Lata Mangeshkar is an Indian playback singer and music director. She is one of the best-known and most respected playback singers in South Asia India, she has recorded songs in over a thousand Hindi films and has sung songs in over thirty-six regional Indian languages and foreign languages, though in Marathi and Bengali. The Dadasaheb Phalke Award was bestowed on her in 1989 by the Government of India. In 2001, in recognition of her contributions to the nation, she was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour and is only the second vocalist, after M. S. Subbulakshmi, to receive this honour. France conferred on her its highest civilian award in 2007, she is the recipient of three National Film Awards, 15 Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards, four Filmfare Best Female Playback Awards, two Filmfare Special Awards, Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award and many more. In 1974, she became the first Indian to perform in the Royal Albert Hall, she has four siblings—Meena Khadikar, Asha Bhosle, Usha Mangeshkar, Hridaynath Mangeshkar—of whom she is the eldest.
Lata Mangeshkar was born in 1929, the eldest daughter of Master Deenanath Mangeshkar, a Marathi musician and his Gujarati wife Shevanti in Indore. Her father, Pandit Deenanath Mangeshkar, was a classical theatre actor, her mother, Shevanti, a Gujarati woman from Thalner, Bombay Presidency, was Deenanath's second wife. Mangeshkar's paternal grandfather, Ganesh Bhatt Navathe Hardikar, was a Goan Padye Brahmin priest who performed the abhishekam of the Shiva lingam at the Mangueshi Temple in Goa. Mangeshkar's maternal grandfather was Gujarati businessman, Seth Haridas Ramdas Lad, a prosperous businessman and landlord of Thalner; the family's last name used to be Hardikar. Lata was named "Hema" at her birth, her parents renamed her Lata after a female character, Latika, in one of her father's plays, BhaawBandhan. Mangeshkar the eldest child of the family. Meena, Asha and Hridaynath, in birth order, are her siblings, all accomplished singers and musicians. Mangeshkar received her first music lesson from her father.
At the age of five, she started to work as an actress in her father's musical plays. On the first day in school, she started teaching songs to other children; when the teacher stopped her, she was so angry. Other sources cite that she left school because they would not allow her to bring Asha with her, as she would bring her younger sister with her. In 1942, when Mangeshkar was 13, her father died of heart disease. Master Vinayak, the owner of Navyug Chitrapat movie company and a close friend of the Mangeshkar family, took care of them, he helped Lata get started in a career as a actress. Mangeshkar sang the song "Naachu Yaa Gade, Khelu Saari Mani Haus Bhaari", composed by Sadashivrao Nevrekar for Vasant Joglekar's Marathi movie Kiti Hasaal, but the song was dropped from the final cut. Vinayak gave her a small role in Navyug Chitrapat's Marathi movie Pahili Mangalaa-gaur, in which she sang "Natali Chaitraachi Navalaai", composed by Dada Chandekar, her first Hindi song was "Mata Ek Sapoot Ki Duniya Badal De Tu" for the Marathi film Gajaabhaau.
Mangeshkar moved to Mumbai in 1945. She started taking lessons in Hindustani classical music from Ustad Aman Ali Khan of Bhendibazaar Gharana, she sang "Paa Lagoon Kar Jori" for Vasant Joglekar's Hindi-language movie Aap Ki Seva Mein, composed by Datta Davjekar. The dance in the film was performed by Rohini Bhate who became a famous classical dancer. Mangeshkar and her sister Asha played minor roles in Badi Maa. In that movie, Lata sang a bhajan, "Maata Tere Charnon Mein." She was introduced to music director Vasant Desai during the recording of Vinayak's second Hindi-language movie, Subhadra. After Vinayak's death in 1948, music director Ghulam Haider mentored her as a singer, he introduced Mangeshkar to producer Sashadhar Mukherjee, working on the movie Shaheed, but Mukherjee dismissed Mangeshkar's voice as "too thin". An annoyed Haider responded that in coming years producers and directors would "fall at Lata's feet" and "beg her" to sing in their movies. Haider gave Lata her first major break with the song "Dil Mera Toda, Mujhe Kahin Ka Na Chhora"—lyrics by Nazim Panipati—in the movie Majboor, which became her first big breakthrough film hit.
In an interview on her 84th birthday, in September 2013, Lata herself declared, "Ghulam Haider is my Godfather. He was the first music director who showed complete faith in my talent."Initially, Mangeshkar is said to have imitated the acclaimed singer Noor Jehan, but she developed her own style of singing. Lyrics of songs in Hindi movies are composed by Urdu poets and contain a higher proportion of Urdu words, including the dialogue. Actor Dilip Kumar once made a mildly disapproving remark about Mangeshkar's Maharashtrian accent while singing Hindi/Urdu songs.
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Indians are the nationals or citizens of India, the second most populous nation in the world, containing 17.50% of the world's population. "Indian" refers to nationality, rather than a particular language. Due to emigration, the Indian diaspora is present throughout the world, notably in other parts of Asia, North America, the Caribbean and Africa; the demonymn Indian today applies to nationals of the Republic of India, although before the partition of India in 1947, nationals residing in the entirety of British India were known as Indians as well. The name Bhārata has been used as a self-ascribed name by people of the Indian subcontinent and the Republic of India; the designation "Bhārata" appears in the official Sanskrit name of Bhārata Gaṇarājya. The name is derived from the ancient Vedic and Puranas, which refer to the land that comprises India as "Bhārata varṣam" and uses this term to distinguish it from other varṣas or continents; the Bhāratas were a vedic tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, notably participating in the Battle of the Ten Kings.
India is named after legendary Emperor Bharata, a descendant of the Bhāratas tribe, scion of Kuru Dynasty who unified the Indian Subcontinent under one realm. उत्तरं यत्समुद्रस्य हिमाद्रेश्चैव दक्षिणम् । वर्षं तद् भारतं नाम भारती यत्र संततिः ।। "The country that lies north of the ocean and south of the snowy mountains is called Bhāratam. In the Hindu text, Skanda Purana it is stated that "Rishabhanatha was the son of Nabhiraja, Rishabha had a son named Bharata, after the name of this Bharata, this country is known as Bharata-varsha." This has been mentioned in Vishnu Purana, Vayu Purana, Linga Purana, Brahmanda Purana, Agni Purana, Skanda Purana and Markandeya Purana that this country is known as Bharata Varsha after Bharat Chakravartin.ऋषभो मरुदेव्याश्च ऋषभात भरतो भवेत् भरताद भारतं वर्षं, भरतात सुमतिस्त्वभूत् Rishabhanatha was born to Marudevi, Bharata was born to Rishabh, Bharatvarsha arose from Bharata, Sumati arose from Bharata — Vishnu Purana In early Vedic literature, the term Āryāvarta was in popular use before Bhārata.
The Manusmṛti gives the name Āryāvarta to "the tract between the Himalaya and the Vindhya ranges, from the Eastern to the Western Sea". While the word Indian and India is derived from Greek Ἰνδία, via Latin India. Indía in Koine Greek denoted the region beyond the Indus river, since Herodotus ἡ Ἰνδική χώρη, hē Indikē chōrē; the name is derived from Sindhu, the Sanskrit name of the river Indus, but meaning "river" generically. The history of India includes the prehistoric societies in the Indian subcontinent; the Indian people established during ancient, medieval to early eighteenth century some of the greatest empires and dynasties in South Asian history like the Maurya Empire, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Chalukya Empire, Chola Empire, Karkota Empire, Pala Empire, Vijayanagara Empire, Maratha Empire and Sikh Empire. The first great Empire of the Indian people was the Maurya Empire having Patliputra as its capital, conquered the major part of South Asia in the 4th and 3rd century BC during the reign of the Indian Emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka alongside their senior advisor, Acharya Chanakya, the pioneer of the field of political science and economics in the World.
The next great ancient Empire of the Indian people was the Gupta Empire. This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or "Golden Age of India". During this period, aspects of Indian civilisation, administration and Hinduism and Buddhism spread to much of Asia, while Chola Empire in the south had flourishing maritime trade links with the Roman Empire during this period; the ancient Indian mathematicians Aryabhata, Bhāskara I and Brahmagupta invented the concept of zero and the Hindu–Arabic numeral system decimal system during this period. During this period Indian cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia which led to the establishment of Indianized kingdoms in Southeast Asia. During the early medieval period the great Rashtrakuta dynasty dominated the major part of the Indian subcontinent. From the 8th to 10th century and the Indian Emperor Amoghavarsha of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty was described by the Arab traveller Sulaiman as one of the four great kings of the world.
The medieval south Indian mathematician Mahāvīra liv
A soundtrack written sound track, can be recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, television program, or video game. In movie industry terminology usage, a sound track is an audio recording created or used in film production or post-production; the dialogue, sound effects, music in a film each has its own separate track, these are mixed together to make what is called the composite track, heard in the film. A dubbing track is later created when films are dubbed into another language; this is known as a M & E track containing all sound elements minus dialogue, supplied by the foreign distributor in the native language of its territory. The contraction soundtrack came into public consciousness with the advent of so-called "soundtrack albums" in the late 1940s. First conceived by movie companies as a promotional gimmick for new films, these commercially available recordings were labeled and advertised as "music from the original motion picture soundtrack", or "music from and inspired by the motion picture."
These phrases were soon shortened to just "original motion picture soundtrack." More such recordings are made from a film's music track, because they consist of the isolated music from a film, not the composite track with dialogue and sound effects. The abbreviation OST is used to describe the musical soundtrack on a recorded medium, such as CD, it stands for Original Soundtrack. Types of soundtrack recordings include: Musical film soundtracks are for the film versions of musical theatre; the soundtrack to the 1937 Walt Disney animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was the first commercially issued film soundtrack. It was released by RCA Victor Records on multiple 78 RPM discs in January 1938 as Songs from Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and has since seen numerous expansions and reissues; the first live-action musical film to have a commercially issued soundtrack album was MGM’s 1946 film biography of Show Boat composer Jerome Kern, Till the Clouds Roll By. The album was issued as a set of four 10-inch 78-rpm records.
Only eight selections from the film were included in this first edition of the album. In order to fit the songs onto the record sides the musical material needed editing and manipulation; this was before tape existed, so the record producer needed to copy segments from the playback discs used on set copy and re-copy them from one disc to another adding transitions and cross-fades until the final master was created. Needless to say, it was several generations removed from the original and the sound quality suffered for it; the playback recordings were purposely recorded "dry". This made these albums boxy. MGM Records called these "original cast albums" in the style of Decca Broadway show cast albums because the material on the discs would not lock to picture, thereby creating the largest distinction between `Original Motion Picture Soundtrack' which, in its strictest sense would contain music that would lock to picture if the home user would play one alongside the other and `Original Cast Soundtrack' which in its strictest sense would refer to studio recordings of film music by the original film cast, but, edited or rearranged for time and content and would not lock to picture.
In reality, soundtrack producers remain ambiguous about this distinction, titles in which the music on the album does lock to picture may be labeled as OCS and music from an album that does not lock to picture may be referred to as OMPS. The phrase "recorded directly from the soundtrack" was used for a while in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s to differentiate material that would lock to picture from that which would not, but again, in part because many'film takes' consisted of several different attempts at the song and edited together to form the master, that term as well became nebulous and vague over time when, in cases where the master take used in the film could not be found in its isolated form, the aforementioned alternate masters and alternate vocal and solo performances which could be located were included in their place; as a result of all this nebulo
Barsaat (1949 film)
Barsaat is a 1949 Bollywood film directed by Raj Kapoor. The film stars the famous duo of Nargis as well as Prem Nath, it was the introduction of actress Nimmi in her first film role. Barsaat was one of the first major hit films directed by Kapoor; this success allowed Kapoor to buy RK Studios in 1950. The film revolves around two love stories. Pran and Reshma and Gopal and Neela. Two friends with opposite personalities, the rich but sensitive Pran and the womanizing Gopal both have affairs with two mountain girls while holidaying in the valley of Kashmir. While Pran and Reshma's love is true and reciprocated, Gopal is a womanizing villain, who disregards the faithful Neela and condemns her to wait faithfully for his return with the barsaat. Many plot intrigues follow through with Pran and Reshma facing many trials on the path to true love, including parental opposition, accidents and an attempted forced marriage of Reshma to an uncouth fisherman; the couple is reunited. Gopal on the other hand becomes a reformed character and rushes to claim the faithful Neela, pining away, only to arrive to find his true love dead.
The film ends with Gopal lighting Neela's funeral pyre as the rains come. The much acclaimed poster and publicity for the movie were illustrated by the master artist Dr S. M. Pandit. One of the posters showing the heroine dangling on the arm of the hero would go on to inspire the R K Studios' famous logo; the music of Barsaat became famous upon the film's release in 1949. The film established their careers; the famous playback singer Lata Mangeshkar famously sang for both Nimmi in Barsaat. The soundtrack was listed by Planet Bollywood at number 1 on their list of the 100 Greatest Bollywood Soundtracks. Rakesh Budhu of Planet Bollywood gave 10 stars stating, "Barsaat is ideally one of Hindi cinema’s best soundtracks". All music composed by Shankar Jaikishan. Barsaat on IMDb Review at Rediff.com Barsaat on YouTube
A love triangle is a romantic relationship involving three or more people. While it can refer to two people independently romantically linked with a third, it implies that each of the three people has some kind of relationship to the other two; the 1994 book Beliefs and Decision Making states, "Although the romantic love triangle is formally identical to the friendship triad, as many have noted their actual implications are quite different.... Romantic love is viewed as an exclusive relationship, whereas friendship is not." Statistics suggest that, in Western society, "willingly or not, most adults have been involved in a love triangle". Two main forms of love triangle have been distinguished: "there is the rivalrous triangle, where the lover is competing with a rival for the love of the beloved, the split-object triangle, where a lover has split their attention between two love objects"; the term "love triangle" connotes an arrangement unsuitable to one or more of the people involved. One person ends up feeling betrayed at some point.
A similar arrangement, agreed upon by all parties is sometimes called a triad, a type of polyamory though polyamory implies sexual relations. Within the context of monogamy, love triangles are inherently unstable, with unrequited love and jealousy as common themes. In most cases, the jealous or rejected first party ends a friendship—and sometimes starts a fight with—the second party over the third-party love interest. Though rare, love triangles have been known to lead to murder or suicide committed by the actual or perceived rejected lover. Psychoanalysis has explored'the theme of erotic love triangles and their roots in the Oedipal triangle'. Experience suggests that'a repeated pattern of forming or being caught in love triangle can be much dissolved by beginning to analyse the patterns of the childhood relationship to each parent in turn and to both parents as a couple'. In such instances,'you find men who are attracted only by married woman but who can't sustain the relationship if it threatens to become more than an affair.
They need the husband to protect them from a full relationship...as women who get involved with married men need the wives'. A common love triangle is one in which the hero or heroine is torn between two suitors of radically contrasting personalities. Alternatively, the hero or heroine has a choice between a perfect lover and an imperfect but endearing person. In this case, the "too-good-to-be-true" person is revealed to have a significant flaw, such as hidden insensitivity or lecherousness, causing the other person to become the more desirable partner.'In geometric terms, the eternal triangle can be represented as comprising three points – a jealous mate in a relationship with an unfaithful partner who has a lover... A feels abandoned, B is between two mates, C is a catalyst for crisis in the union A-B', it has been suggested that'a collusive network is always needed to keep the triangle eternal'. This may take a tragic form –'I saw no prospect of its ending except with death – the death of one of three people' – or alternately a comic one:'A man at the funeral of a friend's wife, with whom he has been carrying on an affair, breaks into tears and becomes hysterical, while the husband remains impassive.
"Calm yourself," says the husband, "I'll be marrying again"'. It has been suggested that if men'share a sense of brotherhood and they allow a woman into their relationship, an isosceles triangle is created' automatically, as'in Truffaut's film Jules et Jim'. René Girard has explored the role of envy and mimetic desire in such relationships, arguing that the situation'subordinates a desired something to the someone who enjoys a privileged relationship with it'. In such cases,'it cannot be fair to blame the quarrel of the mimetic twins on a woman.... She is their common scapegoat'; when a love triangle results in the breakup of a marriage, it may be followed by what has been called'the imposition of a "defilement taboo"...the emotional demand imposed by a jealous ex-mate...to eschew any friendly or supportive contact with the rival in the triangle' The result is to leave children gripped by'shadows from the past...they take sides. Their loyalties are torn', – except in the best of cases –'the one left "injured" can sway the feelings of the children against acknowledging this new relationship'.
As to gender responsibility, evidence would seem to indicate that in late modernity both sexes may well play the part of the "Other Person" – that'men and women love with equivalent passion as well as folly' and that there is nothing to'suggest that a man is better able to control himself in a love triangle than a woman'. Stereotypically, the person at the center of a rivalrous love triangle is a woman, whereas for a split-object love triangle it is a man, due to the same reasons that polygyny is far more common than polyandry; those who find themselves tempted to become the Other Man may, still find a cynic's advice from the 1930s pertinent on'the emotional position of the adulterer, why to avoid it... Did I know what a mug's game was? – No. – "A mug's game," he told me, "is breaking your back at midnight, trying to make another man's wife come'. Love triangles are a popular theme in entertainment romantic fiction, including opera, romance novels, soap operas, romantic comedies, mang
Hindi cinema metonymously referred to as Bollywood, known as Bombay cinema, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in Mumbai, India. The term originates as a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Hollywood"; the Hindi-language film industry is related to Tamil film industry, Telugu film industry and others industries, which combined are components of Indian Cinema, the largest film industry in the world. Although American film industry has produced more than 150 musicals films by 1930 with first introduction of The Jazz Singer in the west, the world's first musical-talkie film, it took India more than 3 years to import the sound sequence technology but went on to produce its first song-sequence talkie film Alam Ara in the year 1931. Since Bollywood has produced major motion pictures in this genre exceeding Hollywood's total musicals from the 1960s when musical era declined in the west. Today, Bollywood is popular for its musicals though non-musicals have continued to be produced in India.
Linguistically, Bollywood films tend to use a colloquial dialect of Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, mutually intelligible to both Hindi and Urdu speakers, while modern Bollywood films increasingly incorporate elements of Hinglish. Indian cinema is the world's largest film industry in terms of film production, with an annual output of 1,986 feature films as of 2017, Bollywood is its largest film producer, with 364 Hindi films produced annually as of 2017. Bollywood represents 43% of Indian net box office revenue, while Tamil and Telugu cinema represent 36%, the rest of the regional cinema constitute 21%, as of 2014. Bollywood is thus one of the largest centers of film production in the world. In terms of ticket sales in 2001, Indian cinema sold an estimated 3.6 billion tickets annually across the globe, compared to Hollywood's 2.6 billion tickets sold. The name "Bollywood" is a portmanteau derived from Bombay and Hollywood, the center of the American film industry. Bollywood does not exist as a physical place.
The name Bollywood is criticized by some film journalists and critics by arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood. According to Madhava Prasad- had described "Bollywood" is inspired by "Tollywood"—once refer to the cinema of West Bengal, dating back in 1932. "Tollywood" was the earliest Hollywood-inspired name, referring to the Bengali film industry based in Tollygunge, whose name is reminiscent of "Hollywood" and was the centre of the cinema of India at the time. According to P. Anandam Kavoori and Aswin Punathambekar book "Global Bollywood"—the popular Calcutta-based Junior Statesman youth magazine, establishing a precedent for other film industries to use similar-sounding names leading to the coining of "Bollywood"; as of now "Tollywood" is referred to the Telugu film industry, a part of Indian cinema. According to OxfordDictionaries.com— the word "Bollywood" got originated in 1970's. and print media claims that it got originated in 1970's and was popularized in the time when Cinema of India overtook Hollywood in terms of film production.
Many journalists have been credited by newspapers for the invention of the word "Bollywood". According to "The Telegraph" article published in 2005, it was Amit Khanna who had coined the word "Bollywood". and according to The Hindu article published in 2004 it was journalist Bevinda Collaco. Raja Harishchandra, by Dadasaheb Phalke, is known as the first silent feature film made in India. By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per year; the first Indian sound film, Ardeshir Irani's Alam Ara, was a major commercial success. There was a huge market for talkies and musicals; the 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: India was buffeted by the Great Depression, World War II, the Indian independence movement, the violence of the Partition. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly escapist, but there were a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots. In 1937, Ardeshir Irani, of Alam Ara fame, made the first color film in Kisan Kanya.
The next year, he made a version of Mother India. However, color did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s. At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. Prior to the 1947 partition of India, which divided the country into the Republic of India and Pakistan, the Bombay film industry was linked to the Lahore film industry, as both industries produced films in Hindi-Urdu, or Hindustani, the lingua franca across northern and central India. Another major center of Hindi-Urdu film production was the Bengali film industry in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, which produced Hindi-Urdu films along with local Bengali language films. In the 1940s, many actors and musicians from the Lahore industry migrated to the Bombay industry, including actors such as K. L. Saigal, Prithviraj Kapoor, Dilip Kumar, Dev Anand, singers such as Mohammed Rafi and Shamshad Begum. Around the same time and actors from the Calcutta film industry began migrating to the Bombay film industry.
As a result, Bombay became the center of Hindi-Urdu film production in the new Republic of India after partitio