India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Port Blair is the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a union territory of India situated in the Bay of Bengal. It is the local administrative sub-division of the islands, the headquarters for the district of South Andaman and it houses the headquarters of the Andaman and Nicobar Police and the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the first integrated tri-command of the armed forces of India. It serves as the point for visiting the Andaman. Port Blair is connected with mainland India by both air and sea, though it is a 2-hour flight from mainland India to Port Blair, but it takes 3–4 days by sea to reach Chennai, Kolkata or Vishakhapatnam. Air connectivity to Port Blair is available from Chennai, New Delhi, all flights bound to Andaman and Nicobar Islands land at the Veer Savarkar International Airport. Sea connectivity is available from Chennai and Vishakhapatnam are embarked in Haddo Wharf and it is home to several museums and a major naval base INS Jarawa of the Indian Navy, along with sea and air bases of the Indian Coast Guard and the Indian Air Force.
Port Blair is famous for the historic Cellular Jail and other islands like Ross. All major departments of the Local and Central Government function from there, Port Blair has been selected as one of the cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission. In 1789 the Government of Bengal established a colony on Chatham Island in the southeast bay of Great Andaman. After two years, the moved to the northeast part of Great Andaman and was named Port Cornwallis after Admiral William Cornwallis. However, there was disease and death in the penal colony. In 1824 Port Cornwallis was the rendezvous of the carrying the army to the First Anglo-Burmese War. In the 1830s and 1840s, shipwrecked crews who landed on the Andamans were often attacked and killed by the natives, in 1855, the government proposed another settlement on the islands, including a convict establishment, but the Indian Rebellion forced a delay in its construction. However, since the rebellion provided the British with a lot of new prisoners, it made the new Andaman settlement and prison an urgent necessity.
Construction began in November 1857 at the renovated Port Blair, avoiding the vicinity of a swamp which seemed to have been the source of many of the old colonys problems. The penal colony was originally on Viper Island, the convicts, mostly political prisoners, suffered life imprisonment at hard labor under cruel and degrading conditions. Many were hanged, while others died of disease and starvation, between 1864 and 1867 a penal establishment was built with convict labor on the northern side of Ross Island. These structures are now lay in ruins, the Cellular Jail is known as Kala Pani, a name given to it due to the torture and general ill-treatment towards its Indian convicts
The various names for this language group include Hindki and the ambiguous Pahari. The name Hindko means the Indian language, shackle states that Hindko is closer to Saraiki than to Standard Punjabi. Differences with other Punjabi varieties are more pronounced in the morphology and phonology than in the syntax, the central dialect group of Hindko proper comprises Kohati and the three closely related dialects of Attock District, Chacchi and Awankari. Renschs classification based on lexical similarity assigns to this group the rural dialects of Peshawar District, however, sees most of them as closely related to the urban variety of Peshawar City. In a group of its own is Peshawari, the urban variety spoken in the city of Peshawar. It has a wide base and has undergone the influence of Urdu. A separate group is formed in the northeast by the relatively homogeneous dialects of the Hazara region and they are known as Kaghani, Northern Hindko or Hazara Hindko, and are classified by ethnologue as a separate language.
Testing of intelligibility has revealed two groups of dialects, a group comprising the dialects of Northern Hindko and a southern group encompassing the rest. The southern dialects are widely understood throughout the Hindko area than are the northern ones. Hindko is closely related to other varieties of Greater Punjabi. To the south, across the Salt Range are found the dialects of Saraiki, one of these – the variety spoken in the Dera Ismail Khan District is variously referred to as either Hindko or Siraiki. Jonathan Addleton states that Hindko is the majority in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. According to the 1981 census, Hindko-speaking households accounted for 92% of the total in Abbottabad District, 47% in Mansehra District,6. 9% in Peshawar District, Hindko is spoken in Afghanistan by the Hindkois and the Hindki people. There is no name for the speakers of Hindko because they belong to diverse ethnic groups. The most common language is Urdu and the second most common one is Pashto. In most Hindko-speaking areas, speakers of Pashto live in the same or neighbouring communities, the relationship between Hindko and Pashto is not one of stable bilingualism.
In terms of domains of use and number of speakers, Hindko is dominant and growing in the northeast, in recent years, the migration of the people from the Hazara region to the plains of Punjab and intermarriages has brought Hindko even closer to standard Punjab. The Gandhara Hindko Board is an organisation that has been active in the preservation and promotion of the Hindko
The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east. Most are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India, while a number in the north of the archipelago, including the Coco Islands. The Andaman Islands are home to the Sentinelese, who have had no contact with any other people, the name of the Andaman Islands is ancient. A theory that became prevalent in the late 19th century is that it derives from Andoman, a form of Hanuman, another Italian traveller, Niccolò de Conti, mentioned the islands and said that the name means Island of Gold. The Andaman islands have been inhabited for several years, at the very least. The indigenous Andamanese people appear to have lived on the islands in substantial isolation from that time until the 18th century CE, from 800 to 1200 CE, the Tamil Chola dynasty created an empire that eventually extended from southeastern peninsular India to parts of Malaysia. Rajendra Chola I took over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and maintained them as a naval base to launch a naval expedition against the Srivijaya empire.
In 1789, Bengal Presidency established a base and penal colony on Chatham Island in the southeast bay of Great Andaman. The settlement is now known as Port Blair, after two years, the colony was moved to the northeast part of Great Andaman and was named Port Cornwallis after Admiral William Cornwallis. However, there was disease and death in the penal colony. In 1824, Port Cornwallis was the rendezvous of the carrying the army to the First Burmese War. In the 1830s and 1840s, shipwrecked crews who landed on the Andamans were often attacked and killed by the natives, in 1855, the government proposed another settlement on the islands, including a convict establishment, but the Indian Rebellion of 1857 forced a delay in its construction. However, because the rebellion gave the British so many prisoners, it made the new Andaman settlement and prison urgently necessary. Construction began in November 1857 at Port Blair using inmates labour,17 May 1859 was another major day for Andaman. The Battle of Aberdeen was fought between the Great Andamanese Tribe and the British, today, a memorial stands in Andaman Water sports complex as a tribute to the people who lost their life.
Fearing foreign invasion and with help from a convict from Cellular Jail, the great Andamanese tribe stormed the British post. Later, it was identified that a convict named Doodnath had changed sides. Today, the tribe has been reduced to some 50 people, the government of Andaman Islands is making efforts to increase the headcount of this tribe
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. The territory is 150 km north of Aceh in Indonesia and separated from Thailand and it comprises two island groups, the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands, separated by the 10°N parallel, with the Andamans to the north of this latitude, and the Nicobars to the south. The Andaman Sea lies to the east and the Bay of Bengal to the west, the territorys capital is the Andamanese town of Port Blair. The total land area of islands is approximately 8,249 km2. The capital of Nicobar Islands is Car Nicobar, the islands host the Andaman and Nicobar Command, the only tri-service geographical command of the Indian Armed Forces. The Andaman Islands are home to the only known Paleolithic people, the Sentinelese people, the earliest archaeological evidence yet documented goes back some 2,200 years. Since that time, the Andamanese have diversified into distinct linguistic, the Nicobar Islands appear to have been populated by people of various backgrounds.
At the time of the European contact, the inhabitants were the Nicobarese people, speaking a Mon-Khmer language. Both are unrelated to the Andamanese, but being closely related to the Myanmarese, rajendra Chola I, one of the Tamil Chola dynasty kings, conquered the Andaman and Nicobar Islands to use them as a strategic naval base to launch a naval expedition against the Sriwijaya Empire. The islands provided a maritime base for ships of the Maratha Empire in the 17th century. The Maratha navys admiral Kanhoji Angre established naval supremacy with a base in the islands and is credited with attaching those islands to India. The history of organised European colonisation on the islands began when the Danish settlers of the Danish East India Company arrived in the Nicobar Islands on 12 December 1755. On 1 January 1756, the Nicobar Islands were made a Danish colony, first named New Denmark, during 1754–1756 they were administrated from Tranquebar. The islands were abandoned due to outbreaks of malaria between 14 April 1759 and 19 August 1768, from 1787 to 1807/05,1814 to 1831,1830 to 1834.
From 1 June 1778 to 1784, Austria mistakenly assumed that Denmark had abandoned its claims to the Nicobar Islands and attempted to establish a colony on them, renaming them Theresia Islands. In 1789 the British set up a base and penal colony on Chatham Island next to Great Andaman. Two years the colony was moved to Port Cornwallis on Great Andaman, denmarks presence in the territory ended formally on 16 October 1868 when it sold the rights to the Nicobar Islands to Britain, which made them part of British India in 1869. In 1858 the British again established a colony at Port Blair, the primary purpose was to set up a penal colony criminal convicts from the Indian subcontinent
Greater Panjabi is the series of dialects spoken in the region of Punjab in India and Pakistan. A distinction is made between Punjabi in the east and the diverse group of Lahnda in the west. The varieties of Greater Punjabi have a number of characteristics in common, Majhi is Punjabis prestige dialect because it is standard of written Punjabi. Malwai is spoken in the part of Indian Punjab and in Bahawalnagar. Main areas are Ludhiana, Ambala, Ganganagar, Fazilka, malwa is the southern and central part of present-day Indian Punjab. It includes the Punjabi speaking northern areas of Haryana, viz. Ambala, Sirsa, not to be confused with the Malvi language, which shares its name. Doabi is spoken in both the Indian Punjab as well as parts of Pakistan Punjab owing to migration of Muslim populace from East Punjab. The word Do Aabi means the land between two rivers and this dialect was spoken between the rivers of the Beas and the Sutlej in the region called Doaba. Pwadhi, Puadh or Powadha is a region of Punjab, the part lying south, south-east and east of Rupnagar adjacent to Ambala District is Powadhi.
Parts of Fatehgarh Sahib district, and parts of Patiala districts like Rajpura are part of Powadh, the language is spoken over a large area in present Punjab as well as Haryana. The literary language of Lahnda speakers has traditionally been Standard Punjabi, Shahpuri dialect is mostly spoken in Pakistani Punjab. Its name is derived from former Shahpur District and it is spoken throughout a widespread area, spoken in Sargodha and Khushab Districts and spoken in neighbouring Mianwali and Bhakkar Districts. It is mainly spoken on western end of Sindh River to Chennab river crossing Jehlam river, Jhangochi dialect is spoken in Pakistani Punjab throughout a widespread area, starting from Khanewal and Jhang at both ends of Ravi and Chenab to Hafizabad district. Former Layllpur and western half of Montgomary district used to speak this dialect, Pothohari is spoken in north Pakistani Punjab and Azad Kashmir. The area where it is spoken extends in the north from Muzaffarabad to as far south as Jhelum, Gujar Khan and Rawalpindi, Murree Hills north of Rawalpindi and Dhundi-Kairali dialects may be related.
It is in a chain with Majhi and Hindko dialects of Punjabi. The diverse dialects of the furthest nortwestern areas of Greater Punjabi are known as Hindko, the central Hindko dialects comprise Ghebi, Awankari and Kohati. Peshawari, the divergent dialect spoken to the northwest in Peshawar, has used as a basis for a literary language
Ethnologue, Languages of the World is a web-based publication that contains information about the 7,099 living languages in its 20th edition, which was released in 2017. The publication is well respected and widely used by linguists, Ethnologue is published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based primarily on mutual intelligibility, shared language intelligibility features are complex, and usually include etymological and grammatical evidence that is agreed upon by experts. These lists of names are not necessarily complete, in 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an SIL code, to identify each language that it described. This set of codes significantly exceeded the scope of other standards, e. g. ISO 639-1, the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into an international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard and this standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue according to rules established by ISO, and since Ethnologue relies on the standard to determine what is listed as a language. e. A language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity, in December 2015, Ethnologue launched a soft paywall, users in high-income countries who want to refer to more than seven pages of data per month must buy a paid subscription. Ethnologues 18th edition describes 228 language families and six typological categories, in 1986, William Bright, editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world. In 2008 in the journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said, Ethnologue. has become the standard reference. However, he concluded that, on balance, Ethnologue is a comprehensive catalogue of world languages. Starting with the 17th edition, new editions of Ethnologue are to be published every year, linguasphere Observatory Register Glottolog Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert, Simon Musgrave, Alexis Dimitriadis, eds.
The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies, linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights. Evaluating language statistics, the Ethnologue and beyond