squid of order Sepiolida and the rams horn squid of the monotypic order Spirulida, the vampire squid, however, is more closely related to the octopuses than to any squid. Class Cephalopoda Subclass Nautiloidea, nautilus Subclass Coleoidea, octopus, what before may have been the foot of the ancestor is modified into a complex set of tentacles and highly developed sense organs, including advanced eyes similar to those of vertebrates.
The ancestral shell has been lost, with only an internal gladius, or pen, the pen is a feather-shaped internal structure that supports the squids mantle and serves as a site for muscle attachment. It is made of a chitin-like material, the main body mass is enclosed in the mantle, which has a swimming fin along each side. These fins, unlike in other organisms, are not the main source of locomotion in most species. The skin is covered in chromatophores, which enable the squid to change color to suit its surroundings, the underside is almost always lighter than the topside, to provide camouflage from both prey and predator. Under the body are openings to the cavity, which contains the gills and openings to the excretory. At the front of the mantle cavity lies the siphon, which the squid uses for locomotion via precise jet propulsion, in this form of locomotion, water is sucked into the mantle cavity and expelled out of the siphon in a fast, strong jet. The direction of the siphon can be changed, to suit the direction of travel, inside the mantle cavity, beyond the siphon, lies the visceral mass, which is covered by a thin, membranous epidermis.
Under this are all the internal organs. The giant axon, which may be up to 1 mm in diameter in some species, innervates the mantle. As cephalopods, squid exhibit relatively high intelligence among invertebrates, for example, groups of Humboldt squid hunt cooperatively, using active communication. In females, the ink sac is hidden from view by a pair of white nidamental glands, red-spotted accessory nidamental glands are present
Egg as food
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, amphibians and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Bird and reptile eggs consist of an eggshell, albumen. The most popular choice for egg consumption are chicken eggs, other popular choices for egg consumption are duck, quail and caviar. Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline, due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture categorizes eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid. Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are potential health issues arising from egg quality, storage. Chickens and other egg-laying creatures are widely kept throughout the world, in 2009, an estimated 62.1 million metric tons of eggs were produced worldwide from a total laying flock of approximately 6.4 billion hens. There are issues of variation in demand and expectation, as well as current debates concerning methods of mass production. In 2012, the European Union banned battery husbandry of chickens, bird eggs have been valuable foodstuffs since prehistory, in both hunting societies and more recent cultures where birds were domesticated.
The chicken was probably domesticated for its eggs before 7500 BCE, chickens were brought to Sumer and Egypt by 1500 BCE, and arrived in Greece around 800 BCE, where the quail had been the primary source of eggs. In Thebes, the tomb of Haremhab, built about 1420 BCE, shows a depiction of a man carrying bowls of ostrich eggs and other large eggs, presumably those of the pelican, as offerings. In ancient Rome, eggs were preserved using a number of methods, the Romans crushed the shells in their plates to prevent evil spirits from hiding there. In the Middle Ages, eggs were forbidden during Lent because of their richness, the word mayonnaise possibly was derived from moyeu, the medieval French word for the yolk, meaning center or hub. Egg scrambled with acidic fruit juices were popular in France in the 17th century, the dried egg industry developed in the 19th century, before the rise of the frozen egg industry. In 1878, a company in St. Louis, Missouri started to transform egg yolk and white into a light-brown, the production of dried eggs significantly expanded during World War II, for use by the United States Armed Forces and its allies.
In 1911, the egg carton was invented by Joseph Coyle in Smithers, British Columbia, early egg cartons were made of paper. Bird eggs are a food and one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking. They are important in many branches of the food industry. The most commonly used bird eggs are those from the chicken and goose eggs, and smaller eggs, such as quail eggs, are occasionally used as a gourmet ingredient in western countries
Honey /ˈhʌni/ is a sugary food substance produced and stored by certain social hymenopteran insects. It is produced from the secretions of plants or insects, such as floral nectar or aphid honeydew, through regurgitation, enzymatic activity. The variety of honey produced by bees is the most well-known, due to its worldwide commercial production. Honey gets its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose, and has about the relative sweetness as granulated sugar. It has attractive properties for baking and a distinctive flavor that leads some people to prefer it to sugar. Most microorganisms do not grow in honey, so sealed honey does not spoil, honey sometimes contains dormant endospores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, which can be dangerous to babies, as it may result in botulism. People who have an immune system should not eat honey because of the risk of bacterial or fungal infection. Although some evidence indicates honey may be effective in treating diseases and other conditions, such as wounds and burns.
Providing 64 calories in a serving of one tablespoon equivalent to 1272 kj per 100 g. Honey is generally safe, but may have various, potential adverse effects or interactions with excessive consumption, existing disease conditions, or drugs. Honey use and production have a long and varied history as an ancient activity, depicted in Valencia, in cold weather or when other food sources are scarce and larval bees use stored honey as food. By contriving for bee swarms to nest in man-made hives, people have been able to semidomesticate the insects, Bee digestive enzymes - invertase and diastase - and gastric acid hydrolyze sucrose to a mixture of glucose and fructose. The bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion for as long as 20 minutes until the product reaches storage quality. It is placed in honeycomb cells left unsealed while still high in content and natural yeasts. The bees cap the cells with wax to seal them, as removed from the hive by a beekeeper, honey has a long shelf life and will not ferment if properly sealed.
Another source of honey is from a number of species, such as the wasps Brachygastra lecheguana and Brachygastra mellifica. These species are known to feed on nectar and produce honey, Honey is collected from wild bee colonies, or from domesticated beehives. The honey is stored in honeycombs, wild bee nests are sometimes located by following a honeyguide bird
A doughnut or donut is a type of fried dough confectionery or dessert food. The doughnut is popular in countries and prepared in various forms as a sweet snack that can be homemade or purchased in bakeries, food stalls. Doughnuts are usually deep-fried from a dough, and typically either ring-shaped or without a hole. Other types of batters can be used, and various toppings and flavorings are used for different types, such as sugar, chocolate, or maple glazing. In addition to flour, doughnuts may include such ingredients as water, eggs, sugar, oil/shortening, the two most common types are the ring doughnut and the filled doughnut—which is injected with fruit preserves, custard, or other sweet fillings. A small spherical piece of dough may be cooked as a doughnut hole, once doughnuts have been fried, they may be glazed with a sugar icing, spread with icing or chocolate, or topped with powdered sugar or sprinkles or fruit. Other shapes include rings and flattened spheres, as well as ear shapes, Doughnut varieties are divided into cake and yeast-risen type doughnuts.
Donuts are often accompanied by coffee when they are purchased at shops or fast food restaurants. This smaller piece of dough can be cooked and served as a hole or added back to the batch to make more doughnuts. A disk-shaped doughnut can be stretched and pinched into a torus until the center breaks to form a hole, alternatively, a doughnut depositor can be used to place a circle of liquid dough directly into the fryer. There are two types of ring doughnuts, those made from a dough for raised doughnuts, or those made from a special type of cake batter. Yeast-raised doughnuts contain about 25% oil by weight, whereas cake doughnuts oil content is around 20%, cake doughnuts are fried for about 90 seconds at approximately 190 °C to 198 °C, turning once. Yeast-raised doughnuts absorb more oil because they take longer to fry, about 150 seconds, cake doughnuts typically weigh between 24 g and 28 g, whereas yeast-raised doughnuts average 38 g and are generally larger, and taller when finished. After frying, ring doughnuts are often topped, raised doughnuts are generally covered with a glaze.
Cake doughnuts can be glazed, or powdered with confectioners sugar, or covered with cinnamon and they are often topped with cake frosting and sometimes sprinkled with coconut, chopped peanuts, or sprinkles. Doughnut holes are small, bite-sized doughnuts that were made from the dough taken from the center of ring doughnuts. Traditionally, doughnut holes are made by frying the dough removed from the portion of the doughnut. Consequently, they are smaller than a standard doughnut and tend to be spherical