A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant margin. Towers are distinguished from masts by their lack of guy-wires and are therefore, along with tall buildings, Towers are specifically distinguished from buildings in that they are not built to be habitable but to serve other functions. Towers can be stand alone structures or be supported by adjacent buildings or can be a feature on top of a structure or building. Old English torr is from Latin turris via Old French tor, the Latin term together with Greek τύρσις was loaned from a pre-Indo-European Mediterranean language, connected with the Illyrian toponym Βου-δοργίς. The oldest known may be the stone tower in walls of Neolithic Jericho. Some of the earliest towers were ziggurats, which existed in Sumerian architecture since the 4th millennium BC, the most famous ziggurats include the Sumerian Ziggurat of Ur, built the 3rd millennium BC, and the Etemenanki, one of the most famous examples of Babylonian architecture.
The latter was built in Babylon during the 2nd millennium BC and was considered the tallest tower of the ancient world, some of the earliest surviving examples are the broch structures in northern Scotland, which are conical towerhouses. These and other examples from Phoenician and Roman cultures emphasised the use of a tower in fortification, for example, the name of the Moroccan city of Mogador, founded in the first millennium BC, is derived from the Phoenician word for watchtower. The Romans utilised octagonal towers as elements of Diocletians Palace in Croatia, which monument dates to approximately 300 AD, while the Servian Walls, the Chinese used towers as integrated elements of the Great Wall of China in 210 BC during the Qin Dynasty. Towers were an important element of castles, other well known towers include the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Pisa, Italy built from 1173 until 1372 and the Two Towers in Bologna, Italy built from 1109 until 1119. The Himalayan Towers are stone towers located chiefly in Tibet built approximately 14th to 15th century, up to a certain height, a tower can be made with the supporting structure with parallel sides.
However, above a height, the compressive load of the material is exceeded. This can be avoided if the support structure tapers up the building. A second limit is that of buckling—the structure requires sufficient stiffness to avoid breaking under the loads it faces, many very tall towers have their support structures at the periphery of the building, which greatly increases the overall stiffness. A third limit is dynamic, a tower is subject to varying winds, vortex shedding and these are often dealt with through a combination of simple strength and stiffness, as well as in some cases tuned mass dampers to damp out movements. Varying or tapering the outer aspect of the tower with height avoids vibrations due to vortex shedding occurring along the building simultaneously. Although not correctly called towers many modern skyscraper are often called towers, in the United Kingdom, tall domestic buildings are referred to as tower blocks. In the United States, the original World Trade Center had the nickname the Twin Towers, the tower throughout history has provided its users with an advantage in surveying defensive positions and obtaining a better view of the surrounding areas, including battlefields
The Esfahani or Isfahani style is a style of architecture when categorizing Iranian architecture development in history. Landmarks of this style span through the Safavid, Zand, the Isfahani style is the last style of traditional Persian—Iranian architecture. The Safavid dynasty were instrumental in the emergence of this style of architecture. Examples of the Isfahani style include, Chehelsotoon Ali Qapu Agha Bozorg Mosque, Isfahan Iranian architecture List of the historical structures in the Isfahan province Encyclopedia Iranica on ancient Iranian architecture Stucco decorations in Iranian architecture
Women in Iran
Women in Iran discusses the history, contribution and roles of women in Iran. Women have always played fundamental and representative roles in the history of Iran. Of the seals discovered in graves there, 90% were in the possession of women, the early Achaemenid-era Persepolis fortification and treasury tablets refers to women in three different terms, mutu and duksis. The first refers to women, the second to unmarried members of the royal family. Such differentiated terminology shows the significance of marital status and of a relationship to the king. The tablets reveal that women of the royal household traveled extensively, the queen and her ladies-in-waiting are known to have played polo against the emperor and his courtiers. The only limits on the extent of the authority exercised by the mother were set by the monarch himself. In the tablets, non-royals and the workers are mentioned by their rank in the specific work group or workshops they were employed. The rations they received are based on skill and the level of responsibility they assumed in the workplace, the professions are divided by gender and listed according to the amount of ration.
Records indicate that some professions were undertaken by both sexes while others were restricted to male or female workers. There are male and female supervisors at the workshops as evident by the higher rations they have received with little difference in the amount of rations between the two sexes. There are occasions where women listed in the category as men received less rations. Female managers have different titles presumably reflecting their level of skill, the highest-ranking female workers in the texts are called arashshara. They appear repeatedly in the texts, were employed at different locations and managed large groups of women and they usually receive high rations of wine and grains exceeding all the other workers in the unit including the males. Pregnant women received higher rations than others, Women with new-born children received extra rations for a period of one month. A few experts say that it was Cyrus the Great who twelve centuries before Islam, according to their theory, the veil passed from the Achaemenids to the Hellenistic Seleucids.
They, in turn, handed it to the Byzantines, from whom the Arab conquerors inherited it as hijab, the Sassanid princess Purandokht, daughter of Khosrau II, ruled the Persian empire for almost two years before resigning. Also, during the Sassanian dynasty many of the Iranian soldiers who were captured by Romans were women who were fighting along with the men, Persian women are depicted in many masterpieces of Persian miniatures
In traditional Persian architecture, a howz is a centrally positioned symmetrical axis pool. If in a house or private courtyard, it is used for bathing. If in a sahn of a mosque, it is used for performing ablutions, a howz is usually around 30 centimetres deep. It may be used as a theatre for people to sit on all sides of the pool while others entertain, howz is a feature of the Persian gardens
An āb anbār or water reservoir is a traditional reservoir or cistern of drinking water in Iranian antiquity. To withstand the pressure the water exerts on the containers of the storage tank, one important aspect to consider here is their resistance to earthquakes. Many cities in Iran lie in a region that has affected by very large earthquakes. However, since almost all ab anbars are subterranean structures capped barely above ground level and this mixture was thought to be completely water impenetrable. The walls of the storage were often 2 meters thick, and these bricks were especially baked for ab anbars and were called Ajor Ab anbari. Some ab anbars were so big that they would be built underneath caravanserais such as the ab anbar of Haj Agha Ali in Kerman, sometimes they would be built under mosques, such as the ab anbar of Vazir near Isfahan. The bottom of the tanks were often filled with metals for various structural reasons. The 18th century monarch Agha Muhammad Khan, is said to have extracted the metals from the bottom of the Ganjali Khan public baths to make bullets for a battle.
Some ab anbars had storage space tanks that were rectangular in design, such as in Qazvin, as opposed to cylindrical designs in Yazd. There were several designs for the roof of the storage spaces of each ab anbar, namely ahang, kazhāveh. In the particular example of Sardar-e Bozorg ab anbar in Qazvin, doming the square plan was not an easy task, yet dome construction was not something new to these architects as is evident from the numerous domed masterpieces such as Soltaniyeh. Some sources indicate that the architects would first construct the space and fill it up with hay. After finishing the dome, the straw would be set on fire, however holes can be seen in the walls of many storage spaces where scaffolding perhaps may have been used. A storage space with a plan is much harder to dome than a circular one. Cylindrical tanks had the advantage of experiencing homogenous forces throughout the walls caused by earth pressures, rectangular plans however have the advantage of containing larger volumes of water within rectangular property limits.
The Sardar e Kuchak ab anbar in Qazvin for example, uses a column in the center that splits the space up into four 8.5 X8.5 meter contiguous spaces. The Zananeh Bazaar ab anbar of Qazvin e. g. uses 4 columns inside its storage tank, the Seyed Esmail ab anbar in Tehran for example, is said to have had 40 columns. In order to access the water, one would go through the entrance which would always be open, traverse a stairway, next to the faucet would be a built-in seat or platform, a water drain for disposing water from the faucet, and ventilation shafts
Bukhara, is one of the cities of Uzbekistan. Bukhara is a city-museum, with about 140 architectural monuments, the nations fifth-largest city, it had a population as of 31 August 2016 of approximately 247,644. Humans have inhabited the region around Bukhara for at least five millennia, the mother tongue of the majority of people of Bukhara is yet Persian Language. Located on the Silk Road, the city has served as a center of trade, culture. UNESCO has listed the center of Bukhara as a World Heritage Site. Bukhara was known as Bokhara in 19th- and early 20th-century English publications, according to the Encyclopædia Iranica the name Bukhara is possibly derived from the Soghdian βuxārak Muhammad ibn Jafar Narshakhi in his History of Bukhara mentions, Bukhara has many names. One of its name was Numijkat and it has been called Bumiskat. It has 2 names in Arabic, one is Madinat al Sufriya meaning - the copper city and another is Madinat Al Tujjar meaning - The city of Merchants. But, the name Bukhara is more known than all the other names, in Khorasan, there is no other city with so many names Since the Middle Ages, the city has been known as Buḫārā / بخارا in Arabic and Persian sources.
The modern Uzbek spelling is Buxoro, the history of Bukhara stretches back millennia. It is now the capital of Bukhara Region of Uzbekistan, located on the Silk Road, the city has long been a center of trade, scholarship and religion. During the golden age of the Samanids, Bukhara became an intellectual center of the Islamic world. The historic center of Bukhara, which contains numerous mosques and madrassas, has been listed by UNESCO as one of the World Heritage Sites, Bukhara has been one of the main centres of world civilisation from its early days in 6th century BCE. From the 6th century CE, Turkic speakers gradually moved in and its architecture and archaeological sites form one of the pillars of Central Asian history and art. The region of Bukhara was a part of the Persian Empire for a long time, the origin of many of its current inhabitants goes back to the period of Aryan immigration into the region. The Samanid Empire seized Bukhara, the capital of Greater Khorasan, Genghis Khan besieged Bukhara for fifteen days in 1220 CE.
Bukhara was the last capital of the Emirate of Bukhara and was besieged by the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. During the Bukhara operation of 1920, an army of well-disciplined, on 31 August 1920, the Emir Alim Khan fled to Dushanbe in Eastern Bukhara
A mosque is a place of worship for followers of Islam. There are strict and detailed requirements in Sunni jurisprudence for a place of worship to be considered a mosque, many mosques have elaborate domes and prayer halls, in varying styles of architecture. Mosques originated on the Arabian Peninsula, but are now found in all inhabited continents, the mosque serves as a place where Muslims can come together for salat as well as a center for information, social welfare, and dispute settlement. The imam leads the congregation in prayer, the first mosque in the world is often considered to be the area around the Kaaba in Mecca now known as the Masjid al-Haram. Others regard the first mosque in history to be the Quba Mosque in present-day Medina since it was the first structure built by Muhammad upon his emigration from Mecca in 622. The Islamic Prophet Muhammad went on to another mosque in Medina. Built on the site of his home, Muhammad participated in the construction of the mosque himself and helped pioneer the concept of the mosque as the focal point of the Islamic city.
The Masjid al-Nabawi introduced some of the still common in todays mosques, including the niche at the front of the prayer space known as the mihrab. The Masjid al-Nabawi was constructed with a courtyard, a motif common among mosques built since then. Mosques had been built in Iraq and North Africa by the end of the 7th century, the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala is reportedly one of the oldest mosques in Iraq, although its present form – typical of Persian architecture – only goes back to the 11th century. The shrine, while operating as a mosque, remains one of the holiest sites for Shia Muslims, as it honors the death of the third Shia imam. The Mosque of Amr ibn al-As was reportedly the first mosque in Egypt, serving as a religious, like the Imam Husayn Shrine, nothing of its original structure remains. With the Shia Fatimid Caliphate, mosques throughout Egypt evolved to include schools, hospitals and it was the first to incorporate a square minaret and includes naves akin to a basilica. Those features can be found in Andalusian mosques, including the Grand Mosque of Cordoba, some elements of Visigothic architecture, like horseshoe arches, were infused into the mosque architecture of Spain and the Maghreb.
The first mosque in East Asia was reportedly established in the 8th century in Xian, the Great Mosque of Xian, whose current building dates from the 18th century, does not replicate the features often associated with mosques elsewhere. Indeed, minarets were initially prohibited by the state, mosques in western China were more likely to incorporate elements, like domes and minarets, traditionally seen in mosques elsewhere. In turn, the Javanese style influenced the styles of mosques in Indonesias Austronesian neighbors—Malaysia, Muslim empires were instrumental in the evolution and spread of mosques. Although mosques were first established in India during the 7th century, reflecting their Timurid origins, Mughal-style mosques included onion domes, pointed arches, and elaborate circular minarets, features common in the Persian and Central Asian styles
Traditional Persian residential architecture
Traditional Persian residential architecture, is the architecture employed by builders and craftsmen in the cultural Greater Iran and the surrounding regions to construct vernacular houses. The art draws from various cultures and elements from both Islamic and pre-Islamic times, being situated on the edge of deserts and arid regions, Persian cities typically have hot summers, and cold, dry winters. The existence of hundreds of houses with handsome designs even today amidst ugly apartments in Irans hasty modernization projects is testament to a deep heritage of Architecture. Irans old city fabric is composed of winding streets called koocheh with high walls of adobe and brick. This form of design, which used to be commonplace in Iran, is an optimal form of desert architecture that minimizes desert expansion. It maximizes daytime shades, and insulates the “fabric” from severe winter temperatures, thus the house becomes the container as opposed to the contained. These houses possess a system of protection, they all have enclosed gardens with maximum privacy.
Neighborhoods in old Persian cities often formed around shrines of popular saints, all public facilities such as baths, houses of mourning, administration offices, and schools were to be found within the neighborhood itself. In addition to the bazaar of the city, each neighborhood often had its own bazaar-cheh as well, as well as its own ab anbar. Qazvin, for example had over 100 such reservoirs before being modernized with city plumbing in modern times, when visiting Kashan in 1993, the chairman of UNESCO remarked, “Kashani architects are the greatest alchemists of history. They could make out of dust”. Indeed, almost all of Kashan’s masterpieces, as in other parts in Iran are made of humble, local. Like many other cities throughout Iran, stucco was the most widespread method of ornamentation in Persian houses, one reason was the relatively cheap price of the materials used that don’t require a high temperature to be transformed into plaster. This is an important consideration in places like central Iran where wood is relatively scarce, another reason is that it is easily shaped, molded, or carved.
Thanks to stucco, a wall of crudely fashioned stone blocks or raw brick, thus stucco owes its luxurious appearance to the skill of the craftsman. And with a tradition of stucco technique going back to pre-Islamic Iran, earthquakes in Iran leave massive destruction. Most of Iran’s remaining traditional houses date from the post-quake eras during the Qajar period, here one is forced to redirect one’s steps away from the street and into the hallway, called Dalan e Vorudi. In mosques, the Hashti enables the architect to turn the steps of the believer to the orientation for prayer hence giving the opportunity to purify oneself before entering the mosque
Hatra was an ancient city in the Ninawa Governorate and al-Jazira region of Iraq. It was known as al-Hadr, a name which appears once in ancient inscriptions, the city lies 290 km northwest of Baghdad and 110 km southwest of Mosul. On 7 March 2015, various sources including Iraqi officials reported that the militant group Islamic State of Iraq, video released by ISIL the next month showed destruction of the monuments. Hatra was probably built in the 3rd or 2nd century BC by the Seleucid Empire, after its capture by the Parthian Empire, it flourished during the 1st and 2nd centuries AD as a religious and trading center. Later on, the city became the capital of possibly the first Arab Kingdom in the chain of Arab cities running from Hatra, in the northeast, via Palmyra and Petra, in the southwest. The region controlled from Hatra was the Kingdom of Araba, a semi-autonomous buffer kingdom on the limits of the Parthian Empire. Hatra became an important fortified city and withstood repeated attacks by the Roman Empire.
It repulsed the sieges of both Trajan and Septimius Severus, Hatra defeated the Iranians at the battle of Shahrazoor in 238, but fell to the Iranian Sassanid Empire of Shapur I in 241 and was destroyed. The traditional stories of the fall of Hatra tell of an-Nadira, daughter of the King of Araba, the story tells of how Shapur killed the king and married an-Nadira, but had her killed also. Hatra was the best preserved and most informative example of a Parthian city and it was encircled by inner and outer walls nearly 2 kilometres in diameter and supported by more than 160 towers. A temenos surrounded the sacred buildings in the city’s centre. The temples covered some 1.2 hectares and were dominated by the Great Temple, the city was famed for its fusion of Greek, Canaanite and Arabian pantheons, known in Aramaic as Beiṯ Ĕlāhā. The city had temples to Nergal, Atargatis and Shamiyyah, in inscriptions found at Hatra, several rulers are mentioned. Other rulers are mentioned by classical authors. The earlier rulers are called mrj´, the ones mlk -king, Hatra was used as the setting for the opening scene in the 1973 film The Exorcist, and since 1985 is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Saddam Hussein demanded that new bricks in the restoration use his name, from 1987 the Italian Archaelogical Expedition, directed by R. Ricciardi Venco, is working at Hatra. The excavations were focused on an important house, located close to the Temenos, now the Expedition is active in different projects regarding the preservation and development of the archaeological site. Isis militants pledged to destroy the remaining artifacts, shortly thereafter, they released a video showing the destruction of some artifacts from Hatra
The Parthian style is a style of historical Iranian architecture. This style of architecture includes designs from the Seleucid, examples of this style are Ghaleh Dokhtar, the royal compounds at Nysa, Anahita Temple, Hatra, the Ctesiphon vault of Kasra and the Palace of Ardashir in Ardeshir Khwarreh. Hellenistic architecture Ancient Greek architecture Pīrniyā, Muammah Karīm, kawami, T. Keall, E. J. Huff, D. et al. New York, Routledge & Kegan Paul
Mashhad is the second most populous city in Iran and capital of Razavi Khorasan Province. It is located in the northeast of the country, close to the borders of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan and its population was 2,749,374 at the 2011 census and its built-up area was home to 2,782,976 inhabitants including Mashhad Taman and Torqabeh cities. It was a major oasis along the ancient Silk Road connecting with Merv in the East, the city is most famous and revered for housing the tomb of Imam Reza, the eighth Shia Imam. Every year, millions of pilgrims visit the Imam Reza shrine, the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid is buried within the shrine. Mashhad has experienced the rise and fall of many governments over the course of history, many Arab and especially Mongolian and Afghan tribes have brought great changes in the language and culture of the people each in their own time. Surprisingly, Mashhad enjoyed relative prosperity in its economy in the Mongol period, Mashhad is mistakenly known as the city of Ferdowsi, the Iranian poet of Shahnameh, which is considered to be the national epic of Iran.
Ferdowsi and Akhavan Sales are both buried in Tus, an ancient city that is considered to be the origin of the current city of Mashhad. On 30 October 2009, Irans then-President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad declared Mashhad as Irans spiritual capital, the name Mashhad comes from Arabic, meaning the place of martyrdom the place where Ali ar-Ridha, the eighth Imam of Shia Muslims, suddenly died and so his shrine was placed there. At the beginning of the 9th century, Mashhad was a village called Sanabad. There was a palace of Humayd ibn Qahtaba, the governor of Khurasan. In 808, when Harun al-Rashid, Abbasid caliph, was passing through there to quell the insurrection of Rafi ibn al-Layth in Transoxania, he became ill and he was buried under the palace of Humayd ibn Qahtaba. Due to this event, the Dar al-Imarah was known as the Mausoleum of Haruniyyeh. Several years in 818 Ali al-Ridha was martyred by al-Mamun and was buried beside the grave of Harun. Although some believe that after this event, the city was called Mashhad al-Ridha, it seems that Mashhad, as a place-name, first appears in al-Maqdisi, about the middle of the 14th century, the traveller Ibn Battuta uses the expression town of Mashhad al-Rida.
Shias started visiting there for pilgrimage of his grave, by the end of the 9th century, a dome was built on the grave and many buildings and bazaars sprang up around it. During more than a millennium it has been devastated and reconstructed several times, in 1161 however, the Ghuzz Turks succeeded in taking the place, but they spared the sacred area in their pillaging. Thus the survivors of the migrated to Mashhad. The only well-known food in Mashhad, sholeh Mashhadi or Sholeh, dates back to the era of the Mongolian invasion when it is thought to be cooked with any food available and be a Mongolian word