Bagas is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Asques is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Arsac is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Sarah Bernhardt was a French stage actress who starred in some of the most popular French plays of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including La Dame Aux Camelias by Alexandre Dumas, Ruy Blas by Victor Hugo, Fédora and La Tosca by Victorien Sardou, L'Aiglon by Edmond Rostand. She played male roles, including Shakespeare's Hamlet. Rostand called her "the queen of the pose and the princess of the gesture", while Hugo praised her "golden voice", she made several theatrical tours around the world, was one of the first prominent actresses to make sound recordings and to act in motion pictures. Sarah Bernhardt was born Henriette-Rosine Bernard at 5 rue de L'École-de-Médicine in the Latin Quarter of Paris on 22 or 23 October 1844, she was the illegitimate daughter of Judith Bernard, a Dutch Jewish courtesan, a prostitute with a wealthy or upper-class clientele. The name of her father is not recorded. According to some sources, he was the son of a wealthy merchant from Le Havre. Bernhardt wrote that her father's family paid for her education, insisted she be baptized as a Catholic, left a large sum to be paid when she came of age.
Her mother traveled and saw little of her daughter. She placed the child with a nurse in Brittany in a cottage in the Paris suburb of Neuilly; when Sarah was seven, her mother sent her to a boarding school for young ladies in the Paris suburb of Auteuil, paid with funds from her father's family. There, she acted in her first theatrical performance in the play Clothilde, where she had the role of the Queen of the Fairies, performed her first of many dramatic death scenes. While Sarah was in the boarding school, her mother rose to the top ranks of Parisian courtesans, consorting with politicians, bankers and writers, her patrons and friends included Charles de Morny, Duke of Morny, the half-brother of Emperor Napoleon III and President of the French legislature. At the age of 10, with the sponsorship of Morny, Sarah was admitted to Grandchamp, an exclusive Augustine convent school near Versailles. At the convent, she performed the part of the Archangel Raphael in the story of Tobias and the Angel.
She did not always follow convent rules. In 1859, Sarah learned, her mother summoned a family council, including Morny. Morny proposed that Sarah should become an actress, an idea that horrified Sarah, as she had never been inside a theater. Morny arranged for her to attend her first theater performance at the Comedie Française in a party which included her mother and his friend Alexandre Dumas père; the play they attended was Brittanicus, by Jean Racine, followed by the classical comedy Amphitryon by Plautus. Sarah was so moved by the emotion of the play, she began to sob loudly, disturbing the rest of the audience. Morny and others in their party were angry at her and left, but Dumas comforted her, told Morny that he believed that she was destined for the stage. After the performance, Dumas called her "my little star". Morny used his influence with the composer Daniel Auber, the head of the Paris Conservatory, to arrange for her to audition, she began preparing, as she described it in her memoirs, "with that vivid exaggeration with which I embrace any new enterprise."
Dumas coached her. The jury was composed of five leading actors and actresses from the Comédie Française, she was supposed to recite verses from Racine, but no one had told her that she needed someone to give her cues as she recited. Bernhardt told the jury; the jurors were skeptical, but the fervor and pathos of her recitation won them over, she was invited to become a student. Bernhardt studied acting at the Conservatory from January 1860 until 1862 under two prominent actors of the Comédie Française, Joseph-Isidore Samson and Jean-Baptiste Provost, she wrote in her memoirs that Provost taught her diction and grand gestures, while Samson taught her the power of simplicity. For the stage, she changed her name from "Bernard" to "Bernhardt". While studying, she received her first marriage proposal, from a wealthy businessman who offered her 500 thousand francs, he wept. Bernhardt wrote that she was "confused and delighted—because he loved me the way people love in plays at the theater."Before the first examination for her tragedy class, she tried to straighten her abundance of frizzy hair, which made it more uncontrollable, came down with a bad cold, which made her voice so nasal that she hardly recognized it.
Furthermore, the parts assigned for her performance were classical and required stylized emotions, while she preferred romanticism and and expressing her emotions. The teachers ranked her 14th in second in comedy. Once again, Morny came to her rescue, he put in a good word for her with the National Minister of Camille Doucet. Doucet recommended her to Edouard Thierry, the chief administrator of the Théâtre Français, who offered Bernhardt a place as a pensionnaire at the theater, at a minimum salary. Bernhardt made her debut with the company on 31 August 1862 in the title role of Racine's Iphigénie, her premiere was not a success. She rushed her lines; some audience members made fun of her thin figure. When the performance ended, Provost was waiting in the wings, she asked his forgiveness, he told her, "I can forgive you, you'll forgive yourse
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats. In some species the valves are calcified, many are somewhat irregular in shape. Many, but not all, oysters are in the superfamily Ostreoidea; some kinds of oysters are consumed cooked or raw and are regarded as a delicacy. Some kinds of pearl oysters are harvested for the pearl produced within the mantle. Windowpane oysters are harvested for their translucent shells, which are used to make various kinds of decorative objects. First attested in English during the 14th century, the word "oyster" comes from Old French oistre, in turn from Latin ostrea, the feminine form of ostreum, the latinisation of the Greek ὄστρεον, "oyster". Compare ὀστέον, "bone". True oysters are members of the family Ostreidae; this family includes the edible oysters, which belong to the genera Ostrea, Ostreola and Saccostrea. Examples include the Belon oyster, eastern oyster, Olympia oyster, Pacific oyster, the Sydney rock oyster.
All shell-bearing mollusks can secrete pearls, yet most are not valuable. Pearls can form in both freshwater environments. Pearl oysters are not related to true oysters, being members of a distinct family, the feathered oysters. Both cultured pearls and natural pearls can be extracted from pearl oysters, though other molluscs, such as the freshwater mussels yield pearls of commercial value; the largest pearl-bearing oyster is the marine Pinctada maxima, the size of a dinner plate. Not all individual oysters produce pearls naturally. In fact, in a harvest of two and a half tons of oysters, only three to four oysters produce what commercial buyers consider to be absolute perfect pearls. In nature, pearl oysters produce pearls by covering a minute invasive object with nacre. Over the years, the irritating object is covered with enough layers of nacre to become a pearl; the many different types and shapes of pearls depend on the natural pigment of the nacre, the shape of the original irritant. Pearl farmers can culture a pearl by placing a nucleus a piece of polished mussel shell, inside the oyster.
In three to seven years, the oyster can produce a perfect pearl. These pearls are not as valuable as natural pearls, but look the same. In fact, since the beginning of the 20th century, when several researchers discovered how to produce artificial pearls, the cultured pearl market has far outgrown the natural pearl market. A number of bivalve molluscs have common names that include the word "oyster" because they either taste like or look somewhat like true oysters, or because they yield noticeable pearls. Examples include: Thorny oysters in the genus Spondylus Pilgrim oyster, another term for a scallop, in reference to the scallop shell of St. James Saddle oysters, members of the Anomiidae family known as jingle shells Dimydarian oysters, members of the family Dimyidae Windowpane oysters In the Philippines, a local thorny oyster species known as Tikod Amo is a favorite seafood source in the southern part of the country; because of its good flavor, it commands high prices. Oysters are filter feeders.
Suspended plankton and particles are trapped in the mucus of a gill, from there are transported to the mouth, where they are eaten and expelled as feces or pseudofeces. Oysters feed most at temperatures above 10 °C. An oyster can filter up to 5 L of water per hour; the Chesapeake Bay's once-flourishing oyster population filtered excess nutrients from the estuary's entire water volume every three to four days. Today, that would take nearly a year. Excess sediment and algae can result in the eutrophication of a body of water. Oyster filtration can mitigate these pollutants. In addition to their gills, oysters can exchange gases across their mantles, which are lined with many small, thin-walled blood vessels. A small, three-chambered heart, lying under the adductor muscle, pumps colorless blood to all parts of the body. At the same time, two kidneys, located on the underside of the muscle, remove waste products from the blood, their nervous system includes three pairs of ganglia. While some oysters have two sexes, their reproductive organs contain sperm.
Because of this, it is technically possible for an oyster to fertilize its own eggs. The gonads surround the digestive organs, are made up of sex cells, branching tubules, connective tissue. Once the female is fertilized, she discharges millions of eggs into the water; the larvae develop in about six hours and exist suspended in the water column as veliger larvae for two to three weeks before settling on a bed and maturing to sexual adulthood within a year. A group of oysters is called a bed or oyster reef; as a keystone species, oysters provide habitat for many marine species. Crassostrea and Saccostrea live in the intertidal zone, while Ostrea is subtidal; the hard surfaces of oyster shells and the nooks between the shells provide places where a host of small animals can live. Hundreds of animals, such as sea anemones and hooked mussels, inhabit oyster reefs. Many of these animals are prey to larger animals, including fish, such as striped bass, black drum and croakers. An oyster reef can increase the surface area of a flat bottom 50-fold.
An oyster's mature shape depends on the type of bottom to which it is attached, but it always orients itself with its outer, flared shell tilted upward. One valve is cupped and t
Aillas is a commune of the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department INSEE
Arès is a commune in the Gironde department in southwestern France. Communes of the Gironde department Pilgrims of Arès INSEE